- Buddhist Dictionary
- Manual of Buddhist Terms
by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
'both-ways-liberated one', is the name of one class of noble disciples (ariya-puggala,
q.v.). He is liberated in 2 ways, namely, by way of all 8 absorptions (jhána, q.v.)
as well as by the supermundane path (sotápatti, etc.) based on insight (vipassaná,
q.v.). In M. 70 it is said:
''Who, o monks, is a both-ways-liberated
one'? If someone in his own person has reached the 8 liberations (absorptions), and
through wise penetration the cankers (ásava, q.v.) have become extinguished, such
a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.'' Cf. D. 15.
In the widest sense, one is
both-ways-liberated if one has reached one or the other of the absorptions, and one or the
other of the supermundane paths (cf. A. IX, 44).
The first liberation is also called
'liberation of mind' (cetovimutti), the latter liberation through wisdom' (paññá-vimutti).
The first liberation, however, is
merely temporary, being a liberation through repression (vikkhambhana-vimutti =
vikkhambhana-pahána: s. pahána).
consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 9
insight-knowledges constituting the purification by knowledge and vision of the
path-progress'. For details, s. visuddhi, VI. 1.
uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs
to the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and to the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.).
It is one of those 4 mental factors inseparably associated with all unwholesome
consciousness (akusala-sádhárana, q.v.). Cf. Tab. II.
uddhambhágiya-samyojana: the 5
'higher fetters'; s. samyojana.
upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners (anágámí, q.v.).
uggaha-nimitta: s. nimitta.
ugghatitaññu: 'one who
already during a given explanation comes to penetrate the truth' (Pug.). This is one of
four types of persons classified according to their ability of acquiring insight,
mentioned in A. IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññu, neyya, pada-parama. See The
Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 171/174) p. 1ff.
ujukatá: (káya-, citta- ):
'uprightness' (of mental factors and of consciousness), is associated with all pure
consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.
unconditioned, the: asankhata
(q.v.). - Contemplation of the u. (= animitta); s. vipassaná.
unconscious beings: asaññá-satta
understanding: s. ditthi,
ñána, paññá, pariññá. - Right u., s. magga (1). sacca
unit: s. kalápa, rúpa-kalápa.
unprepared, unprompted: s. asankhárika-citta.
unshakable deliverance: s. cetto-vimutti.
unshakable one, the: akuppa-dhamma
unthinkable things, the 4: acinteyya
unwholesome, karmically: akusala
upacára: 'moment of access'; s. javana.
or access-concentrationn', is the degree of concentration just before entering any of the
absorptions, or jhánas. It still belongs to the sensuous sphere (kámávacara;
upacaya, rúpassa: 'growth of
corporeality'; s. khandha I; App.
karma'; s. karma.
upádána: 'clinging', according to
Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified degree of craving (tanhá, q.v.). The 4 kinds of clinging
are: sensuous clinging (kámupádána), clinging to views (ditthupádána),
clinging to mere rules and ritual (sílabbatupádána), clinging to the
(1) "What now is the sensuous
clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous
desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous deludedness, sensuous fetters:
this is called sensuous clinging.
(2) ''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms
and offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such
view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.
(3) "What is the clinging to mere
rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one
may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.
(4) "What is the clinging to the
personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s. sakkáya-ditthi):
these are called the clinging to the personality-belief" (Dhs. 1214-17).
This traditional fourfold division of
clinging is not quite satisfactory. Besides kamupádána we should expect either rúpupádána
and arúpupádána, or simply bhavupádána. Though the Anágámí is
entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of upádána, he is not freed from
rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupádána. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in trying to
get out of this dilemma, explains kámupádána as including here all the remaining
kinds of clinging.
"Clinging' is the common rendering
for u., though 'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is
'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.
upádána-kkhandha: the 5 'groups
of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance with Vis.M., 'the 5 groups of existence
which form the objects of clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha.
corporeality', signifies the 24 secondary corporeal phenomena dependent on the 4 primary
physical elements, i.e. the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See khandha I;
upadhi: 'substratum of existence'.
In the Com. there are enumerated 4 kinds: the 5 groups (khandha, q.v.), sensuous
desire (káma), mental defilements (kilesa, q.v.), karma (q.v.). In the
suttas it occurs frequently in Sn. (vv. 33, 364, 546, 728), and, with reference to
Nibbána, in the phrase "the abandoning of all substrata" (sabbúpadhi-patinissagga;
D. 14). See viveka (3).
upádi: lit. 'something which one
grasps, to which one clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). In the
suttas, the word is mostly used in such expressions as "One of the 2 fruits may be
expected: either perfect wisdom or, if the groups are still remaining (sati
upádi-sese, 'if there is a remainder of groups ), Anágámíship" (D. 22).
Further (A. IV. 118): "Here the Perfect One has passed into the Nibbána-element in
which no more groups are remaining (anupádi-sesa)." Cf. nibbána. upádinna-rúpa:
'karmically acquired corporeality', or 'matter clung-to (by karma)', is identical with
karma-produced corporeality (kammaja-rúpa; s. samutthána). In Vis.M. XIV
it is said: "That corporcality which, later on, we shall refer to as 'karma-produced'
(kammaja), is, for its being dependent on previous (pre-natal) karma, called
'karmically acquired'. '' The term (upádinna) occurs so in the suttas, e.g. M. 28
(WHEEL 101), 62, 140. See Dhs. §990; Khandha Vibh.
karma'; s. karma.
upahacca-parinibbáyí: 'one who
reaches Nibbána within the first half of life', is one of the 5 kinds of Anágámí
corruptions, imperfections (a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved for kilesa,
A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the
mind' (cittassa upakkilesa) is mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 (WHEEI.
61/62): 1. covetousness and unrighteous greed (abhijjhá-visamalobha), 2. ill will (vyápáda),
3. anger (kodha), 4. hostility (upanáha), 5. denigration (makkha),
6. domineering (palása), 7. envy (issá), 8. stinginess (macchariya),
9. hypocrisy (máyá), 10. fraud (sátheyya), 11. obstinacy (thambha),
12. presumption (sárambha), 13. conceit (mána), 14. arrogance (atimána),
15. vanity (mada), 16. negligence (pamáda).
There are 3 groups of upakkilesa
pertaining to meditation:
(a) 9 mental imperfections occurring in
'one devoted to higher mental training' (adhicitta); 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in
deeds, words and thoughts; 3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and cruelty; 3
subtle - thoughts about one's relatives, one's country and one's reputation (A. III, 100).
(b) 18 imperfections in the practice of
mindfulness of breathing (ánápána-sati, q.v.), mentioned in Pts.M.,
Ánápána-kathá (tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by Ñánamoli Thera (p. 60; BPS).
(c) 10 'imperfections of insight'
(-meditation, vipassanúpakkilesa); s. visuddhi V.
support' or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
ripening in the next birth'; s. karma.
kamma'; s. karma.
upásaka: lit. 'sitting close by',
i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge
in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of noble disciples (A. VIII, 25). His virtue
is regarded as pure if he observes the 5 Precepts (pañca-síla; s. sikkhápada).
He should avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings,
meat, alcohol and poison (A. V, 177). See also A. VIII, 75.
upasamánussati: 'recollection of
the peace of Nibbána', is the last of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.).
"Whatsoever, o monks, there are of things, as highest of them is considered
detachment (virága), i.e. the crushing of conceit, the stilling of thirst, the
uprooting of clinging, the breaking through the round of rebirths, cessation of craving,
detachment, extinction, Nibbána" (A. IV, 34).
upásiká: 'female adherent'; s. upásaka.
karma'; s. karma.
upavicára: s. manopavicára.
upekkhá: 'equanimity', also called
tatra-majjhattatá (q.v.), is an ethical quality belonging to the sankhára-group
(s. khandha) and should therefore not be confounded with indifferent feeling (adukkha-m-asukhá
vedaná) which sometimes also is called upekkhá (s. vedaná).
upekkhá is one of the 4 sublime
abodes (brahma-vihára, q.v.), and of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).
See Vis.M. IV, 156ff.
upekkhá-ñána = sankhárupekkhá-ñána
as factor of enlightenment'; s. bojjhanga.
happiness,' is the feeling of happiness accompanied by a high degree of equanimity (upekkhá)
as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption (jhána q.v.).
upekkhá-vedaná: s. vedaná.
upekkhindriya: the 'faculty of
indifference', is one of the 5 elements of feeling (M. 115) and therefore not to be
confounded with the ethical quality 'equanimity', also called upekkhá (q.v.).
upekkhopavicára: 'indulging in
indifference'; s. manopavicára.
uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e.
'fasting day', is the full-moon day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and
last moonquarters. On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the Pátimokkha,
is read before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu), while on the mentioned 4
moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there take
upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules (attha-síla; sikkhápada). See A.
uprightness: ujukatá q.v.
upstream to the highest gods, passing:
usages, the 4 noble: ariya-vamsa
utu: temperature, heat, is
identical with the heat-element (tejodhátu, q.v.).
utu-samutthána (- utuja)-rúpa:
'corporeality produced by temperature'; s. samutthána.