- Buddhist Dictionary
- Manual of Buddhist Terms
by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
sabba-loke anabhirati-saññá: 'contemplation
on disinterestedness regarding the whole world', described in A. X., 60 in the following
words: "If, Ananda, the monk gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm
grasping and his biases and inclinations of the mind, and turns away from these things,
does not cling to them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness
regarding the whole world."
sabbúpadhi-patinissagga: s. upadhi.
sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two
truths', conventional and ultimale, see paramattha.
2. 'The Four Noble Truths' (ariya-sacca)
are the briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those manifold
doctrines of the threefold canon are, without any exception, included therein. They are:
the truth of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of
the Eightfold Path leading to the extinction of suffering.
I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches
that all forms of existence whatsoever are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering (dukkha).
II. The 2nd truth teaches that all
suffering, and all rebirth, is produced by craving (tanhá).
III. The 3rd truth teaches that
extinction of craving necessarily results in extinction (nirodha) of rebirth and
suffering, i.e. nibbána (q.v.).
IV. The 4th truth of the Eightfold Path
(magga) indicates the means by which this extinction is attained.
The stereotype text frequently recurring
in the Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows:
I. "But what, o monks, is the noble
truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow,
lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence
connected with clinging are suffering (cf. dukkha, dukkhata).
II. ''But what, o monks, is the noble
truth of the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth
and, bound up with lust and greed, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is
the sensual craving (káma-tanhá), the craving for existence (bhava-tanhá), the
craving for non-existence or self-annihilation (vibhava-tanhá).
III. "But what, o monks, is the
noble truth of the extinction of suffering? It is the complete fading away and extinction
of this craving, its forsaking and giving up, liberation and detachment from it.
IV. "But what, o monks, is the noble
truth of the path leading to the extinction of suffering? It is the Noble Eightfold Path (ariya-atthangika-magga)
that leads to the extinction of suffering, namely:
1. Right view (sammá-ditthi)
2. Right thought (sammá-sankappa)
III. Wisdom (paññá)
3. Right speech (sammá-vácá)
4. Right action (sammá-kammanta)
5. Right livelihood (sammd-djiva)
I. Morality (síla)
6. Right effort (sammá-váyáma)
7. Right mindfulness (sammá-sati)
8. Right concentration (sammá-samádhi)
II. Concentration (samádhi)
1. "What now, o monks, is right view
(or right understanding)? It is the understanding of suffering, of the origin of
suffering, of the extinction of suffering, and of the path leading to the extinction of
2. "What now, o monks, is right
thought? It is a mind free from sensual lust, ill-will and cruelty.
3. "What now, o monks, is right
speech? Abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, harsh words, and foolish babble (cf.
4. "What now, o monks, is right
action? Abstaining from injuring living beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual
intercourse (s. kámesu micchácára).
5. "What now, o monks, is right
livelihood? If the noble disciple rejects a wrong living, and gains his living by means of
right livelihood (s. magga, 5).
6. "What now, o monks, is right
effort? If the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, demeritorious things
that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to overcome the evil, demeritorious
things that have already arisen; ... if he rouses his will to produce meritorious things
that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses his will to maintain the meritorious things
that have already arisen and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to
maturity and to the full perfection of development; he thus makes effort, stirs up his
energy, exerts his mind and strives (s. padhána).
7. "What now, o monks is right
mindfulness? If the disciple dwells in contemplation of corporeality ... of feeling ... of
mind ... of the mind-objects, ardent, clearly conscious, and mindful after putting away
worldly greed and grief (s. satipatthána).
8. "What now, o monks, is right
concentration? If the disciple is detached from sensual objects, detached from unwholesome
things, and enters into the first absorption ... the second absorption ... the third
absorption ... the fourth absorption" (s. jhána).
In the Buddha's first sermon, the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, it is said that the first truth (suffering) is to be fully
understood; the second truth (craving) to be abandoned; the third truth (Nibbána) to be
realized; the fourth truth (the path) to be cultivated.
"The truth of suffering is to be
compared with a disease, the truth of the origin of suffering with the cause of the
disease, the truth of extinction of suffering with the cure of the disease, the truth of
the path with the medicine" (Vis.M. XVI).
In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths
are to be considered as empty of a self, since there is no feeling agent, no doer, no
liberated one. no one who follows along the path. Therefore it is said:
'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is
Nibbána is, but not the man that enters
The path is, but no traveller on it is
'The first truth and the second truth are
Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty;
The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,
And free from permanency, joy and self,
It must be pointed out that the first
truth does not merely refer to actual suffering, i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that it
shows that, in consequence of the universal law of impermanency, all the phenomena of
existence whatsoever, even the sublimest states of existence, are subject to change and
dissolution, and hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, without exception,
they all contain in themselves the germ of suffering. Cf. Guide, p. 101f.
Regarding the true nature of the path, s. magga.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (in WHEEL 17 and BODHI LEAVES); M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta (S.
LVI); Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.; Vis.M. XVI: The Four Noble Truths by Francis Story (WHEEL
34/35); The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F. Gunaratna (WHEEL 123).
sacca-ñána: 'knowledge of
the truth' (s. prec.), may be of 2 kinds: (1) knowledge consisting in understanding (anubodha-ñána)
and (2) knowledge consisting in penetration (pativedha-ñána), i.e.
realization. Cf. pariyatti.
"Amongst these, (1) 'knowledge
consisting in understanding' is mundane (lokiya, q.v.), and its arising with regard
to the extinction of suffering, and to the path, is due to hearsay etc. (therefore not due
to one's realization of the supermundane path; s. ariya-puggala) (2) 'Knowledge
consisting in penetration', however, is supermundane (lokuttara), with the
extinction of suffering (= nibbána) as object, it penetrates with its functions
the 4 truths (in one and the same moment), as it is said (S. LVI, 30): whosoever, o monks,
understands suffering, he also understands the origin of suffering, the extinction of
suffering, and the path leading to the extinction of suffering' " (Vis.M. XVI, 84).
See visuddhi (end of article).
"Of the mundane kinds of knowledge,
however, the knowledge of suffering by which (various) prejudices are overcome, dispels
the personality-belief (sakkáya-dilthi, s. ditthi). The knowledge of the
origin of suffering dispels the annihilation-view (uccheda-ditthi, s. ditthi);
the knowledge of extinction of suffering, the eternity-view (sassata-ditthi, s. ditthi);
the knowledge of the path, the view of inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi, s.
ditthi)" (Vis.M. XVI, 85).
sacchikaraníyá dhammá: 'things
to be realized'. Recollection of former states of existence is to be realized through
remembrance (abhiññá 4; q.v.). The vanishing and reappearing of beings is to be
realized through the divine eye (abhiññá 5; q.v.). The 8 deliverances (vimokkha,
q.v.) are to be realized through the mental group (káya, here feeling, perception,
mental formations; s. káya). The extinction of cankers is to be realized through
saddhá: faith, confidence. A
Buddhist is said to have faith if "he believes in the Perfect One's (the Buddha's)
Enlightenment" (M 53; A.V, 2), or in the Three Jewels (s. ti-ratana), by
taking his refuge in them (s. ti-sarana). His faith, however, should be
"reasoned and rooted in understanding" (ákáravatá saddhá dassanamúlika; M.
47), and he is asked to investigate and test the object of his faith (M. 47, 95). A
Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry, and "doubt about
dubitable things" (A. II, 65; S. XLII, 13) is admitted and inquiry into them is
encouraged. The 'faculty of faith' (saddhindriya) should be balanced with that of
wisdom (paññindriya; s. indriya-samatta). It is said: "A monk who has
understanding, establishes his faith in accordance with that understanding" (S.
XLVIII, 45). Through wisdom and understanding, faith becomes an inner certainty and firm
conviction based on one's own experience.
Faith is called the seed (Sn. v. 77) of
all wholesome states because, according to commentarial explanations, it inspires the mind
with confidence (okappana, pasáda) and determination (adhimokkha), for
'launching out' (pakkhandhana; s. M. 122) to cross the flood of samsára.
Unshakable faith is attained on reaching
the first stage of holiness, 'stream-entry' (sotápatti, s. ariyapuggala),
when the fetter of sceptical doubt (vicikicchá; s. samyojana) is
eliminated. Unshakable confidence (avecca-pasáda) in the Three Jewels is one of
the characteristic qualities of the Stream-winner (sotápannassa angáni, q.v.).
Faith is a mental concomitant, present in
all karmically wholesome, and its corresponding neutral, consciousness (s. Tab. II). It is
one of the 4 streams of merit (puññadhárá, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual
faculties (indriya, q.v.), spiritual powers (bala, q.v.), elements of
exertion (padhániyanga, q.v.) and one of the 7 treasures (dhana, q.v.).
See Faith in the Buddha's
Teaching, by Soma Thera (WHEEL 262). "Does Saddhá mean Faith?'' by Ñánamoli Thera
(in WHEEL 52/53).
saddhánusári and saddhá-vimutta:
the 'faith-devoted and the 'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds of noble
disciples (s. ariya-puggala, B.).
sagga: 'heaven'; s. deva
is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
sahetuka-citta: s. hetu.
sakadágámí: the 'Once-returner':
s. ariya-puggala, A.
sakka: the 'King of Gods'
(devánam-inda), is the lord over the celestial beings in the heaven of the
Thirty-Three' (távatimsa, s. deva).
sakkáya: 'existing group'.
'this word is usually translated by 'personality', but according to the commentaries it
corresponds to sat-káya, 'existing group', hence not to Sanskrit sva-káya,
'own group' or 'own body'. In the suttas (e.g. M. 44) it is said to be a name for the 5
groups of existence (khandha): "Sakkáya, o Brother Visákha, is said by the
Blessed One to be a name for the 5 'groups as objects of clinging' (upádána-kkhandha),
to wit: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness."
- See foll.
is the first of the 10 fetters (samyojana). It is entirely abandoned only on
reaching the path of Stream-winning (sotápatti-magga; s. ariya-puggala).
There are 20 kinds of personality-belief, which are obtained by applying 4 types of that
belief to each of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.): (1-5) the belief to be
identical with corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations or consciousness;
(6-10) to be contained in them; (11-15) to be independent of them; (16-20) to be the owner
of them (M. 44; S. XXII. 1). See prec., ditthi, upádána 4.
saláyatana: the '6 bases' (of
mental activity); s. áyatana, paticcasamuppáda.
samádhi: 'concentration'; lit.
'the (mental) state of being firmly fixed' (sam+á+Ö há), is the fixing of the
mind on a single object. "One-pointedness of mind (cittass' ekaggatá), Brother
Visakha, this is called concentration" (M. 44). Concentration - though often very
weak - is one of the 7 mental concomitants inseparably associated with all consciousness.
Cf. náma, cetaná.
Right concentration (sammá-samádhi),
as the last link of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 4 meditative
absorptions (jhána, q.v.). In a wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of
concentration, it is associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala)
consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchá-samádhi) is concentration associated
with all karmically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.) consciousness. Wherever in the
texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration
is meant .
In concentration one distinguishes 3
grades of intensity:
(1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma-samádhi)
existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.
(2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' (upacára-samádhi),
i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption (jhána, q.v.),
which in certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called
(3) 'Attainment concentration' (appaná-samádhi),
i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions. (App.)
Further details, s. bhávana, Vis.M. III
and Fund. IV.
Concentration connected with the 4 noble
path-moments (magga), and fruition-moments (phala), is called supermundane (lokuttara),
having Nibbána as object. Any other concentration, even that of the sublimest
absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya, q.v.).
According to D. 33, the development of
concentration (samádhi-bhávaná) may procure a 4-fold blessing: (1) present
happiness through the 4 absorptions; (2) knowledge and vision (ñána-dassana) -
here probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhiññá) through perception of
light (kasina); (3) mindfulness and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge
of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts; (4)
extinction of all cankers (ásavakkhaya) through understanding the arising and
passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging (s. khandha).
Concentration is one of the 7 factors of
enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bala),
and the last link of the 8-fold Path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality,
concentration and wisdom), it is a collective name for the three last links of the path
or requisites of concentration', are the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána
q.v.). See M. 44.
-utthánakusalatá: skilfulness in entering into concentration, in remaining in it,
and in rising from it. Cf. S.XXXIV, llff.
as factor of enlightenment' (s. bojjhanga).
samádhi-vipphárá iddhi: the
'power of penetrating concentration', is one of the magical faculties (iddhi,
is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
sámañña-phala; the 'fruits of
monkhood', is the name of a famous sutta (D. 2) and also, according to D. 33, a name for
the 4 supermundane fruitions: Stream-entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect
Holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
samápatti: 'attainments', is a
name for the 8 absorptions of the fine-material and immaterial spheres to which
occasionally is added as 9th attainment, attainment of extinction (nirodhasamápatti)
sama-sísí: one 'who attains
two ends simultaneously', namely: the extinction of cankers and the end of life (s. Pug.
19). In A. VIII, 6 it is said: "Such is the case with a monk who dwells in the
contemplation of impermanency of all forms of existence, keeping before his eyes their
impermanency, perceiving their impermanency, perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of
firm mind, wisely absorbed; and in whom at one and the same time the extinction of cankers
and the end of like take place." (App.)
samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity,
is a synonym of samádhi (coneentration), cittekaggatá (one-pointedness of
mind) and avikkhepa (undistractedness). It is one of the mental factors in
'wholesome consciousness. Cf. foll. and bhávaná.
and insight', are identical with concentration (samádhi, q.v.; s. prec.) and
wisdom (paññá, q.v.), and form the two branches of mental development (bhávaná,
(1) 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed,
peaceful and lucid state of mind attained by strong mental concentration. Though as a
distinct way of practice (s. samatha-yánika), it aims at the attainment of the
meditative absorptions (jhána, q.v.), a high degree of tranquil concentration
(though not necessarily that of the absorptions) is indispensable for insight too.
Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner obstacles, and gives it greater
''What now is the power of tranquillity
(samatha-bala)? It is the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind due to
freedom from desire (renunciation) ... to freedom from ill-will ... to the perception of
light (s. aloka-saññá) ... to non-distraction ... to the defilling of phenomena
... to knowledge, gladness, the 8 attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the 9
cemetery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-mindfulness ... the one-pointedness
and non-distraction of the mind of one contemplating abandonment (relinquishment) while
inhaling and exhaling (s. ánápánasati).
"The power of tranquillity consists
of the freedom from perturbation; in the 1st absorption, from the 5 hindrances (nívarana,
(q.v.); in the 2nd absorption, from thought-conception and discursive thinking; ... in the
sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception it consists of the freedom from
perturbation by the perception of the sphere of nothingness (s. anupubbanirodha),
which is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements associated with restlessness, nor
by the groups of existence" (Pts.M. 1. p. 97)
(2) 'Insight' (s. vipassaná) is
the penetrative understanding by direct meditative experience of the impermanency,
unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all material and mental phenomena of existence. It
is insight that leads to entrance into the supermundance states of holiness and to final
''What now is the power of insight? It is
the contemplation of impermanency (aniccánupassaná), of misery (dukkhanupassaná),
impersonality' (anattánupassaná), of aversion (nibbidanupassaná),
detachment (viráganupassaná), extinction (nirodha), ahandonment (patinissagga),
with regard to corporcality, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness....
That in contemplating the impermanency one is no more agitated by the idea of grasping ...
no more by ignorance and the defilements associated therewith and no more by the groups of
existence: this is called the power of insight" (Pts.M. p. 97).
"Two things are conducive to
knowledge: tranquillity and insight. If tranquillity is developed, what profit does it
bring? The mind is developed. If the mind is developed, what profit does it bring? All
lust is abandoned.
"If insight is developed, what profit
does it bring? Wisdom is developed. If wisdom is developed, what profit does it bring? All
ignorance is abandoned" (A. II, 2.7).
There is a method of meditative practice
where, in alternating sequence, tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are
developed. It is called 'tranquillity and insight joined in pairs' (samatha-vipassanáyuganaddha),
the coupling or yoking of tranquillity and insight. He who undertakes it, first enters
into the 1st absorption. After rising from it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that
were present in it (feeling, perception, etc.) as impermanent, painful and not-self, and
thus he develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd absorption; and after rising
from it, he again considers its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. In this way, he
passes from one absorption to the next, until at last, during a moment of insight, the
intuitive knowledge of the path (of Stream-entry, etc.) flashes forth - See A. IV, 170;
A.IX, 36; Pts: Yuganaddha Kathá.
samatha-yánika: 'one who takes
tranquillity as his vehicle'. This is a name for a person who not only has reached insight
but also one or the other of the absorptions, to distinguish him from one 'who practises
only insight' (sukkha-vipassaka, q.v.).
sambodhi = bodhi (q.v.).
sambojjhanga = bojjhanga
sammá-ditthi, -sankappa, -vaca,
etc: see magga.
sammá-magga: see micchá-magga.
sammá-ppadhána: 'right exertion',
is identical with the 6th link of the 8-fold path (s. magga, padhána).
Enlightenment', Universal Buddhahood, is the state attained by a Universal Buddha (sammá-sambuddha),
i.e. one by whom the liberating law (dhamma) which had become lost to the
world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly proclaimed to the world.
"Now, someone, in things never heard
before, understands by himself the truth, and he therein attains omniscience, and gains
mastery in the powers. Such a one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One"
The doctrine characteristie of all the
Buddhas, and each time rediscovered by them and fully explained to the world, consists in
the 4 Truths (sacca, q.v.) of suffering, its origin, its extinction and the way to
its extinction (s. magga). See bodhi.
exploring, 'determining' (vavatthána, q.v.) is a name for the determining of all
phenomena of existence as impermanent, miserable and impersonal (anicca, dukkha,
anattá), etc., which is the beginning of insight (s. Pts.M. I, p. 53; Vis.M. XX);
also called kalápa-s. (q.v.), 'comprehension by groups (of existence -
sammatta: the 'state of rightness',
are the 8 links of the 8-fold Path (D. 33). Cf. micchátta.
truth', is identical with vohára-sacca (s. paramattha-sacca).
blessing'. The 5 blessings are said to be faith, morality, learning, liberality, wisdom
(A. V, 91). Further: morality, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, the eye of knowledge
connected with deliverance (A. V, 92).
sampajañña: 'clarity of
consciousness', clear comprehension. This term is frequently met with in combination with
mindfulness (sati). In D. 22, M. 10 it is said: "Clearly conscious is he in
going and coming, clearly conscious in looking forward and backward, clearly conscious in
bending and stretching his body; clearly conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and
tasting, clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in
walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking
and keeping silent." - For a definition of the term sati-sampajañña, s. Pug.
According to the Com., 'clarity of
consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose, the suitability, (inclusion in the
meditative) domain, and the undeluded conception of the activity concerned. Explained in
detail in Com. to Satipatthána Sutta. (tr. in The Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera;
consciousness', is the mindelement (mano-dhátu) that follows immediately upon the
arising of sense-consciousness (visual consciousness, etc.), performing on that occasion
the function of recciving the sense-object. Regarding the other functions of
consciousness, s. viññána-kicca.
sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of
association', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
samphassa = phassa (q.v.).
samsára: 'round of rebirth', lit.
perpetual wandering', is a name by which is designated the sca of life ever restlessly
heaving up and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being
born, growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put, samsára is the
unbroken chain of the five-fold khandha-combinations, which, constantly changing
from moment to moment follow continuously one upon the other through inconceivable periods
of time. Of this samsára, a single lifetime constitutes only a tiny and fleeting
fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first noble truth of universal suffering, one
must let one's gaze rest upon the samsára, upon this frightful chain of rebirths,
and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of course, may be sometimes less painful.
- Cf. tilakkhana, anattá, paramattha, patisandhi.
samseva: 'companionship'. (1)
"Through companionship with bad men (asappurisa-s.) comes listening to bad
advice, thereby unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental confusion, thereby lack
of sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action, speech and mind, thereby
the 5 hindrances (nívarana, q.v.), thereby craving for existence. (2) Through
companionship with good men (sappurisa-s. ) comes listening to good advice, thereby
faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, thereby
sense-control, thereby 3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthána,
q.v ), thereby the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), thereby
liberation through wisdom (paññá-vimutti, q.v.)." Cf. A. X 62.
samuccheda-pahána: 'overcoming by
destruction', is the absolute extinction of certain fetters of existence (samyojana, q.v.),
which takes place by entering into one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
- Regarding the 5 kinds of overcoming, s. pahána.
samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the
origin', i.e. the origin of suffering, is the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca,
samutthána: 'origination'. There
are 4 kinds of origination of corporeal phenomena, namely: through karma, consciousness,
temperature, nutriment. For example, 'karma-produced' (kamma-s. = kammaja,
karma-born) are the sense organs, sexual characteristics, etc., which, according to their
nature, are conditioned either through wholesome or unwholesome karma formations
(volitional actions; s. paticcasamuppáda, 2) in a previous existence.
'Mindproduced', i.e. consciousness-produced (citta-samutthána = cittaja) are
bodily and verbal expression (viññatti, q.v.). For a detailed exposition, see
Vis.M. XX. - (App.).
samvara-padhána: 'effort to
avoid'; s. padhána.
samvara-suddhi: 'purity of
control', is another name for morality consisting of restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-síla;
samvatta-kappa: s. kappa.
samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of
emotion', or of a sense of urgency, are 8: "birth, old age, disease, death, being 4;
the suffering in the lower states of existence being the 5th; further, the misery of the
past rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the future rooted in the cycle of
rebirth, the misery of the present rooted in the search after food" (Vis.M. III.).
rousing emotion', are 4: the place where the Perfect One was born, (i.e. the Lumbini-grove
near Kapilavatthu, at the present frontier of Nepal); the place where he reached Full
Enlightenment (i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and Buddhagayá, on the Nerañjara-river;
the modern Lilanja); the place where he, for the first time, unveiled the Dhamma to the
world (i.e. the deer-park at Isipatana near Benares); the place where he entered the final
Nibbána (i.e. Kusinára). (A. IV, 118).
samyojana: 'fetters'. There are 10
fetters tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely: (1) personality-belief (sakkáya-ditthi,
q.v.), (2) sceptical doubt (vicikicchá q.v.), (3) clinging to mere rules and
ritual (sílabbata-parámása; s. upádána), (4) sensuous craving
(káma-rága, 4.v.), (5) ill-will (vyápáda), (6) craving for fine-material
existence (rúpa-rága), (7) craving for immaterial existence (arúpa-rága), (8)
conceit (mána, q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca, q.v.), (10) ignorance
(avijjá, q.v.). The first five of these are called 'lower fetters'
(orambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called
'higher fetters' (uddhambhágiya-samyojana), as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e.
the fine-material and immaterial world (A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D . 33, etc.).
He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotápanna,
or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to Nibbána, as it were. He who,
besides these 3 fetters, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a
Sakadágámi, a 'Once-returner' (to this sensuous world). He who is fully freed from 1-5
is an Anágámí, or 'Non-returner' (to the sensuous world). He who is freed from all the
10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Holy One.
For more details, s. ariya-puggala.
The 10 fetters as enumerated in the
Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are: sensuous craving, ill-will, conceit, wrong views,
sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules and ritual, craving for existence, envy,
sañcetaná = cetaná, q.v.
sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of
showing favour' are liberality, kindly speech, beneficial actions, impartiality (A. IV,
32; VIII, 24).
sangha (lit.: congregation), is the
name for the Community of Buddhist monks. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels
(ti-ratana, q.v.) and the Three Refuges (ti-sarana, q.v.), i.e. Buddha, Dhamma
and Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha, the community of the saints, i.e. the 4
Noble Ones (ariya-pugga, q.v.), the Stream-winner, etc.
sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym
of vitakka (q.v.). For sammá-s., or right thought, s. magga (2).
sankhára: This term has, according
to its context, different shades of meaning, which should be carefully distinguished.
(I) To its most frequent usages (s. foll.
1-4) the general term 'formation' may be applied, with the qualifications required by the
context. This term may refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state of
'having been formed' or to both.
1. As the 2nd link of the formula of
dependent origination, (paticcasamuppáda, q.v.), sankhára has the active
aspect, 'forming, and signifies karma (q.v.), i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volitional
activity (cetaná) of body (káya-s.), speech (vací-s.) or mind (citta-
or mano-s.). This definition occurs, e.g. at S. XII, 2, 27. For s. in
this sense, the word 'karma-formation' has been coined by the author. In other passages,
in the same context, s. is defined by reference to (a) meritorious karma-formations
(puññ'ábhisankhára), (b) demeritorious k. (apuññ'abhisankhára), (c)
imperturbable k. (áneñj'ábhisankhára), e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This
threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres of existence: the meritorious
karma-formations extend to the sensuous and the fine-material sphere, the demeritorious
ones only to the sensuous sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.
2. The aforementioned three terms, káya-,
vací- and citta-s. are sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as
(1) bodily function, i.e. in-and-out-breathing (e.g. M. 10), (2) verbal function, i.e.
thought-conception and discursive thinking, (3) mental-function, i.e. feeling and
perception (e.g. M. 44). See nirodhasamápatti.
3. It also denotes the 4th group of
existence (sankhárakkhandha), and includes all 'mental formations' whether they
belong to 'karmically forming' consciousness or not. See khandha, Tab. II. and S.
XXII, 56, 79.
4. It occurs further in the sense of
anything formed (sankhata, q.v.) and conditioned, and includes all things whatever
in the world, all phenomena of existence. This meaning applies, e.g. to the well-known
passage, "All formations are impermanent... subject to suffering" (sabbe
sankhára aniccá ... dukkhá). In that context, however, s. is subordinate to
the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma (thing); for dhamma includes
also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element (asankhata-dhátu), i.e. Nibbána (e.g.
in sabbe dhammá anattá, "all things are without a self").
(II) Sankhára also means sometimes
'volitional effort', e.g. in the formula of the roads to power (iddhi-páda, q.v.);
in sasankhára- and asankhára-parinibbáyí (s. anágámí, q.v.);
and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhárika- (q.v.) and sasankhárika-citta,
i.e. without effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted.
In Western literature, in English as well
as in German, sankhára is sometimes mistranslated by 'subconscious tendencies' or
similarly (e.g Prof Beckh: "unterbewußte Bildekräfte," i.e. subconscious
formative forces). This misinterpretation derives perhaps from a similar usage in
non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the
term in Páli Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For instance, within the dependent
origination, s. is neither subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and
active karmic volition. In the context of the 5 groups of existence (s. above I, 3), a
very few of the factors from the group of mental formations (sankhárakkhandha) are
also present as concomitants of subconsciousness (s. Tab. I-III), but are of course not
restricted to it, nor are they mere tendencies.
'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations of existence', is one of those kinds
of knowledge which form the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'
(s. visuddhi, VI, 8). "It is known by 3 names: in the lowest stage it is
called 'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance' (rnuccitu-kamyatá-ñána);
in the middle stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' (patisankhánupassanáñána);
in the last stage, however, i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the
'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the formations of existence' " (Vis.M. XXI).
sankhata: the 'formed', i.e.
anything originated or conditioned, comprises all phenomena of existence. Cf. sankhára
I, 4; asankhata.
sankhitta citta: in the
Satipatthána Sutta, signifies the 'contracted' or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated (samáhita)
mind, as often translated by Western authors. Cf. Satipatthána (3).