- Buddhist Dictionary
- Manual of Buddhist Terms
by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
iddhi: 'power', 'magical power'. The
magical powers constitute one of the 6 kinds of higher spiritual powers (abhiññá, q.v.).
One distinguishes many kinds of magical powers: the power of determination (adhitthán'
iddhi), i.e. the power of becoming oneself manifold; the power of transformation
(vikubbana iddhi), i.e. the power of adopting another form; the power of spiritual
creation (manomaya iddhi), i.e. the power of letting issue from this body another
mentally produced body; the power of penetrating knowledge (ñána-vipphara iddhi), i.e.
the power of inherent insight to remain unhurt in danger; the power of penetrating
concentration (samádhivipphará iddhi) producing the same result. The magical
powers are treated in detail in Vis.M. XII; Pts.M., Vibh. - (App.). They are not a
necessary condition for final deliverance.
'Noble power' (ariyá-iddhi) is the
power of controlling one's ideas in such a way that one may consider something not
repulsive as repulsive and something repulsive as not repulsive, and remain all the time
imperturbable and full of equanimity. This training of mind is frequently mentioned in the
Suttas (e.g. M. 152, A.V. 144), but only once the name of ariyá-iddhi is applied
to it (D. 28). See further Pts.M., Iddhi-kathá, Vis.M. XII.
iddhi-páda: 'roads to power' (or
success) are the 4 following qualities, "for as guides, they indicate the road to
power connected therewith; and because they form, by way of preparation, the roads to the
power constituting the fruition of the path" (Vis.M. XII), namely:
"concentration of intention (chanda-samádhi) accompanied by effort of will (padhána-sankhára-samannágata),
concentration of energy (viriya-samádhi) ... concentration of consciousness
(citta-samádhi) ... and concentration of investigation (vimamsa-samádhi)
accompanied by effort of will." As such, they are supermundane (lokuttara,
i.e. connected with the path or the fruition of the path; s. ariyapuggala) But they
are mundane (lokiya, q.v.) as predominant factors (adhipati; s. paccaya 3),
for it is said: "Because the monk, through making intention a predominant factor,
reaches concentration, it is called the concentration of intention (chanda-samádhi), etc."
"These 4 roads of power lead to the
attaining and acquiring of magical power, to the power of magical transformation, to the
generation of magical power, and to mastery and skill therein" (Pts.M. II. 205, PTS).
For a detailed explanation, s. Vis.M. XII.
"Once the monk has thus developed and
often practised the 4 roads to power, he enjoys various magical powers, ... hears with the
divine ear heavenly and human sounds, ... perceives with his mind the mind of other beings
... remembers many a former existence ... perceives with the divine eye beings passing
away and reappearing, ... attains, after the extinction of cankers, deliverance of mind
and deliverance through wisdom, free from. cankers.... (S. LI, 2). For a detailed
explanation of these 6 higher powers, s. abhiññá.
"Whosoever, o monks, has missed the 4
roads to power, he has missed the right path leading to the extinction of suffering; but
whosoever, o monks, has reached the 4 roads to power, he has reached the right path
leading to the extinction of suffering" (S. LI, 2).
See the chapter on
Iddhipáda in The Requisites of Enlightenment by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 169/172).
(q.v.); further s. paticcasamuppáda (1).
ill-humour, heavenly beings who
come to grief through: mano-padosika-deva (q.v.).
ill-will: vyápáda, is a
synonym of dosa (s. múla) and patigha and is one of the 10 fetters (samyojana,
q.v.), 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.) and 10 unwholesome courses of action (s.
image, mental: s. nimitta,
immaterial sphere: arúpávacara:
cf. avacara, jhána (5-8); Tab. I.
immaterial world: arúpa-loka;
immediacy: an alternative
rendering for contiguity-condition, samanatara-paccaya, which is one of the 24
conditions (paccaya, q.v.)
immediate, the: ánantariya
immortality: s. amata.
imperfections: s. upakkilesa.
(q.v.). - Contemplation of i., cf. vipassaná (1).
impersonality of existence: s. anattá.
- Contemplation of: s. vipassaná (3).
imperturbable karma-formations: áneñjábhisankhára;
impression, sensorial or mental: phassa
impulsion: javana (q.v.).
impurities: s. upakkilesa.
impurity of the body, contemplation
of the: s. asubha, sívathiká.
inclinations: s. anusaya.
independently enlightened: Pacceka-Buddha
indifferent feeling cf. vedaná,
individual: puggala (q.v.).
indriya: 'faculties', is a name for
22, partly physical, partly mental, phenomena often treated in the Suttas as well as in
the Abhidhamma. They are:
6 Bases (áyatana, q.v.):
1. eye: cakkhu
2. ear: sota
3. nose: ghána
4. tongue: jivhá
5. body: káya
6. mind: mano
Sex (bhava, q.v.):
7. femininity: itthi
8. masculinity: purisa
9. vitality: jívita
5 Feelings (vedaná, q. v.)
10. bodily pleasant feeling: sukha
11. bodily pain: dukkha
12. gladness: somanassa
13. sadness: domanassa
14. indifference: upekkhá
5 Spiritual Faculties (s. bala)
15. faith: saddhá
16. energy: viriya
17. mindfulness: sati
18. concentration: samádhi
19. wisdom: paññá
3 Supermundane Faculties
20. the assurance: 'I shall know what I
did not yet know!': aññátañ-ñassámít' indriya
21. the faculty of highest knowledge: aññindriya
22. the faculty of him who knows: aññátávindriya.
(1-5, 7-8) are physical; (9) is either
physical or mental. All the rest are mental. - (14) (s. upekkhá) is here merely
indifferent feeling (= adukkha-m-asukhá vedaná, i.e. 'neither pleasant nor
unpleasant feeling') and not identical with that highly ethical state of equanimity (= tatramajjhattatá,
i.e. 'keeping everywhere the middle', the equipoise of mind), also called upekkhá
which belongs to the group of mental formations (sankhára-kkhandha; s. Tab II). -
(20) arises at the moment of entering the Sotápatti-Path (sotápatti-magga), (21)
on reaching the Sotápatti-Fruition (sotápatti-phala), (22) at attaining the
Arahat-Fruition (arahatta-phala). For the three last, s. ariya-puggala.
The faculties, excepting (7) and (8), form
one of the 24 conditions (paccaya 16, q.v.).
In Vibh. V all these faculties are treated
in the above order, whereas S. XLVIII enumerates and explains them by way of the above
indicated groups, leaving only 20-22 unexplained. See Vis XVI; Path 138ff. - For the 5
spiritual faculties (15-19), s. The Way of Wisdom (WHEEL 65/66).
indriya-paccaya: s. paccaya
balance, or harmony of faculties', relates to the 5 spiritual faculties: faith, energy,
mindfulness, concentration and wisdom (s. indriya 15-19). Of these there are two
pairs of faculties, in each of which both faculties should well counter-balance each
other, namely: faith and wisdom (saddhá, paññá, q.v.) on the one hand and
energy and concentration (viriya, samádhi, q.v.) on the other. For excessive faith
with deficient wisdom leads to blind belief, whilst excessive wisdom with deficient faith
leads to cunning. In the same way, great energy with weak concentration leads to
restlessness, whilst strong concentration with deficient energy leads to indolence. Though
for both faculties in each of the 2 pairs a balanced degree of intensity is desirable,
mindfulness should be allowed to develop to the highest degree of strength. Cf. Vis.M.
consisting of purity of restraint of the senses'; s. síla.
indriyesu gutta-dváratá: 'guarding
the sense-doors' is identical with sense-control (indriya-samvara; s. síla).
over: ánápána-sati (q.v.).
inducement: an alternative
rendering for decisive-support condition, upanissaya, is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya;
indulging (in joy, sadness etc.):
ineffective karma: s. karma.
infatuation: cf. mada, moha (s.
inference of meaning: an
'expression the meaning of which is to be inferred': neyyattha-dhamma (q.v.). -
Antonym: 'expression with an established meaning': nítattha-dhamma (s. neyyattha-dhamma).
inferiority-conceit: s. mána.
influxes (cankers), the 4: ásava
inoperative consciousness, karmically;
inseparable mental factors, the
7 i. m. f. in all consciousness: s. cetaná, phassa, náma.
insight: cf. paññá,
intelligent-natured: s. carita.
intention: chanda (q.v.) .
interest: píti (q.v.); cf.
intimation: cf. viññatti.
intoxicants: s. ásava.
intoxicating drinks, the evil
effect of taking: s. surámeraya.
investigating function (of
consciousness): santírana; s. viññána-kicca.
investigation, full understanding
through: tíranapariññá, s. pariññá. - 'Investigation' (vímamsá) is
one of the 4 roads to power (iddhipáda, q.v.) and one of the 4 predominants (adhipati;
s paccaya 3). - i. of truth: dhamma-vicaya, is one of the 7
factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.).
iriyá-patha (lit. 'ways of
movement'): 'bodily postures', i.e. going, standing, sitting, lying. In the
Satipatthána-sutta (s. satipatthána), they form the subject of a contemplation
and an exercise in mindfulness.
"While going, standing, sitting or
lying down, the monk knows 'I go', 'I stand', 'I sit', 'I lie down'; he understands any
position of the body." - "The disciple understands that there is no living
being, no real ego, that goes, stands, etc., but that it is by a mere figure of speech
that one says: 'I go', 'I stand', and so forth." (Com.).
issá: 'envy', is a karmically
unwholesome (akusala) mental factor, which is occasionally associated with
hate-rooted consciousness (s. Tab. I. 30, 31,). Explained in Pug. 55.
itthindriya: 'femininity'; s. bháva.