- Buddhist Dictionary
- Manual of Buddhist Terms
by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
náma: (lit. 'name'): 'mind',
mentality. This term is generally used as a collective name for the 4 mental groups (arúpino
khandha), viz. feeling (vedaná), perception (saññá), mental
formations (sankhára) and consciousness (viññána). Within the 4th link
(náma-rúpa) in the formula of the paticcasamuppáda (q.v.), however, it
applies only to karma-resultant (vipáka) feeling and perception and a few
karma-resultant mental functions inseparable from any consciousness. As it is said (M. 9;
D. 15; S. XII, 2): "Feeling (vedaná), perception (saññá), volition (cetaná),
impression (phassa), mental advertence (manasikára): this, o brother, is
called mind (náma)." With the addition of 2 more mental factors, namely,
mental vitality (jívita) and concentration (samádhi), here 'stationary
phase of mind' (cittatthiti), these 7 factors are said in the Abhidhammattha
Sangaha to be the inseparable mental factors in any state of consciousness.
For the complete list of all the 50 mental
formations of the sankhára-kkhandha (not including feeling and perception), s.
náma-káya: the 'mind-group' (as
distinguished from rúpa-káya, the corporeality-group) comprises the 4 immaterial
groups of existence (arúpino khandhá; s. khandha). This twofold grouping,
frequent in Com., occurs first in D. 15, also in Pts.M. (I, 183); náma-káya alone
is mentioned in Sn. 1074.
náma-rúpa (lit. 'name and form'):
'mind-and-body', mentality and corporeality. It is the 4th link in the dependent
origination (s. paticcasamuppáda 3, 4) where it is conditioned by consciousness,
and on its part is the condition of the sixfold sense-base. In two texts (D. 14, 15),
which contain variations of the dependent origination, the mutual conditioning of
consciousness and mind-and-body is described (see also S. XII, 67), and the latter is said
to be a condition of sense-impression (phassa); so also in Sn. 872.
The third of the seven purifications (s. visuddhi),
the purification of views, is defined in Vis.M. XVIII as the "correct seeing of
mind-and-body," and various methods for the discernment of mind-and-body by way of
insight-meditation (vipassaná, q.v.) are given there. In this context, 'mind' (náma)
comprises all four mental groups, including consciousness. - See náma.
In five-group-existence (pañca-vokára-bhava,
q.v.), mind-and body are inseparable and interdependent; and this has been illustrated by
comparing them with two sheaves of reeds propped against each other: when one falls the
other will fall, too; and with a blind man with stout legs, carrying on his shoulders a
lame cripple with keen eye-sight: only by mutual assistance can they move about
efficiently (s. Vis.M. XVIII, 32ff). On their mutual dependence, see also paticca-samuppáda
With regard to the impersonality and
dependent nature of mind and corporeality it is said:
"Sound is not a thing that dwells
inside the conch-shell and comes out from time to time, but due to both, the conch-shell
and the man that blows it, sound comes to arise: Just so, due to the presence of vitality,
heat and consciousness, this body may execute the acts of going, standing, sitting and
lying down, and the 5 sense-organs and the mind may perform their various functions"
"Just as a wooden puppet though
unsubstantial, lifeless and inactive may by means of pulling strings be made to move
about, stand up, and appear full of life and activity; just so are mind and body, as such,
something empty, lifeless and inactive; but by means of their mutual working together,
this mental and bodily combination may move about, stand up, and appear full of life and
ñána: 'knowledge, comprehension,
intelligence, insight', is a synonym for paññá (q.v.); see also vipassaná.
of knowledge and vision', is the last of the 7 purifications and a name for path-knowledge
(maggañána), i.e. the penetrating realization of the path of Stream-winning,
Once-returning, Non-returning or Arahatship. Vis.M. XXII furnishes a detailed explanation
of it (s. visuddhi, VII).
In A. IV, 41 ñánadassana
apparently means the divine eye (dibbacakkhu, s. abhiññá), being produced
through concentrating the mind on light.
nánatta-saññá: The 'variety (or
multiformity) - perceptions are explained under jhána (q.v.).
ñána-vipphárá iddhi: the 'power
of penetrating knowledge', is one of the magical powers (iddhi, q.v.).
understanding (or comprehension) of the known', is one of the 3 kinds of full
understanding (pariññá q.v.).
natthika-ditthi: 'nihilistic view'
(a doctrine that all values are baseless, that nothing is knowable or can be communicated,
and that life itself is meaningless), s. ditthi.
is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
natural morality: pakati-síla
navanga-buddha (or satthu)- sásana:
nava-sattávása: s. sattávása.
naya-vipassaná: s. kalápa
ñáya: 'right method', is often
used as a name for the Noble Eightfold Path (s. magga), e.g. in the Satipatthána
Sutta (M. 10, D. 22).
nekkhamma: 'freedom from sensual
lust', renunciation. Though apparently from nir + Ö kram, 'to go forth
(into the homeless state of a monk)', this term is in the Páli texts nevertheless used as
if it were derived from káma, lust, and always as an antonym to káma. It
is one of the perfections (s. páramí). N. sankappa, thought free
from lust, or thought of renunciation, is one of the 3 kinds of right thought (sammá-sankappa),
the 2nd link of the Noble Eightfold Path (s. magga, 2), its antonym being kámasankappa,
nesajjikanga: one of the 13 dhutanga
neutral, karmically: avyákata
(q.v.); n. feelings, s. vedaná.
'sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception', is the name for the fourth absorption
of the immaterial sphere (arúpávacara), a semi-conscious state, which is
surpassed only by the state of complete suspense of consciousness, called 'attainment of
extinction' (nirodha-samápatti, q.v.). See jhána (8).
n'eva-sekha-n'ásekha: 'neither in
training nor beyond training', i.e. neither learner nor master. Thus is called the
worldling (puthujjana, q.v.), for he is neither pursuing the 3-fold training (sikkhá
q.v.) in morality, mental culture and wisdom, on the level of the first 3 paths of
sanctity, nor has he completed his training as an Arahat. See sekha. - (App.).
neyya: 'requiring guidance', is
said of a person "who through advice and questioning, through wise consideration, and
through frequenting noble-minded friends, having intercourse with them, associating with
them, gradually comes to penetrate the truth" (Pug. 162). Cf. ugghatitaññú.
neyyattha-dhamma: A 'teaching
the meaning of which is implicit, or has to be inferred' as contrasted with a 'teaching
with an explicit or evident meaning' (nítattha-dhamma). In A. I, 60 (PTS) it is
said: "Whoso declares a sutta with an implicit meaning as a sutta with explicit
meaning (and conversely), such a one makes a false statement with regard to the Blessed
One." - See paramattha.
Nibbána, (Sanskrit nirvána):
lit. 'extinction' (nir + Ö va, to cease blowing, to become extinguished);
according to the commentaries, 'freedom from desire' (nir+ vana). Nibbána
constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist aspirations, i.e. absolute
extinction of that life-affirming will manifested as greed, hate and delusion, and
convulsively clinging to existence; and therewith also the ultimate and absolute
deliverance from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering and
misery. Cf. Parinibbána.
"Extinction of greed, extinction of
hate, extinction of delusion: this is called Nibbána" (S. XXXVIII. 1).
The 2 aspects of Nibbána are:
(1) The full extinction of defilements (kilesa-parinibbána),
also called sa-upádi-sesa-nibbána (s. It. 41), i.e. 'Nibbána with the groups
of existence still remaining' (s. upádi). This takes place at the attainment of
Arahatship, or perfect holiness (s. ariya-puggala).
(2) The full extinction of the groups
of existence (khandha-parinibbána), also called an-upádi-sesa-nibbána (s.
It. 41, A. IV, 118), i.e. 'Nibbána without the groups remaining', in other words, the
coming to rest, or rather the 'no-more-continuing' of this physico-mental process of
existence. This takes place at the death of the Arahat. - (App.: Nibbána).
Sometimes both aspects take place at one
and the same moment, i.e. at the death of the Arahat; s. sama-sísí.
"This, o monks, truly is the peace,
this is the highest, namely the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum
of rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbána" (A. III,
"Enraptured with lust (rága), enraged
with anger (dosa), blinded by delusion (moha), overwhelmed, with mind
ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at the ruin of others, at the ruin of both, and he
experiences mental pain and grief. But if lust, anger and delusion are given up, man aims
neither at his own ruin, nor at the ruin of others, nor at the ruin of both, and he
experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is Nibbána visible in this life, immediate,
inviting, attractive, and comprehensible to the wise" (A. III, 55).
"Just as a rock of one solid mass
remains unshaken by the wind, even so neither visible forms, nor sounds, nor odours, nor
tastes, nor bodily impressions, neither the desired nor the undesired, can cause such a
one to waver. Steadfast is his mind, gained is deliverance" (A, VI, 55).
"Verily, there is an Unborn,
Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed. If there were not this Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated,
Unformed, escape from the world of the born, the originated, the created, the formed,
would not be possible" (Ud. VIII, 3).
One cannot too often and too emphatically
stress the fact that not only for the actual realization of the goal of Nibbána, but also
for a theoretical understanding of it, it is an indispensable preliminary condition to
grasp fully the truth of anattá (q.v.), the egolessness and insubstantiality of
all forms of existence. Without such an understanding, one will necessarily misconceive
Nibbána - according to one's either materialistic or metaphysical leanings - either as
annihilation of an ego, or as an eternal state of existence into which an ego or self
enters or with which it merges. Hence it is said:
"Mere suffering exists, no sufferer
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is
Nibbána is, but not the man that enters
The path is, but no traveler on it is
Literature: For texts on
Nibbána, see Path, 36ff. - See Vis.M. XVI. 64ff. - Anattá and Nibbána, by Nyanaponika
Thera (WHEEL 11); The Buddhist Doctrine of Nibbána, by Ven. P. Vajiranana & F. Story
'rebirth', is a synonym for patisandhi (q.v.).
-paññá): 'morality (concentration, wisdom) connected with penetration'; s. hána-bhágiya-síla.
of aversion', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight; s. vipassaná (4), samatha-vipassaná
(2), visuddhi (VI, 5).
perception (or consciousness, or view) of permanency, is one of the 4 perversions
nihilistic view: natthika-ditthi;
exercise' s. kasina.
nimitta: mark, sign; image;
target, object; cause, condition. These meanings are used in, and adapted to, many
contexts of which only the doctrinal ones are mentioned here.
1. 'Mental (reflex-) image', obtained in
meditation. In full clarity, it will appear in the mind by successful practice of certain
concentration-exercises and will then appear as vividly as if seen by the eye. The object
perceived at the very beginning of concentration is called the preparatory image (parikamma-nimitta).
The still unsteady and unclear image, which arises when the mind has reached a weak degree
of concentration, is called the acquired image (uggaha-nimitta). An entirely clear
and immovable image arising at a higher degree of concentration is the counter-image (patibhága-nimitta).
As soon as this image arises, the stage of neighbourhood (or access) concentration (upacára-samádhi)
is reached. For further details, s. kasina, samádhi.
2. 'Sign of (previous) kamma' (kamma-nimitta)
and 'sign of (the future) destiny' (gati-nimitta); these arise as mental
objects of the last karmic consciousness before death (maranásanna-kamma; s.
karma, III, 3).
Usages (1) and (2) are commentarial (s.
App.). In sutta usage, the term occurs, e.g. as:
3. 'Outward appearance': of one who has
sense-control it is said- that "he does not seize upon the general appearance' of an
object (na nimittaggáhí; M. 38, D. 2; expl. Vis I, 54f; see síla).
4. 'Object': the six objects, i.e.
visual, etc. (rúpa-nimitta; S. XXII, 3). Also, when in explanation of animitta-cetovimutti,
signless deliverance of mind (s. cetovimutti, vimokkha), it is said, 'sabba-nimittánam
amanasikárá', it refers to the 6 sense-objects (Com. to M. 43), and has therefore to
be rendered "by paying no attention to any object (or object-ideas)." - A
pleasant or beautiful object (subha-nimitta, q.v.) is a condition to the arising of
the hindrance of sense-desire; a 'repellent object' (patigha-nimitta) for the
hindrance of ill-will; contemplation on the impurity of an object (asubha-nimitta;
s. asubha) is an antidote to sense-desire.
5. In Pts.M. II, in a repetitive series of
terms, nimitta appears together with uppádo (origin of existence), pavattam
(continuity of existence), and may then be rendered by 'condition of existence' (s. Path,
nimmána-rati: the name of a class
of heavenly beings of the sensuous sphere; s. deva.
nine abodes of beings: s. sattávása.
ninefold dispensation: s: sásana.
nippapañca: s. papañca.
corporeality', is identical with rúpa-rúpa, 'corporeality proper', i.e. material
or actual corporeality, as contrasted with 'unproduced corporeality'
(anipphanna-rúpa), consisting of mere qualities or modes of corporeality, e.g.
impermanence, etc., which are also enumerated among the 28 phenomena of the corporeality
group. See khandha, Summary I; Vis.M. XIV, 73.
niraya: lit. 'the downward-path',
the nether or infernal world, usually translated by 'hell', is one of the 4 lower courses
of existence (apáya, q.v.). The Buddhists are well aware that on account of the
universal sway of impermanence a life in hell, just as in heaven, cannot last eternally,
but will after exhaustion of the karma which has caused the respective form of rebirth,
necessarily be followed again by a new death and a new rebirth, according to the stored-up
nirodha: 'extinction'; s. nirodha-samápatti,
of extinction', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassaná q.v.). See ánápánasati
nirodha-samápatti: 'attainment of
extinction' (S. XIV, 11), also called saññá-vedayita-nirodha, 'extinction of
feeling and perception', is the temporary suspension of all consciousness and mental
activity, following immediately upon the semi-conscious state called 'sphere of
neither-perception-nor-non-perception' (s. jhána, 8). The absolutely necessary
pre-conditions to its attainment are said to be perfect mastery of all the 8 absorptions (jhána),
as well as the previous attainment of Anágámi or Arahatship (s. ariya-puggala).
According to Vis.M. XXIII, the entering
into this state takes place in the following way: by means of mental tranquillity (samatha)
and insight (vipassaná) one has to pass through all the 8 absorptions one after
the other up to the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception and then one has to
bring this state to an end. If, namely, according to the Vis.M., the disciple (Anágámi
or Arahat) passes through the absorption merely by means of tranquillity, i.e.
concentration, he will only attain the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception,
and then come to a standstill; if, on the other hand, he proceeds only with insight, he
will reach the fruition (phala) of Anágámi or Arahatship. He, however, who by
means of both faculties has risen from absorption to absorption and, having made the
necessary preparations, brings the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception to an
end, such a one reaches the state of extinction. Whilst the disciple is passing through
the 8 absorptions, he each time emerges from the absorption attained, and regards with his
insight all the mental phenomena constituting that special absorption, as impermanent,
miserable and impersonal. Then he again enters the next higher absorption, and thus, after
each absorption practising insight, he at last reaches the state of
neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and thereafter the full extinction. This state,
according to the Com., may last for 7 days or even longer. Immediately at the rising from
this state, however, there arises in the Anágámi the fruition of Anágámiship
(anágámi-phala), in the Arahat the fruition of Arahatship (arahatta-phala).
With regard to the difference existing
between the monk abiding in this state of extinction on the one hand, and a dead person on
the other hand, M 43 says: "In him who is dead, and whose life has come to an end,
the bodily (in-and-outbreathing), verbal (thought-conception and discursive thinking), and
mental functions (s. sankhára, 2) have become suspended and come to a standstill,
life is exhausted, the vital heat extinguished, the faculties are destroyed. Also in the
monk who has reached 'extinction of perception and feeling' (saññá-vedayita-nirodha),
the bodily, verbal and mental functions have been suspended and come to a standstill, but
life is not exhausted, the vital heat not extinguished, and the faculties are not
For details, see Vis.M. XXIII; for texts
s. Path 206.
'analytical knowledge of language', is one of the 4 patisambhidá (q.v.).
nirvana: (Sanskrit= ) Nibbána
nissarana-pahána: 'overcoming by
escape', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahána q.v.).
nissaya: 'foundation'. The 2 wrong
foundations of morality are craving (tanhá-nissaya) and views (ditthi-nissaya).
Hence there are two wrong bases of morality: morality based on craving (tanhá-nissita-síla)
and morality based on views (ditthi-nissita-síla). (App.)
" 'Based on craving' is that kind of
morality which has come about by the desire for a happy existence, e.g.: 'O that by this
morality I might become a godlike or heavenly being!' (A.IX, 172). 'Based on views' is
that morality which has been induced by the view that through the observation of certain
moral rules purification may be attained" (Vis.M. I).
nissaya-paccaya: 'support', base,
foundation, is one of the 24 conditions (s. paccaya, 8).
nítattha-dhamma: A 'doctrine with
evident meaning', contrasted with a 'doctrine with a meaning to be inferred' (neyyattha-dhamma,
q.v.). See also paramattha.
nívarana: 'hindrances', are 5
qualities which are obstacles to the mind and blind our mental vision. In the presence of
them we cannot reach neighbourhood-concentration (upacára-samádhi) and full
concentration (appaná-samádhi), and are unable to discern clearly the truth. They
1. sensuous desire (kámacchanda),
2. ill-will (vyápáda),
3. sloth and torpor (thína-middha),
4. restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca),
5. skeptical doubt (vicikicchá;
In the beautiful similes in A. V, 193,
sensuous desire is compared with water mixed with manifold colours, ill-will with boiling
water, sloth and torpor with water covered by moss, restlessness and scruples with
agitated water whipped by the wind, skeptical doubt with turbid and muddy water. Just as
in such water one cannot perceive one's own reflection, so in the presence of these 5
mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern one's own benefit, nor that of others, nor
that of both.
Regarding the temporary suspension of the
5 hindrances on entering the first absorption, the stereotype sutta text (e g. A. IX, 40)
runs as follows:
"He has cast away sensuous desire; he
dwells with a heart free from sensuous desire; from desire he cleanses his heart.
"He has cast away ill-will; he dwells
with a heart free from ill-will, cherishing love and compassion toward all living beings,
he cleanses his heart from ill-will.
"He has cast away sloth and torpor;
he dwells free from sloth and torpor; loving the light, with watchful mind, with clear
consciousness, he cleanses his mind from sloth and torpor.
"He has cast away restlessness and
scruples; dwelling with mind undisturbed, with heart full of peace, he cleanses his mind
from restlessness and scruples.
"He has cast away skeptical doubt;
dwelling free from doubt, full of confidence in the good, he cleanses his heart from
"He has put aside these 5 hindrances,
and come to know these paralysing defilements of the mind. And far from sensual
impressions, far from unwholesome things, he enters into the first absorption, etc."
The overcoming of these 5 hindrances by
the absorptions is, as already pointed out, a merely temporary suspension, called
'overcoming through repression' (vikkhambhana-pahána). They disappear forever on
entering the 4 supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala), i.e. skeptical doubt on
reaching Sotápanship; sensuous desire, ill-will and mental worry on reaching
Anágámiship; sloth, torpor and restlessness on reaching Arahatship.
For their origination and their
overcoming, s. A. I, 2; VI, 21; S. XLVI, 51.
See The Five Mental
Hindrances, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 26).
niyáma: the 'fixedness of
law' regarding all things; cf. tathatá. - Pañca-niyáma is a commentarial
term, signifying the 'fivefold lawfulness' or 'natural order' that governs: (1)
temperature, seasons and other physical events (utu-niyáma); (2) the plant life (bíja-n.);
(3) karma (kamma-n.); (4) the mind (citta-n.), e.g. the lawful sequence of
the functions of consciousness (s. viññána-kicca) in the process of cognition;
(5) certain events connected with the Dhamma (dhamma-n.), e.g. the typical events
occurring in the lives of the Buddhas. (App.).
niyata-miccháditthi: 'wrong views
with fixed destiny', are the views of uncausedness of existence (ahetuka-ditthi),
of the inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi), and nihilism (natthika-ditthi).
For details, s. ditthi; and M. 60, Com. (WHEEL 98/99). - (App.)
niyata-puggala: a 'person with a
fixed destiny', may be either one who has committed one of the 5 'heinous deeds with
immediate result' (ánantarika-kamma, q.v.), or one who follows 'wrong views with
fixed destiny' (niyata-micchá-ditthi, q.v.), or one who has reached one of the 4
stages of holiness (s. ariya-puggala). About the latter cf. the frequent passage:
"Those disciples in whom the 3 fetters (of personality-belief, sceptical doubt and
attachment to mere rules and ritual; s. samyojana) have vanished, they all have
entered the stream, have forever escaped the states of woe; fixed is their destiny (niyata),
assured their final enlightenment."
noble abodes: s. vihára.
noble family, Passing from n.f.
to n.f.: kolankola; s. sotápaññá.
noble persons: ariya-puggala
noble power: ariya iddhi; s.
noble truths, the 4: ariya-sacca;
s. sacca. - The 2-fold knowledge of the n.t.; s. sacca-ñána.
noble usages, the 4: ariya-vamsa
is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.).
non-violence: s. avihimsá.
not-self: s. anattá.
corporeality', designates the 4 primary elements (mahábhúta or dhátu), as
distinguished from the 'derived corporeality' (upádá-rúpa), such as the
sensitive organs, etc. Cf. khandha, I.
nutriment: s. ojá, áhára.
- áhára is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) - n.- produced
corporeality; s. samutthána.