Trang tiếng Anh

      Đạo Phật Ngày Nay 

Trang tiếng Việt


...... ... .  . .  .  .
Từ Ngữ Phật Học Việt-Anh
Ấn bản Internet 2001


(tiếp theo)

Thất thánh tài. Saptadhana (S).Tín, faith; Giới, observance of the commandments; Tàm, shame (for self); Quí, shame (for others); Đa văn, hearing instruction; Trí tuệ, wisdom; Xả li, renunciation.

Thất thắng sự. The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha. Also thất chủng vô thượng. They are his body or person, his universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvàna), ineffable truth, and deliverance.

Thất thất. The period of forty nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day.

Thất thập. Saptati (S). Seventy.

Thất thập ngũ. Pancasaptati (S). Seventy-five.

Thất thập ngũ pháp. The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharma-Kosa, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories, or elements, divided into five groups: (1) Sắc pháp rùpani, material, 11; (2) Tâm pháp cittam, mind,1; (3) Tâm sở hữu pháp, citta-samprayuktasamskàràh, mental qualities, 46; (4) Tâm bất tương ưng hành pháp citta-vipravuktasamskàrah, non mental, 14; (5) Vô vi pháp asamskrta, non phenomenal elements, 3.

Thất thập tam tôn. The "Diamond world" mandala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy three honoured ones.

Thất thiện. The seven excellences claimed for the Buddha's teaching: good in its thời timing or seasonableness, nghĩa meaning, ngữ expression, độc pháp uniqueness, cụ túc completeness, thanh tịnh điều nhu pure adaptability, and phạm hạnh its noble objective, nirvàna.

Thất tình. The seven emotions: hỉ pleasure; nộ anger; ái love; ố hate; ai sorrow; dục desire; lạc joy.

Thất tông. The seven Japanese sects of Luật Ritsu (J), Pháp tướng Hossò, Tam luận Sanron, Hoa nghiêm Kegon, Thiên thai Tendai, Chân ngôn Shingon, and Thiền Zen.

Thất trí. The seven knowins - to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individual.

Thật. Real, true, honest, sincere; solid; fixed; full; to fill; fruit, kernel, effects; verily, in fact; it is used for chân as in chân thật the supreme fact, or ultimate reality; also for bhùta.

Thật báo độ. The land of Buddha-reward in Reality free from all barriers, that of the bodhisattva, the third of the four lands of Thiên Thai. A Buddha ksetra.

Thật đại thừa giáo. The real Mahàyàna, freed from temporal, relative or expedient ideas; the Thiên Thai, Hoa Nghiêm, Thiền, Chân ngôn schools claim to be such.

Thật đạo. The true way, the true religion, absolute Buddha-truth.

Thật đế. A truth; the true statement of a fundamental principle.

Thật giáo. The teaching of Reality; also the real, or reliable teaching.

Thật hóa. The real or noumenal Buddha as contrasted with quyền hóa the temporal or phenomenal Buddha; the thật hóa nhị thân are his báo thân sambhogakàya and his hóa thân nirmànakàya.

Thật không. Absolute sùnya, or vacuity; all things being produced by cause and environment are unreal.

Thật kinh. The true sùtra as contrasted to the relative or temporary sùtras, a term of the Lotus school.

Thật ngã. The true ego, in contrast with giả ngã phenomenal ego.

Thật ngữ. True, or reliable words; words corresponding to reality; discussions of Reality.

Thật nhãn. An eye able to discern reality, i.e. the Buddha-eye.

Thật sắc thân. The real Buddha-body, or his sambhogakàya in contrast with his nirmànakàya.

Thật tính. Real nature, or essence, i.e. the chân như bhùtatathatà.

Thật tế. The region of Reality.

Thật tế lí địa. The noumenal universe, the bhùtatathatà.

Thật tướng. Reality, in contrast with hư vọng; absolute fundamental reality, the ultimate, the absolute; the pháp thân dhamakàya, or chân như bhùtatathatà. Other terms are nhất thật, nhất như, nhất tướng, vô tướng, pháp chứng, niết bàn, vô vi, chân đế, chân tính, chân không, thật tính, thật đế, thật tế.

Thật tướng ấn. The seal or witness of reality, which is passed on from Buddha to Buddha.

Thật tướng quán. Insight into, or meditation on Reality.

Thật tướng trí thân. The body of absolute, knowledge or of complete knowledge of reality, i.e. that of Vairocana.

Thật tướng tuệ. Wisdom in regard to reality.

Thật tướng pháp giới. The first half is a Lotus sùtra term for Reality, the latter half a Hoa Nghiêm term for the same.

Thật tướng tam muội. The samàdhi of reality, in which the unreality of the phenomenal is realized.

Thật tướng vô tướng. Reality is Nullity, i.e. is devoid of phenomenal characteristics, unconditioned.

Thật trí. The knowledge or wisdom of Reality in contrast with quyền trí knowledge of the relative.

Thật xoa nan đà. Siksànanda (S). A sramana of Kustana (Khotan) who in A.D. 695 introduced a new alphabet into China and translated nineteen works.

Thế. Yuga (S). An age, 1,000th part of a kalpa. Loka (S). The world.

Thế anh. World hero, like Buddha. Also Thế hùng.

Thế đại. A generation, a life time; the world.

Thế đế. Ordinary or worldly truth, opposite to Chân đế truth in reality. Also Tục đế, Thế tục đế.

Thế đệ nhất pháp. The highest of the Tứ gia hạnh vị.

Thế điển. Non-Buddhist classical works.

Thế gian. The world; in the world; the finite impermanent world. Also Thế giới..

Thế gian giải. Lokavid (S). Knower of the World, one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

Thế gian nhãn. The Eye of the world, the eyes that see for all men. Worldly or ordinary eyes. Also Thế nhãn.

Thế gian pháp. The world-law, or law of this world, especially of birth and death.

Thế gian thừa. The Vehicle, or teaching for the attainment of good fruit in the present life, in contrast with Xuất thế gian thừa that for attainment in lives outside this world.

Thế gian trí. Wordly knowledge.

Thế gian tướng thường trụ. World-forms, systems, or states are eternal (as existing in the Absolute, the chân như).

Thế giới. Loka (S). The finite world, the world, a world, which is of two kinds: (1) Chúng sinh thế giới, that of the living, who are receiving their chính báo correct recompense of karma; (2) Khí thế giới, that of the material, or that on which karma depends for expression.

Thế giới chủ. The lord, or ruler over a world or dhyàna heaven, one for each of the four dhyàna heavens.

Thế giới tất đàn. One of the four siddhantas; the Buddha's line of reasoning in earthly or common terms to draw men to the higher truth.

Thế Hữu. Vasumitra (S).

Thế luận. Wordly discussions; ordinary unenlghtened ways of description or definition; also styled ác luận evil discussions, especially when applied to the hedonistic Lokàyatika teachings.

Thế nhãn. Xem thế gian nhãn.

Thế pháp. Common or ordinary dharmas.

Thế Tôn. Lokajyestha (S). World's most Venerable, World's Honoured One. World-honoured, an epithet of all Buddhas.

Thế Thân. Vasubhandu (S). Also Thiên Thân.

Thế thế sinh sinh. Transmigration after transmigration in the six stages of mortal existence.

Thế thiên. The Lord of the world, Brahmà Phạm thiên; Mahesvara Đại tự tại thiên; The four mahàrajàs tứ đại thiên vương. Also thế chủ.

Thế trí. Xem thế tục trí.

Thế trí biện thông. Worldly eloquent.

Thế chí Bồ tát. Xem Đại thế chí Bồ tát.

Thế phát. Mundaka, munda (S). To shave the hair, following Sàkyamuni, who cut off his locks with a sharp sword to signify his cutting himself off the world. Also Thế trừ tu phát, Cắt tóc cạo râu.

Thế tục. Laukika (S). Common or ordinary things, custom, experiences, common or wordly ways (or views).

Thế tục trí. Ordinary, or worldly knowledge, or wisdom.

Thế Tự tại Vương. Lokesvararàja (S). A Buddha under whom Amitàbha, in a previous existence, entered into the ascetic life and made his forty-eight vows.

Thế y. He on whom the world relies - Buddha.

Thệ đa lâm. Jetavana (S)

Thệ nguyện. Pranidhàna (S). Vow.

Thi. A corpse; to manage.

Thi ba la mật. Sìlapàramità (S) Morality, the second of the pàramitàs.

Thi Ca La Việt. Sigàlovada (P).

Thi Ca La Việt kinh. Sigàlovada-sutta (P). Also Thiện sinh kinh.

Thi Khí. Sikkhin (S). (1) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, whom Sàkyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity.

Thi la. Sìla (S). Restraint, or keeping the commandments. The second pàramità, moral purity.

Thi la Ba la mật. Xem Thi ba la mật.

Thi la bí đà la. Silabhadra (S). Also Giới Hiền luận sư.

Thi la thanh tịnh. Moral purity, essential to enter into samàdhi

Thi lợi. Sri (S). Also sư lợi, thất lợi, thất li, tu lợi; (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues. (2) The wife of Visnu. (3) An honorific prefix or affix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Manjusri.

Thí. Dàna (S). Alms; charity. To give, grant, bestow, to distribute. Also thi.

Thí ân. To grant s.o. a favour; to do s.o. a kindness. Thi ân bất cầu báo to do good for its own sake.

Thí ba la mật. Dàna-pàramità (S).

Thí chủ. Dànapati (S). An almsgiver, a benefactor, a patron of Buddhism.

Thí hóa. To bestow the transforming truth.

Thí pháp. To dispense the Buddha's teachings.

Thí tăng. To give alms to monks.

Thí thực. To bestow food.

Thí vô úy. Abhayandada (S). The bestower of fearlessness, a tittle of Quán Âm.

Thị. To indicate, notify, proclaim.

Thị đạo. To indicate the Way.

Thị giáo. To point out and instruct.

Thị hiện. To appear, to manifest

Thị tịch. To indicate the way of nirvàna.

Thị giả. A senior bonze's attendant.

Thích. To separate out, set free, unloose, explain; Buddhism, Buddhist.

Thích Ca Mâu Ni. Sàkyamuni (S)

Thích chúng. Buddhist.

Thích chủng. Sàkya-seed; the Sàkya clan; the disciples of Sàkyamuni, especially monks and nuns.

Thích đề hoàn nhân. Sakro-devànàmindra (S). Sakra the Indra of the devas, the sky-god, the god of the nature-gods, ruler of the thirty tree heavens, a deva protector of Buddhism.

Thích điển. The scriptures of Buddhism.

Thích gia. The Sàkya family, i.e. the expounders of Buddhist sùtras and scriptures.

Thích giáo. Buddhism.

Thích luận. The Pràjna-pàramità-sùtra; also explanatory discussions, or notes on foundation treatises.

Thích Ma Nam. Sàkya-Mahanama-Kulika (S). One of the first five of the Buddha's disciples.

Thích môn. The school of Sàkyamuni, Buddhism.

Thích nghi. Explanation of doubtful points, solution of doubts.

Thích nữ. The woman of the Sàkya clan.

Thích tử. Sàkyaputrìya (S). Sons of Sàkyamuni, i.e. his disciples in general.

Thích Phạm Hộ Thế. Indra and Brahma, both protectors of Buddhism.

Thiên. Heaven; the sky; a day. A deva or divine being, deity. Tam chủng thiên, the three classes of devas: (1) Danh thiên, famous rulers on earth styled thiên vương, thiên tử; (2) Sinh thiên, the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) Tịnh thiên, the pure, or the saints, from sravakas to pratyekabuddhas. The four classes of devas include (1),(2),(3) above and (4) Nghĩa thiên, all bodhisattvas above the ten stages thập trụ. Đệ nhất nghĩa thiên: a supreme heaven with bodhisattvas and Buddhas in eternal immutability.

Thiên bộ. The classes of devas; the host of devas, the host of heaven.

Thiên bộ thiện thần. Brahmà, Indra, the Four Devaloka-ràjas, and the other spirit guardians of Buddhism.

Thiên cái. A Buddha's canopy, or umbrella; a nimbus of rays of light, a halo.

Thiên chân. Bhùtatathatà (S). Permanent reality underlying all phenomena, pure and unchanging. e.g. the sea in contrast with the waves; nature, the natural.

Thiên chân Phật. The real or ultimate Buddha.

Thiên chúng. The host of heaven, Brahma, Indra, and all their host.

Thiên chủ. Devapati (S). The Lord of devas, a tittle of Indra.

Thiên cổ. The divine drum in the Thiện pháp đường Good Law Hall of the Trayas-trimsas heavens, which sounds of itself, warning the inhabitants of the thirty three heavens that even their life is impermanent and subject to karma; at the sound of the drum Indra preaches against excess.

Thiên cơ. Natural capacity; the nature bestowed by Heaven.

Thiên cung. Devapura, devaloka (S). The palace of devas, the abode of the gods.

Thiên cung bảo tạng. A library of the sùtras. The treasury of all the sùtras in the Tusita Heaven in Maitreya's palace. Another collection is said to be in the Long cung or Dragon's palace, but is associated with Nagàrjuna.

Thiên đài tông. Tendai-shu (J). Xem Thiên Thai.

Thiên đại tướng quân. Deva-guardian.

Thiên đạo. Devagati, devasopàna (S). The highest of the six paths lục đạo, the realm of devas, i.e. the eighteen heavens of form and four of formlessness. A place of enjoyment but not a place of progress toward bodhisattva perfection.

Thiên đế. King, or Emperor of Heaven, i.e. Nhân đà la Indra, Đế Thích Sakra king of the devaloka.

Thiên đường. The mansions of the devas, located between the earth and the Brahmalokas; the heavenly halls; heaven.

Thiên đường địa ngục. The heavens and the hells, places of reward or punishment for moral conduct.

Thiên hạnh. A bodhisattva's natural or spontaneous correspondence with fundamental law; one of the ngũ hạnh of the Niết Bàn kinh.

Thiên hạ. The world; here below; on earth.

Thiên hoa. Divine flowers, stated in the Lotus sùtra as of four kinds, mạn đà la mandàras, ma ha mạn đà la mahàmandàras, mạn thù sa manjùsakas, ma ha mạn thù sa mahàmanjùsakas, the first two white, the last two red.

Thiên hương. Deva incense, divine or excellent incense.

Thiên long. Devas, including Brahmà, Indra, and the devas, together with the nàgas.

Thiên long bát bộ. Devas, nàgas and others of the eight classes: thiên, devas; long, nàgas; dạ xoa, yaksas; càn thát bà, gandharas; a tu la, asuras; ca lâu la, garudas; khẩn na la, kinnaras; ma hầu la già, mahoragas.

Thiên ma. Deva Màra (S). One of the four màras tứ ma who dwells in the sixth heaven, Paranirmita-vasa-vartin, at the top of the Kàmadhàtu, with his inumerable host , whence he constantly obstruct the Buddha truth and its followers. He is also styled Sát giả the slayer; also Ba tuần explained by ác ái sinful love or desire as he sends his daughters to seduce the saints.

Thiên ma ngoại đạo. Màras and heretics.

Thiên ngữ. The deva language, i.e. that of the Brahman, Sanskrit.

Thiên nhạc. Heavenly music, the music of the inhabitants of the heavens.

Thiên nhãn. Divyacaksus (S). The deva-eye; the first of abhijnà lục thông; one of the five classes of eyes; divine sight unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and distant, the destiny of all beings in future rebirths.

Thiên nhãn lực. The power of the celestial or deva eye, one of the ten powers of a Buddha.

Thiên nhãn minh. One of the three enlightenments tam minh, or clear vision of the saints, which enables him to know the future rebirths of himselfand all beings.

Thiên nhãn thông.Diviyacaksu (S). Divine eye.

Thiên nhãn trí thông nguyện. The sixth of Amitàbha's forty eight vows, that he would not enter the final stage until all beings had obtained this divine vision.

Thiên nhãn trí. The wisdom obtained by the deava eye.

Thiên nhãn trí chứng thông. The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva eye.

Thiên nhân. Devas and men.

Thiên nhân sư. Sasta Devamanusyànàm (S). Teacher of devas and men, one of the ten epithet of a Buddha.

Thiên nữ. Devakanyà, apsaras (S). Goddess in general.

Thiên nhĩ. Divyasrotra (S). Deva ear, divine ear; celestial ear.

Thiên nhĩ thông. The second of the abhijnàs lục thông, by which devas in the form-world, certain arhats through the fourth dhyàna, and others can hear all sounds and understand all languages in the realm of form, with resulting wisdom.

Thiên nhĩ trí chứng thông. The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva ear.

Thiên nhĩ trí thông nguyện. The seventh of the forty eight vows of Amitàbha, not to become Buddha until all obtained the divine ear.

Thiên sứ. Divine messengers, especially those of Yama; also his tam thiên sứ old age, sickness and death.

Thiên Thai đại sư. The actual founder of the Thiên Thai school, Trí Khải.

Thiên Thai tông. The T'ien T'ai or Tendai sect đounded by Trí Khải. It bases its tenets on the Lotus sùtra.

Thiên Thai Trí Giả. Trí Khải, his tự is Đức An and his surname is Trần, AD 538-597. Studying under Huệ Tư, he was greatly influenced by his teaching; and found in the Lotus sùtra, the real interpretation of Mahàyànism. In 575 he first came to Thiên Thai Sơn or Heavenly Terrace mountain and establish his school, which in turn was the foundation of important Buddhist shools in Korea and Japan.

Thiên Thân. Vasubandhu, younger brother of Asanga, wrote Câu Xá Luận, Duy Thức Luận, etc. He was the twenty first Indian patriarch.

Thiên thần. Deva, Devatà (S). (1) Brahmà and the gods in genaral, including the inhabitants of the devalokas, all sbject to metempsychosis; (2) The fifteenth patriarch, disciple of Nàgàrjuna, also styled Devabodhisattva Đề Bà Bồ tát, Aryadeva Thánh Thiên and Nilanetra Thanh Mục blue eyed.

Thiên thần địa kì. The spirits Thiên thần are Indra and his retenue; devas in general; and Địa kì are the earth spirits, nàgas, demons, ghosts, etc.

Thiên thụ vương. The pàrijàta tree ba lợi chất đa, which grows in front of Indra's palace - the king among the heavenly tree.

Thiên thực. Sudhà (S). Food of the gods, sweet dew, ambrosia, nectar.

Thiên thừa (thặng). Devayàna (S). The deva vehicle, one of the five vehicles. It transports observers of the ten good qualities thập thiện to one ođ the six deva realms of desire.

Thiên thượng. The heavens above.

Thiên thượng thiên hạ duy ngã độc tôn. The first words attributed to Sàkyamuni after his first seven steps when born from his mother's right side: "In the heavens above and (earth) beneath I alone is the honoured one." This announcement is ascribed to every Buddha.

Thiên tiên. Deva-rsis (S). Immortals.

Thiên trung thiên. Devàtideva (S). Deva of devas, the name given to Siddhartha when, on his presentation in the temple of Thiên Vương Mahesvara (Siva), the statues of all the gods prostrated themselves before him.

Thiên trúc. India.

Thiên tôn. The most honoured among devas, a tittle of a Buddha, i.e. the highest of divine beings.

Thiên từ. Devàlaya, Devatàgàra (S). Brahminical temples.

Thiên tử. A son of Heavens, the Emperor-Princes.

Thiên vương. Maharàja devas (S). Tứ thiên vương, Catur-mahàràja, The four deva kings in the first or lowest devakoka, on its four sides. East Trì quốc Thiên vương Dhrtaràstra; South Tăng trưởng Thiên vương, Virùdhaka; West Quảng mục

Thiên vương. Virùpaksa; North Đa văn Thiên vương, Dhanada, or Vaisravana, as guardians of the monasteries, where their images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is sometimes called Thiên vương đường, hall of the deva kings.

Thiên vương Như lai. Deva-ràja Tathàgata (S). The name by which Devadatta, the enemy of Sàkyamuni, will be known on his future appearance as a Buddha in the universe called Thiên Đạo Devasopàna.

Thiên y. Deva garments of extreme lightness.

Thiên thủ thiên nhãn Quán thế âm. Sahasrabhùjàriy-Avalokitesvara (S). Avalokitesvara with a thousand hands and a thousand eyes.

Thiền. To level a place for an altar, to sacrifice to the hills and mountains; to abdicate. Adopted by Buddhists for dhyàna thiền na, i.e. meditation, abstraction, trance. Dhyàna is "meditation, thought, reflection, especially profound and abstract religious contemplation". It was intp. as "getting rid of evil" , etc., later as tĩnh lự quiet meditation. It is a form of Định but that word is more closely allied with samàdhi.

Thiền ba la mật. Dhyàna-paramita (S). Perfection of the meditation.

Thiền bệnh. The ills of meditation, i.e. wandewing thoughts, illusions. The illusions and nervous troubles of the mystic.

Thiền cư. A meditation abode; to dwell in meditation; a hermitage; a hermit monk.

Thiền duyệt. Joy of the mystic trance; joy derived from meditation.

Thiền duyệt thực. Nourishing powers from meditation.

Thiền định. One of the six pàramitàs. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. Thiền is dhyàna, Định is an interpretation of samàdhi. Thiền is one element of định, which covers the whole ground of meditation, concentration abstraction, reaching to the ultimate beyond emotion or thinking.

Thiền độ. Dhyana-paramita (S). Xem thiền ba la mật.

Thiền đường. Meditation hall of Thiền tông. A common name of the monastic hall.

Thiền giáo. The teaching of Thiền tông. Also thiền the esoteric tradition and giáo the teaching of the scriptures.

Thiền hà. The dhyàna river.

Thiền hành. The methods employed in meditation; the practices or discipline of Thiền tông. Zen sect.Walking meditation.

Thiền hóa. The transforming character of Thiền.

Thiền học. Zen study.

Thiền lạc. Joy and peace of the abstract meditation.

Thiền lâm. Grove of meditation, i.e. a monastery. Monasteries are numerous as trees in a forest.

Thiền lục. The records of Thiền tông.

Thiền lữ. Fellow-meditators; fellow-monks.

Thiền môn. The meditative method in general. The intuitional school established in China by Bodhidharma.

Thiến môn ngũ tông. Five Ch'an schools: Lâm tế, Qui ngưỡng, Vân môn, Pháp nhãn and Tào động.

Thiền môn qui củ. The monastic routine.

Thiền na. Dhyàna (S). Abstract contemplation.

Thiền Phạm Thiên. The three Brahmaloka heavens of the first dhyàna.

Thiền pháp. Methods of meditation.

Thiền quyền. The meditation fist (musti), the sign of meditation shown by the left fist, the right indicating wisdom.

Thiền quán. Dhyàna-contemplation.

Thiền sư. A master, or teacher, of meditation, or of Thiền tông.

Thiền tam muội. Dhyàna and samàdhi, dhyàna considered as tư duy meditating, samàdhi as định abstraction.

Thiền tăng. A monk of Thiền tông Ch'an sect; a monk in meditation.

Thiền tâm. The mind in a state of abstraction.

Thiền tập. The practice of meditation; the practice of religion through the mystic trance.

Thiền thất. Meditation hall or room; other similar terms are thiền quán, thiền phòng, thiền viện, thiền đường, thiền cư.

Thiền tĩnh. Meditation and quietness.

Thiền tông. Zen Buddhism.

Thiền tuệ. Dhyàna and Wisdom.

Thiền tủy. The marrow of meditation - a term for the Lankavatara sùtra.

Thiền tọa. To sit cross-legged in meditation.

Thiền tông. The Ch'an, meditative or intuitional sect, usually said to have been established in China by Bodhidharma, the twenty eighth patriarch, who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India. This sect, believing in direct enlightenment, disregarded ritual and sùtras and depended upon the inner light and personal influence for the propagation of its tenets.

Thiền tông ngữ lục. Records of the Zen sect.

Thiền thiên. Dhyàna heavens, four in numbers. where those who practise meditation may be reborn.

Thiền trí. Meditation and wisdom.

Thiền trượng. A staff or pole for touching those who fall asleep while assembled in meditation. Bonze's crosier.

Thiền vị. Meditation flavour; the mysterious taste or sensation experienced by one who enters abstract mediatation.

Thiện. Su, sàdhu, bhadra, kusala (S). Good, virtuous, well; good at; skilful.

Thiện ác. Good and evil; good, inter alia, is defined as thuận lí to accord with the right, evil as nghịch lí to disobey the right.

Thiện bản. Good stock, or roots, planting good seed or roots; good in the root of enlightenment.

Thiện căn. Kusala-mùla (S). Good roots, good qualities, good seed sown by a good life to be reaped later.

Thiện đạo. Good way, good direction.

Thiện đức. Morality, virtue.

Thiện giả thiện báo. A good turn deserves another.

Thiện Giác Vương. King Suppabuddha, father of the princess Yasodhara.

Thiện hạnh. Good deed, virtuous act.

Thiện Hỉ. Upananda (S). Name

Thiện Hiền. Subhadra (S). The last disciple of the Buddha. Also Tu bạt đà la.

Thiện Hiện. Well-appearing, name of Subhùti.

Thiện hiện thiên. Sudrsa (S). The seventh Brahmaloka; the eighth region of the fourth dhyàna.

Thiện hữu. Kalyànamitra (S). A friend of virtue, a religious counseller; a friend in the good life, or one who stimulates to goodness.

Thiện Kiến. Sudarsana (S). Good to see, good for seeing, belle vue, etc. Another name of A xà thế Ajatasatru.

Thiện Kiến thiên. Sudarsana (S). A heaven of the fourth dhyàna in the Realm of Form.

Thiện kiếp. Bhadrakalpa (S). A good kalpa, especially that in which we now live.

Thiện lai. Svàgata, susvàgata (S). "Welcome"; well come, a title of Buddha.

Thiện nam. Xem Ưu bà tắc.

Thiện nam tử. Good sons, or sons of good families. one of the Buddha's term of address to his disciples, somewhat resembling "gentlemen".

Thiện nam tín nữ. Good men and believing women.

Thiện nghiệp. Punyakarma (S). Meritorious action. Also Nghiệp lành.

Thiện ngôn. Good word.

Thiện Nha. Sudàna (S). A former name of the Buddha. Also Tô đạt nã.

Thiện nhân. A good man, especially one who believes in Buddhist ideas of causality and lives a good life.

Thiện nhân. Good causation, i.e. a good cause for a good effect.

Thiện nữ. Xem Ưu bà di.

Thiện pháp. Kusala-dharma (S). Meritorious action, good dharma.

Thiện quả. Good fruit from thiện nhân; good fortune in life resulting from previous goodness.

Thiện Sinh. Sujàta (S). Well born, of high birth. Also Susambhava, a former incarnation of Sàkyamuni.

Thiện Sinh kinh. Sigàlovàda-sutta (P). Name of a sùtra. Also Thi ca la việt kinh.

Thiện tai. Sàdhu (S). Good! Excellent!

Thiện Tài Đồng tử. Sudhana (S). A disciple mentioned in the Hoa Nghiêm Kinh.

Thiện tâm. A good heart, or mind.

Thiện Thí. Sudatta (S). Name. Also Tô đạt đa.

Thiện tính. Good nature, good in nature, or in fundamental quality.

Thiện thần. The good devas, or spirits, who protect Buddhism.

Thiện thệ. Sugata (S). Well departed, gone as he should go; a tittle of Buddha.

Thiện tri. Vibhàvana (S). Clear and deep understanding.

Thiện tri thức. A good friend or intimate, one well known and intimate.

Thiện tuệ địa. Sàdhumati (S)

Thiện tú (túc). Abiding in goodness, disciples who keep eight commandments, upavasatha, posadha.

Thiện vô lậu pháp. Kusalanàsravàh (S). Good things free from evil flowings

Thiện Vô úy. Subhàkarasimha (S). A famous Indian monk, came to China in 716 to propagate the Esoteric Buddhism.

Thiện xảo. Clever, skilful, adroit, apt.

Thiện xứ. Good abode, realm.

Thiết vi sơn. The great circular iron enclosure.

Thiệt. Jihvà (S). The tongue.

Thiệt căn. The organ of taste.

Thiệt thức. Tongue-perception.

Thiệt tướng. The broad, long tongue of a Buddha, one of the thirty two physical signs.

Thiếu lâm tự. Shao lin (C). The monastery at Thiếu thất, where Bodhidharma sat with his face to a wall for nine years.

Thiếu thất. Shao-shih (C). A hill on the Tung Sơn where Bodhidharma set up his Thiếu lâm tự.

Thiếu thất lục môn. Six brief treatises attributed to Bodhidharma.

Thiểu. Few.

Thiểu dục tri túc. Content with few desires.

Thiểu quang thiên. Parittàbha (P). A heaven.

Thiểu tịnh thiên. Parittasubhas (S). The first and smallest heaven in the third dhyàna region of form.

Thính. To hear, listen, hearken; listen to, obey.

Thính giáo. Those who hear the Buddha's doctrine; those who obey.

Thính kinh. To hear the recitation of the scripture.

Thọ mệnh. Jìvita (S). Span of life, life.

Thoái. Retire, withdraw, backslide, recede, yield.

Thoái chuyển. To withdraw and turn back i.e. from any position attained.

Thoái đại. To backslide from Mahàyàna (and revert to Hìnayàna)

Thoái định. To backslide from meditation.

Thoái một. To be reborn in a lower stage of existence.

Thoái sơ tâm. To recede the initial mind.

Thoại đầu. Xem công án.

Thoát khỏi. Vivarjana (S). Abandoning, abstainimg from.

Thô. Sthàla (S). Coarse, rough, crude, unrefined, immature.

Thô ác ngữ. Coarse, evil, slanderous language

Thô ác uyển. The rough and evil park, one of Indra's four parks, that of armaments and war.

Thô ngôn. Coarse, crude, rough, immature words or talk.

Thô ngữ. Coarse language.

Thô tướng. The six grosser or cruder form of enlightenment or ignorance mentioned in the Khởi tín luận in contrast with its three finer forms.

Thô nhân. The immature man of Hìnayàna, who has a rough foundation, in contrast with the mature or refined tế nhân man of Mahàyàna. Thiên Thai Tông applied thô to the Tạng, Thông, Biệt schools, reseving tế for the Viên school.

Thô tướng. Crude appearance, unrefined manifestation.

Thố giác. Sasa-visàna (S). A rabbit's horns, i.e. the non existent; all phenomena are as unreal as a rabbit's horns.

Thốc. Bald. Thốc cư sĩ. Thốc nhân. A monk, sometimes used as a term of abuse.

Thông. Permeate, pass through, pervade; perceive; know thoroughly; communicate; current; free; without hindrance, unimpeded, universal, e.g. thần thông supernatural, ubiquitous powers. There are categories of ngũ thông, lục thông and thập thông, all referring to supernatural powers.

Thông biệt nhị tự. The general and specific introduction to a sùtra; như thị ngã văn being the thông tự general introduction in every sùtra.

Thông đạt. To pervade, perceive; unimpeded, universal.

Thông đạt tâm. To attain to the enlightened mind; the stage of one who has passed through the novitiate and understand the truth.

Thông giáo. Thiên Thai classified Buddhist schools into four periods tạng, thông, biệt, and viên. The tạng pitaka school was that of Hìnayàna. The thông interrelated or intermediate school, was the first stage of Mahàyàna, having in it elements of all the three vehicles. The biệt is separate, or differentiated Mahàyàna teaching. The viên is full-orbed, complete, or perfect Mahàyàna. The Thông Giáo held the doctrine of the Void, but had not arrived at the doctrine of the Mean.

Thông hành. The thoroughfare, or path which leads to nirvàna.

Thông hóa. Perpicacious, or influential teaching; universal powers of teaching.

Thông hoặc. The two all-pervading deluders kiến and tư, seeing and thinking wrongly, i.e. taking appearance for reality.

Thông huyền. To see through the mysteries (of nature, etc.)

Thông lợi. Intelligence keen as a blade, able to penetrate truth.

Thông lực. The capacity to employ supernatural powers without hindrance. Buddhas, bodhisattvas, etc., have thần lực spiritual or transcendent power; demons have nghiệp lực power acquired through their karma.

Thông minh tuệ. The six thông, three minh and three tuệ.

Thông tuệ. Supernatural powers and wisdom, the former being based on the latter.

Thờ phụng. Apacàyana (P). Worship, reverence. Also Kính lễ.

Thời gian. Kala (S). Time. Also Thật thời.

Thời luân giáo. Kàlacakra-Tantra (S). Name of a sect.

Thời tiết. Samaya (S). Time, Season. Also Giả thời.

Thù. To kill, exterminate; different; very.

Thù diệu thân. Surpassingly wonderful body, i.e. Padmottara, the 729th Buddha of the present kalpa.

Thù đặc. Particular, very special.

Thù thắng. Rare, extraordinary, surpassing, as the thù thắng điện and trì surpassing palace and lake of Indra.

Thủ. Head.

Thủ đà. Sùdra (S). The fourth of the four castes, peasants.

Thủ đồ đà na. Suddhodana (S). Xem Tịnh Phạn Vương.

Thủ hộ đại thiên quốc độ kinh. Mahàsahasrapramardana (S). Name of a sùtra.

Thủ lăng già ma. Surangama (S). Also Thủ lăng nghiêm.

Thủ lăng nghiêm. Suramgama (S). Heroic, resolute; the virtue or power which enables a Buddha to overcome every obstacle, obtained in the Thủ lăng nghiêm định or tam muội.

Thủ lăng nghiêm định. Suramgama dhyàna or samàdhi.

Thủ lăng Nghiêm kinh. Suramgama-sùtra (S).

Thủ lăng nghiêm tam muội. Xem thủ lăng nghiêm định.

Thủ tọa. The chief seat, president, chief.

Thủ. Upàdàna (S). To grasp, hold on to, held by, be attached to, love; used as indicating both ái love or desire and phiền não the vexing passions and illusions. It is one of the twelve nidànas thập nhị nhân duyên the grasping at or holding on to self-existence and things.

Thủ ấn. Mudràhasta (S). Mystic positions of the hand (to make a seal).

Thủ khẩu ý tương ưng. In Yoga practices, it means correspondance of hand, mouth, and mind, i.e. manual signs, esoteric words, and thought or mental projection.

Thủ kim cương chử. Vajrapàni (S). Who holds the thunderbolt. Also Cầm chày kim cương.

Thủ trước, To grasp, hold on to, or be held by any thing or idea.

Thủ tướng. The state of holding to the illusions of life as realities,

Thủ tướng sám. To hold repentance before the mind until the sign of Buddha's presence annihilates the sin.

Thủ uẩn. The skandhas which give rise to grasping or desire, which in turn produces the skandhas.

Thụ (Thọ). Vedanà (S). To receive, be, bear. Perception, knowledge obtained by the senses, feeling, sensation.

Thụ báo. Receive the retribution, the reward.

Thụ cụ. To receive the entire precepts.

Thụ dụng. Received for use.

Thụ dụng độ. The realm of Sambhogakayà.

Thụ dụng thân. The Sambhogakàya, i.e. the functioning glorious body, tự thụ dụng for a Buddha's own use, or bliss; tha thụ dụng for the spiritual benefit of others.

Thụ giả. The recipient (e.g. of the rules). The illusory view that the ego will receive reward or punishment in a future life.

Thụ giới. To receive or accept the commandments, or rules.

Thụ hưởng. Sambhoga (S). Enjoyment.

Thụ kí. To receive from a Buddha predestination (to become a Buddha); the prophecy of a bodhisattva's future Buddhahood. Also thụ quyết, thụ biệt.

Thụ nghiệp. Duties of the receiver of the rules; also to receive the results or karma of one's deeds.

Thụ quyết. Buddha's prediction. Also thụ kí.

Thụ trì. To receive and retain, or hold on to, or keep (the Buddha's teaching).

Thụ tuế. To receive, or add, a year to his monastic age, on the conclusion of the summer's retreat.

Thụ, Tưởng, Hành, Thức. The four immaterial skandhas: vedanà feeling, samjnà ideation, samskàra reaction, vijnàna consciousness.

Thụ uẩn. Vedanà (S). Sensation, one of the five skandhas.

Thụ. Vrksa (S). A tree; to stand, erect, establish.

Thụ đề. Tejas (S). Fire.

Thụ vương. King of the trees, the Bodhi-tree.

Thuấn nhã. Sùnya (S). Emptiness. Also không.

Thuấn nhã đa. Sùnyatà (S). State of Emptiness, state of being devoid. Không.

Thuần. One-coloured, unadulterated, pure, sincere.

Thuần Đà. Cunda (S). Who is believed to have supplied Sàkyamuni with his last meal.

Thuần khiết. Parisuddhi (S). Purity. Also trong sạch.

Thuần nhất. Pure, unmixed, solely, simply, entirely.

Thuận. Accord with, comply, yield, obey, agreeable.

Thuận hạ phần kết. The five ties in the lower realm, which hold the individual in the realms of desire, i.e. desire, resentment, egoism, false tenets and doubt.

Thuận hóa. To accord with one's lessons; to follow the customs; to die.

Thuận lưu. Going with the stream, i.e. of transmigration, customs, etc.

Thuận nhẫn. The third of the five bodhisattva stages of endurance, i.e. from the fourth to sixth stage.

Thuận phận. To follow out one's duties; to accord with one's calling; to carry out the line of bodhisattva progress according to plan.

Thuận thế. To accord with the world, its way and customs; to die.

Thuận thứ. According to order or rank, one after another, the next life in Paradise to follow immediately after this without intervening stages.

Thuận thượng phần kết. The five ties in the higher realm which hold the individual in the realms of form and formless: desire for form, desire for formlessness, restlessness, pride and ignorance.

Thuật sĩ. Magician, prestidigitator.

Thuốc. Bhaisajya (S). Medecine, medicament, remedy. Also dược.

Thủy. Jala (S). Water; liquid.

Thủy ba. Waves of water; the wave and the water are two yet one - an illustration of the identity of differences.

Thủy đại. Apo-dhàtu (S). Water element, one of the four elements tứ đại.

Thủy định. The water dhyàna, in which one becomes identified with water, for during the period of trance one may become water.

Thủy luân. The third of the four "wheels" on which the earth rests - space, wind (or air), water and metal.

Thủy luân tam muội. The samàdhi of the above water wheel, one of the ngũ luân tam muội; water is fertilizing and soft, in like manner the effect of this samàdhi is the fertilizing of good roots, and the softening or reduction of ambition and pride.

Thủy lục trai. The festival of water and land, attributed to Vũ Đế of the Lương dynasty consequent on a dream; it began with placing food in the water for water sprites, and on land for ghosts.

Thủy mạt, Bào, Diệm. Spume, bubbles and flame, e.g. that all is unreal and transient.

Thủy nguyệt. Udakacandra (S). The moon reflected in the water, i.e. all is illusory and unreal.

Thủy nhũ. Water and milk - an illustration of the intermingling of things; but their essential separateness is recognized in that the ràja-hamsa (a kind of goose) is said to be able to drink up the milk leaving behind the water.

Thủy quán. Xem thủy định. Also thủy tưởng, thủy tưởng quán.

Thủy Quán âm. Quán âm gazing at the moon in the water.

Thủy tai. The calamity of water, or flood; one of the three final world catastrophes of fire, wind and water, tam tai.

Thủy táng. Water-burial, casting a corpse into the water, one of the four forms of burial địa, thủy, hỏa, điểu táng.

Thủy thiên. Varuna (S). The heavens, or the sky, where are clouds and dragons.

Thủy thiên Phật. The 743rd Buddha of the present universe.

Thủy thượng bào. A bubble on the water, emblem of all things being transient.

Thủy tịnh. Cleansed by water; edibles recovered from flowing water are "clean" food to a monk.

Thủy trung nguyệt. Jalacandra (S). The moon's reflexion on the water.

Thủy trần. An atom of dust wandering freely in water - one of the smallest of things.

Thủy. Beginning, first, initial, thereupon.

Thủy chung. Beginning and end

Thủy giác. Initial knowledge. Xem Bản giác.

Thụy miên. Styàna-middha (S). Sloth-torpor

Thuyền. Boat, junk, ship, vessel. Buddha's Teaching.

Thuyền sư. Ship-master, skipper. Buddha.

Thuyết. To speak, say, talk, discourse, expound; speech, etc.

Thuyết chuyển bộ. Samkràntivàdin (S). Name of a sect.

Thuyết độ bộ. Xem Kinh lượng bộ.

Thuyết giả bộ. Prajnàptivàdinah (S). A branch of Màhàsanghikàh, which took the view of phenomenality and reality.

Thuyết giảng. Desanà (S). To preach.

Thuyết giới. The bi-monthly reading of the prohibitions for the order and of mutual confession.

Thuyết kinh. To expound the sùtra.

Thuyết mặc. Speech and silence.

Thuyết nhân bộ. Hetuvàdinah (S). Idem Sarvàstivàdàh.

Thuyết nhất thiết hữu bộ. Sarvàstivàdàh (S). The realistic school.

Thuyết pháp. Dharma-desanà (S). To tell or expound the law, or doctrine; to preach. Also Giảng đạo, Pháp thí.

Thuyết sự luận. Kathàvatthu (P). Book of controversies.

Thuyết thị. To tell and indicate.

Thuyết Thị. Asvajit (S). One of the five first disciples of the Buddha. Also Mã Thắng, Mã Sư.

Thuyết thông. To expound thoroughly, penetrative exposition.

Thuyết tội. To confess sin or wrong doing.

Thuyết xuất thế bộ. Lokottaravàdinah (S). A branch of the Màhàsanghikàh, which held the view that all in the world is merely phenomenal and that reality exists outside it. Also Xuất thế bộ, Lư câu đa bà thi bộ.

Thứ đệ. Vihàrapàla (S). Keeper of the pagoda. Also Bà la. Xem Duy na.

Thừa (thặng). Yana (S). A vehicle, wain, any means of conveyance; a term applied to Buddhism as carrying men to salvation.

Thức. Vijnàna (S). Consciousness; mind; perception.

Thức ảo. The illusion of perception, or mind.

Thức ăn. Ahàra (S). Food, nutriment.

Thức biến. Mental changes, i.e. all transformations or phenomenal changes, are mental, a term of the Pháp tướng school.

Thức căn. Ajnendriya (S). Faculty of knowledge.

Thức chủ. The lord of the intellect, the mind, the àlaya-vijnàna as discriminator.

Thức giới. Vijnàna-dhàtu (S). The elements of consciousness, the realm of mind, the sphere of mind, mind as a distinct realm.

Thức hải. The ocean of mind, i.e. the bhùtatathatà as the store of all mind.

Thức lãng. The waves or nodes of particularized discernment, produced on the bhùtatathatà considered as the sea of mind.

Thức tâm. The percaption mind.

Thức túc mệnh thông. Pùva-nivàsànusmrti-jnàna (S). Knowledge of all forms of previous existence of oneself and others.

Thức thực. Spiritual food, mental food, by which are kept alive the devas of the formless realms and the dwellers in the hells.

Thức uẩn. Vijnàna-skandha (S). One of the five aggregates or attributes.

Thức vô biên xứ. Vijnànancàyatana (S). Sphere of the boundless of Consciousness. Thức vô biên xứ định, the dhyàna corresponding to it. Thức vô biên xứ giải thoát, the vimoksa, or liberation from it to a higher stage.

Thức xứ thiên. The heaven of (limitles) knowledge, the second of the catur àrùpya brahmaloka, or four formless heavens.

Thức xoa ma na. Siksamànana (S). Novice observer of six precepts.

Thực. Xem Thật.

Thực. Ahàra (S). Food, to eat, feed.

Thực thể của tái sinh. Upadhi (S). Substratum of rebirth, of being.

Thực tính. Tathatà (S). Suchness, the real truth of things. Also Như như.

Thước ca ra. Unfaltering will; steadiness; unswerving in one's intention; strong determination; fixed purpose.

Thương Na Hòa Tu. Arya Sanavasa (S). The 3rd Indian Patriarch.

Thương yết la chủ. Sankarasvàmin (S). Name.

Thường. Nitya, sasvata (S). Prolonged, constant, always, unceasing, permanent, perpetual, ever, eternal; normal, regular, ordinary.

Thường ba la mật. The first of the four pàramitàs, eternity.

Thường bất khinh Bồ tát. Sadàparibhùta (S). A monk who never slighted others, but assured all of Buddhahood, a former incarnation of Sàkyamuni.

Thường bất tư nghì. Nityam-acintyam (S). Eternally unthinkable.

Thường hành. Constantly doing, or practising; ordinary procedure.

Thường hằng. Aksaya (S). Constantly, eternal; non decaying. Also trường tồn, vĩnh cửu.

Thường kiến. The view that (personality) is permanent.

Thường lạc. Everlasting joy.

Thường, Lạc, Ngã, Tịnh. The four pàramitàs of knowledge: eternity, bliss, personality, purity, the four transcendental realities in nirvàna.

Thường một. Ever drowning in the sea of mortality.

Thường nghiệp. Acinna-kamma (P). Habitual karma.

Thường niệm. Always remembering; always repeating.

Thường quang. The unceasing radiance of the Buddha's body, represented as a halo.

Thường tịch. Eternal, peace, nirvàna.

Thường tịch quang độ. The realm (of spirit) where all are in perpetual peace and glory; Thiên Thai's fourth Buddhaksetra

Thường Tinh tiến Bồ tát. Eternal vigour Bodhisattva.

Thường trí. Knowledge not conditioned by phenomena, abstract.

Thường trụ. Permanent, always abiding, eternal.

Thường trụ nhất tướng. The eternal unity or reality behind all things.

Thường trụ tam bảo. Eternally dwelling Triple Gems.

Thượng. Uttarà (S). Above, upper, superior; on; former. To ascend, offer to a superior.

Thượng bối. Superior, or highest class.

Thượng bối quán. The fourteenth of the sixteen contemplations of the Amitàbha school.

Thượng căn. A man of superior character or capacity, e.g. with superior organs of sight, hearing, etc.

Thượng cầu bản lai. Similar to the first half of Thượng cầu Bồ đề, hạ hóa chúng sinh. Above to seek bodhi, below to save all. Bản lai means the original or Buddha-nature.

Thượng chuyển. The upward turn: (1) progress upward, especially in transmifration; (2) increase in enlightenment for self, while hạ chuyển is for others.

Thượng cúng. To offer up an offering to Buddha, or to ancestors.

Thượng đường. To go into the hall to expound the doctrine; to go to a temple for the purpose of worship or bearing presents to the monks; to go to the refectory for meals.

Thượng Hạnh Bồ tát. Vidista-càritra Bodhisattva who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was concluding one of his Lotus sermons.

Thượng lưu. Urdhvasrotas (S). The flow upwards, or to go upwards against the stream of transmigration to parinirvàna.

Thượng nhân. A man of superior wisdom, virtue and conduct, a term applied to monks during the Đường dynasty.

Thượng phẩm. Superior order, grade or class. Thượng phẩm liên đài. The highest stages in the Pure Land.

Thượng phẩm thượng sinh, trung sinh, hạ sinh. The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land.

Thượng phiền não. The severe fundamental trials arising out of the ten great delusions; also the trials or distresses of present delusions.

Thượng phương, thượng thủ. An abbot. Thượng phương originally meant a mountain monastery.

Thượng sĩ. The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The trung sĩ profits self but not others; the hạ sĩ neither.

Thượng tọa. Sthavira or Mahàsthavira (S). Old man, or elder; head monk, president or abbot; the first Buddhist fathers; a tittle of Mahàkàsyapa; also a monk of twenty to forty nine years standing, as trung tọa are from ten to nineteen, and hạ tọa under ten.

Thượng tọa bộ. Sthaviràh (S)> The shool of the presiding elder, or elders.

Thượng thủ. President, or presiding elders.

Thượng thừa. Mahàyàna (S). Also thượng thuật, đại thừa.

Thượng thừa mật tông. The Mahàyàna esoteric school, especially Chân ngôn tông Shingon.

Thượng thừa du già. Mahàyàna-yoga (S).

Thượng thừa thiền. Mahàyàna Zen school, which considers that it alone attains the highest realization of Mahàyàna truth.

Thượng trung hạ pháp. The three dharmas, systems or vehicles, bồ tát, duyên giác, and thanh văn, bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, sràvaka.

Thượng y. A monk's outer robe.

Tì, tỉ. Contiguous; surrounded; hemmed in; liberal; to aid; manifest.

Tì bà ha la. Ekavyavahàrika (S). Buddhist sect. Also Nhất thuyết bộ, Chấp nhấtngữ ngôn bộ.

Tì bà sa luận. Vibhàsa-sàstra (S). A philosophical treatise by Kàtyàyaputra.

Tì bà thi. (Phật). Vipasyin (S). The first of the seven Buddhas of antiquity.

Tì bà xá na. Vipasyanà (S), Vipassana (P). Discernment, insight, correct perception or view. Also quán, minh sát thiền.

Tì bạt trí, thoái lui.

Tì da li. Vesali (S). Actual Basarth. Also Tì xá li, Quảng nghiêm thành.

Tì đề ha. Videha (S). Continent at the east of Mt Meru. Also Đông thắng thần châu, Đông đại châu.

Tì già la na, Thụ ký. Vyàkarana (S). Prediction, formal prophecy.

Tì ha la. Vihàra (S). Monastery. Also tịnh xá.

Tì khưu (kheo). Bhiksu (S). Monk, religious mendiant. Also khất sĩ, sư ông.

Tì khưu ni. Bhiksuni (S). Nun. Also sư bà.

Tì lam phong. Vairambha (S). The great wind which finally scatters the universe; the circle of wind under the circle of water on which the world rests. Also tì lam bà, bạo phong.

Tì lăng già. Xem Lăng già.

Tì lê da. Virya (S). Virility, strength, energy.

Tì lê da ba la mật. Virya Pàramità (S). Zeal, pure progress, the fourth of the ten pàramitàs.

Tì li da. Virya (S). Tinh tấn, cần hành.

Tì li da ba la mật. Xem Tinh tấn ba la mật.

Tì lô giá na Phật. Mahàvairocana-Buddha (S). Great Sun Buddha. Also Đại Nhật Như Lai.

Tì lư xá na Phật. Vairocana-Buddha (S). Sun Buddha. Đại nhật Như lai.

Tì lưu li. Virùdhaka (S). (1) Southern God Protector. Also Tăng trưởng thiên vương. (2) Crystal King, or Ác sinh vương (3)-born king, a king of Kosala (son of Prasenajit, Ba tư nặc), destroyer of Kapilavastu.

Tì ma la . Vimàla (S). A great disciple of the Buddha.

Tì ma la cật. Vimàlakìrti (S). A great Buddhist. Also Duy Ma cật, Tịnh Danh.

Tì ma túc kinh. Vekkhasana-sùtra (S)

Tì nại da. Vinaya (S) Monastic discipline. Also luật, tì ni (cựu dịch).

Tì nại da tạng. Vinaya-Pitaka (S). Basket of Discipline. Also Luật tạng.

Tì ni. Vinaya (S). Moral training; the disciplinary rules; precepts and commands.

Tì ni đa lưu chi. Vinìtaruchi (S). Name of a Patriarch.

Tì nữu (Thiên). Vishnou (S)

Tì phật lược (Kinh). Vaipulya (S). Large, spacious, phương quảng. The term is applied to sùtras of an expanded nature, especially expansion of the doctrine; in Hìnayàna the Agàmas, in Mahàyàna the sùtras of Hoa Nghiêm and Pháp Hoa type.

Tì phú la. Vipula (S). A mountain near Kusàgàrapura in Magadha.

Tì sa bà Phật. Xem Tì xá phù.

Tì sa mật đa la. Visvàmitra (S). The teacher of the prince Siddhartha.

Tì sa môn Thiên vương. Vaisravana (S). One of the four Mahàrajàs, guardian of the north, king of the Yaksas. Has the tittle Đa Văn, Phổ Văn universal or much hearing or learning.

Tì xá. Vesa (S). Entrance, home, house, adornment, prostitute; but it is probably Vaisya, the third cast of farmers and traders. Also Phệ xá.

Tì xá khư mẫu. Visàkhà (S). A wealthy matron who with her husband gave a vihàra to Sakyamuni, wife of Anàthapindika. Also Lộc mẫu.

Tì xá li. Vaisali (S). An ancient kingdom and city ođ the Licchavis, where the second synod was held, near Basarth.

Tì xá phù Phật. Visvabhù (S). The second Buddha of the 31st kalpa. The last (1,000th) Buddha of the preceding kalpa, the third of Sapta Buddha Thất Phật.

Tỉ. Ghràna (S). Nose, the organ of smell.

Tỉ cách thiền sư. Dhyàna master with nose (and other organs) shut off from sensation, i.e. a stupid mystic.

Tỉ căn. The organ of smell.

Tỉ nhập. Organ and sense of smell.

Tỉ thức. The sensation or perception of smell.

Tỉ tức. The breath of the nostrils; also the perception of smell.

Tích. Pewter, tin; to bestow.

Tích lan. Ceylon, Sri-Lanka.

Tích trượng. Khakkara (S). A monk's staff partly of metal, especially with metal rings for shaking to make announcement of one's presence, and also used for demon expulsion etc.

Tích tụ nghiệp. Katattà-kamma (P). Store up karma.

Tích. Traces, footsteps; external evidences orindications.

Tích hóa (Tích môn). Teaching or lessons derived from external events, i.e. of the Buddha's life and work, shown in the first fourteen sections of the Lotus sùtra; the second fourteen sections of that work are called bản hóa (bản môn) his direct teaching.

Tích môn thập diệu. The ten marvellous external indications.

Tịch. Prasama; vivikta; sànti (S). Still, silent, quiet, solitary, calm, tranquil, nirvàna.

Tịch chiếu. Nirvàna-illumination; ultimate reality shining forth.

Tịch chủng. The Nirvàna-class.

Tịch diệt. Nirvàna (S). Cessation of the process of becoming. Eternal Peace. Calmness and extinction.

Tịch diêt chân đế. The truth about Nirvàna.

Tịch diệt chi pháp. Viviktadharma-matibuddhi (S). Also tịch diệt tuệ, tịch tịnh pháp.

Tịch diệt nhẫn. Nirvàna-patience (suppression of all passion).

Tịch diệt tướng. Nirvàna considered independently of the phenomenal.

Tịch diệt vô nhị. Nirvàna as absolute without disunity or phenomena.

Tịch định. Tranquil concentration; contemplation in which disturbing illusion is liminated.

Tịch mệnh trí. Buddha-knowoledge of the transmigratory forms of all beings.

Tịch ngạn. The shore of peace, nirvàna.

Tịch nghiệp sư tử. The lion of nirvàna, Sàkyamuni.

Tịch nhẫn. Calmness and endurance, quiet patience.

Tịch nhiên. In calmness, quietude, silence; undisturbed.

Tịch nhiên giới. The Hìnayàna nirvàna-realm or border.

Tịch niệm. Calm thoughts; to calm the mind; contemplation.

Tịch quang. Calm and illuminating as are Truth and Knowledge; the hidden truth illuminating.

Tịch quang độ. The land (of Buddha) where is calm illumination.

Tịch tĩnh (an lạc). Sànti (S). Calm and quiet; tranquility, calmness.

Tịch tĩnh môn. Nirvàna, or the absolute nhất thiết chư pháp, as the door of release from trouble and suffering.

Tịch tĩnh hạnh. Hìnayàna discipline to ensure nirvàna.

Tịch tịnh, (cô quạnh). Vivikta (S). Secluded, solitary.

Tiệm. Gradual, by degrees, to flow little by little.

Tiệm giáo. The gradual method of teaching by beginning with the Hìnayàna and proceeding to the Mahàyàna in contrast with đốn giáo.

Tiệm thứ. Step by step, by degrees, gradually.

Tiên. Rsi (S). An immortal; an ascetic, a man of the hills; a hermit; the Buddha. The Lăng Nghiêm Kinh gives ten kinds of immortals: walkers on the earth, địa hành tiên; fliers phi hành tiên; wanderers at will du hành tiên; into space không hành tiên; into the deva heavens thiên hành tiên; transforming themselves in any form tuyệt hành tiên etc.. A classification of five is deva genii thiên tiên; spirit genii thần tiên; human genii nhân tiên; earth or cavern genii địa tiên; and ghost genii quỉ tiên.

Tiên cảnh. Fairyland; elysium.

Tiên du. To visit the fairyland; to depart this life.

Tiên nhân lộc viên. Rsipatana (S) Isipatana (P). Deer Park. Also Thiên nhân viên, Chư thiên đọa xứ.

Tiến, tấn. Advance, progress, enter.

Tiến bộ. Progress, improvement

Tiến cụ. To reach the age (20) and advance to full ordination.

Tiến hóa. To evolve, develop.

Tiến hóa nhị nguyên luận. Samkhya (S). Name of a non-buddhist sect. Also Số luận.

Tiến tu. Advance in the cultivation.

Tiền. Pùrva (S). Before, former, previous; in front.

Tiền căn. Earlier root, earlier cause; cause generated from an earlier life.

Tiền duyên. Earlier conditions. Predestined affinity; predestined union.

Tiền định. Preordained, predetermined, predestined.

Tiền đường. The front hall, or its front part.

Tiền hậu tế đoạn. Discontinuous function, though seemingly continuous, e.g. a "Catherine wheel" , or torch whirled around.

Tiền khiên. Past sins.

Tiền kiếp. Pùrvakalpa (S). Former existence; previous life.

Tiền nghiệp. Earlier, former karma.

Tiền nhân. Predecessor, antecessor.

Tiền oan. A calamity which is the effect of a misdeed perpatrated during an anterior life; malediction, curse. Also Tiền oan nghiệp chướng.

Tiền sinh. Xem tiền thế.

Tiền sử. Pùvayoga (S). Former connections.

Tiền thân. The previous body, or incarnation.

Tiền thế. Former life, or lives.

Tiền trần. Previous impure conditions (influencing the succeeding stage or stages.

Tiền triết. The ancient sages.

Tiếp. To receive, take; join on; graft.

Tiếp dẫn. To receive and lead, to welcome.

Tiếp nối. To join; to abut; to resume, take up again.

Tiếp túc tác lễ. To embrace the (Buddha's) feet in reverence or pleading, or to extend the arms in that posture.

Tiệp. The success of an army, victory; quick, swift, prompt, active.

Tiệp kính. Compendious way, short cut.

Tiết chế. To control, to restrain, to moderate, to temper (desires, passions)

Tiết dục. To restrain one's desires; to restrict procreation; continence, chastity.

Tiết hạnh. Chastity.

Tiêu. Melt, disperse, expend, digest, dispose of.

Tiêu cực. Negative, passive, pessimistic.

Tiêu dao. To roam about leisurely.

Tiêu tai. To disperse, dissipate, or put an end to calamity. To get rid of misfortune.

Tiêu trừ. To abolish, suppress, eradicate.

Tiêu trưởng. To decay and grow; waxing and waning.

Tiểu. Small, little; mean, petty; inferior.

Tiểu bản. Small volume. Thiên Thai term for the (tiểu) A di đà kinh; the large sùtra being the Vô lượng thọ kinh.

Tiểu Bễ. Upacàru (S). Name of a cakravartiràja. Also Ô ba giá lô.

Tiểu bộ kinh. Khuddaka-nikàya (P).

Tiểu căn. Having a mind fit only for Hìnayàna doctrine.

Tiểu dụ kinh. Culla Màlinkyaputta-sutta (P)

Tiểu Hiền. Bhadrika (S). One of the five first disciple of the Buddha. Also Bạt Đề.

Tiểu kiếp. Antarà-kalpa (S). Intermediate kalpa.

Tiểu pháp. The laws or methods of Hìnayàna.

Tiểu phẩm. Summarized version.

Tiểu phẩm bát nhã kinh. Astasàhasrikà-prajnàpàramità-sùtra (S). Kumàrajiva's abbreviated version, in 10 quyển, of the Mahà-pràjnà-pàramità-sùtra.

Tiểu phẩm kinh. Xem Tiểu dụ kinh.

Tiểu phiền não địa pháp. Upaklesabhùmikàh (S). The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventy five Hìnayàna elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from vô minh unenlightenment; i.e. phẫn anger; hận hate; phú hidden sin; não vexation; tật envy; san stingines; cuống deceit; xiểm adulation; hại ill will ; kiêu pride Tiểu sư. A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy tittle for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory tittle of any monk.

Tiểu thánh. Hìnayàna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with the Buddha.

Tiểu thảo. Smaller herbs, those who keep the five precepts and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas.

Tiểu thiên thế giới. A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds, each with its Mt Sumeru, continents, seas and ring of iron mountain etc...

Tiểu thụ. Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages.

Tiểu thừa (Thặng). Hìnayàna (S). The small, lesser vehicle.

Tiểu thừa giới. The precepts of the Hìnayàna also recognized by the Mahàyàna: the five, eight, and ten precepts, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns.

Tiểu thừa kinh. The Hìnayàna sùtras, the four sections of the Agamas.

Tiểu thừa luận. The Hìnayàna sàstras or Abhidharma. The philosophical canon of the Hìnayàna, now supposed to consist of some thirty seven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Gunanirdesa sàstra Phân biệt công đức luận before AD 220.

Tiểu thừa tam ấn. The three characteristic marks of all Hìnayàna sùtras: the impermanence of phenomena chư hành vô thường; the unreality of the ego chư pháp vô ngã; and nirvàna Niết bàn tịch tĩnh.

Tiểu thừa tứ môn. Thiên Thai's division of Hìnayàna into four schools or doctrines: (1) hữu môn of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being; (2) không môn of unreality, or non-existence; (3) diệc hữu diệc không môn of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence; (4) phi hữu phi không of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence.

Tiểu thực. The small meal, breakfast, also called điểm tâm.

Tiểu tông. The sects of Hìnayàna.

Tín. Sraddhà (S). Faith; to believe, belief. Devotion.

Tín căn. Sraddhendriya (S). Faith, one of the five roots or organs producing a sound moral life.

Tín châu. The pearl of faith.

Tín điều. Drsti (S), Ditthi (P). Dogma.

Tín đồ. Believer, follower, disciple, adept.

Tín đức. The merit of the believing heart; the virtue of faith.

Tín giải. Abhimukti (S). Faith and interpretation, i.e. to believe and understand or explain the doctrine.

Tín, Giải, Hành, Chứng. Faith, interpretation, performance and evidence or realization of the fruit of Buddha's doctrine.

Tín giới. Faith and morals, i.e. the moral law, or commandments; to put faith in commandments.

Tín hải. The ocean of faith; the true virtue of the believing heart is vast and boundless as the ocean.

Tín hạnh. Believing action; faith and practice.

Tín hành đạo. Practice based on faith.

Tín, Hạnh, Nguyện. Faith, Practice, Vows.

Tín huệ. Xem tín tuệ.

Tín hướng. To believe in and entrust oneself to the Triratna Tam Bảo.

Tín lạc. To believe and rejoice in the dharma; the joy of believing.

Tín lực. Sraddhàbala (S). The power or force of faith.

Tín nam. Upàsaka (P). A male devotee. Lay adher

Tín nữ. Upàsikà (P). A female devotee, who remains at home. Lay follower.

Tín nguyện. Faith and vows.

Tín ngưỡng. To believe in and look up to. Belief, faith, creed.

Tín nhẫn. Faith-patience, faith-endurance.

Tín phục. To believe in and submit oneself to. To trust; to accept in faith;

Tín tạng. The treasury of faith.

Tín tâm. A believing mind, which receives without doubting. Faith.

Tín thí. Almsgiving because of faith; the gifts of the faithful.

Tín thủ. Faith, regarded as a hand grasping the precious truth of Buddha.

Tín thụ. The receptivity and obedience of faith; to believe and receive (the doctrine).

Tín thụ phụng hành. In faith receive and obey, a sentence found at the end of sùtras.

Tín thuận. To believe and obey.

Tín tuệ. Faith and wisdom.

Tinh. Cleaned rice, freed from the husk, pure; essential, essence, germinating principle, spirit; fine, best, finest.

Tinh chân. Pure truth, apprehension of ultimate reality.

Tinh tiến. Vìrya (S). One of the seven Bodhyanga; vigour, valour, fortitude. Pure, or unadulterated progress. Zeal, zealous, courageously progressing in the good and eliminating the evil.

Tinh tiến ba la mật. Vìrya-pàramità (S). Perfection of energy.

Tinh tiến cung trí tuệ tiễn. Zeal as the bow, wisdom the arrow.

Tinh tiến lực. Vìryabala (S). The power of unfailing progress.

Tinh thần. Vitality; also the pure and spiritual, the subtle or recondite.

Tinh thất. A place for pure, or spiritual cultivation, a pure abode, the abode of the celibate, a monastery or nunnery. Also Tinh xá.

Tinh xá. Xem tinh thất.

Tính, tự tính. Svabhàva, prakrti, pradhàna (S). The nature, intp. as embodied, causative, unchanging; also as independent or self-dependent; fundamental nature behind the manifestation or expression. Also the Buddha-nature immanent in all beings, the Buddha heart or mind.

Tính chủng tính. Nature-seed nature, i.e. original or primary nature, in contrast with tập chủng tính active or functioning nature; it is also the bodhisattva thập hạnh stage.

Tính dục. Desires that have become second nature; desires of the nature,

Tính địa. Spiritual nature, the second of the ten stages as defined by the Thông giáo Intermediate School.

Tính độ. The sphere of the dharma-nature, i.e. the bhùtatathatà.

Tính đức. Natural capacity for good (or evil), in contrast with tu đức powers(of goodness) obtained by practice.

Tính giác. Inherent intelligence, or knowledge, i.e. that of the bhùtatathatà.

Tính giới. The natural moral law, e.g. not to kill, steal, etc... not requiring the law of Buddha.

Tính hải. The ocean of the Bhùtatathatà, the all-containing, immaterial nature of the Dharma.

Tính không. The nature void, i.e. the immateriality of the nature of all things.

Tính không giáo. One of the thee Nam Sơn sects which regarded the nature of things as unreal or immaterial, but held that the things were temporally entities. Tính không quán. The meditation of this sect on the unreality, or immateriality, of the nature of things.

Tính khởi. Arising from the primal nature, or bhùtatathatà, contrast with duyên khởi arising from secondary causes.

Tính mệnh. The life of conscious beings; nature and life.

Tính ngã. The Buddha-nature ego, which is apperceived when the illusory ego is banished.

Tính niệm xứ. Citta-smrtyupasthàna (S). One of the four objects of thought, i.e. that the original nature is the same as the Buddha-nature. Xem tứ niệm xứ.

Tính sắc. Transcendent rùpa or form within or of the Tathàgata-garba. Also chân sắc. Good by nature (rather tha by effort); naturally good; in contrast with tính ác evil by nature.

Tính thức. Natural powers of perception, or the knowledge acquired through the sense organs; mental knowledge.

Tính tông. Xem Pháp tính tôn.

Tính tội. Sins that are such according to natural law, apart from Buddha's teaching e.g. murder etc.

Tính tướng. The nature (of anything) and its phenomenal expression.

Tình. The feelings, passions, desires, affections, sensations; sentient; affinities; affairs; facts. Particular affections, duties, or affairs.

Tình ái. Love; affection.

Tình dục. The passions, desires.

Tình hữu. The realm of feeling, i.e. any world of sentience or feeling, especially this world as empirically cosidered; hữu tình is to have consciousness, the conscious or sentient. Tình hữu lí vô, empirically or sentiently existing, in essence or reality non existent.

Tình kiến. The perverted views produced by passion or affection.

Tình lụy. Love misfortune.

Tình trần. The six gunas or objects of sensation of the six organs of sense; sensation and its data; sensation data; passion defilement.

Tình viên. The passions like an ape, never still.

Tình võng. Net of passion.

Tỉnh. To awake, to wake up.

Tỉnh mộng. To loose one's illusion about sth.

Tĩnh. Ekàgra (S). Cessation of strife, peace, calm, quietness, stillness.

Tĩnh lự. Dhyàna (S). Meditation. Also Thiền, thiền na.

Tĩnh lực. The power of abstract meditation.

Tĩnh mặc. To keep silent; to hold one's peace.

Tĩnh tâm. Ekàgratà (S). Tranquility of mind; serenity.

Tĩnh thất. Abode of peace, the quiet heart.

Tĩnh tọa. To sit in contemplation.

Tĩnh tuệ. Calm wisdom, insight into the void, or immaterial, removed from the transient.

Tĩnh tư. Calm thought; meditation, a meditator, i.e. a monk.

Tĩnh trí. Calm wisdom, the wisdom derived from quietness, or mystic trance..

Tịnh. Vimala (S). Clean, pure, spotless, unstained; to cleanse, purrify; chastity. Also Vô cấu.

Tịnh ba la mật. The fourth pàramità of the Nirvàna sùtra thường, lạc, ngã, tịnh.

Tịnh bang. Xem Tịnh độ.

Tịnh bất động đạo kinh. Sàmagàmasuttanta (P). Also Xa di thôn kinh.

Tịnh bình. Kunda (S). Nectar jug. Also Quân đồ lị, thủy bình, quân trì.

Tịnh bồ đề tâm. Pure bodhi mind, or mind of pure enlightenment, the first stage of the practitioner in the esoteric sect.

Tịnh cư thiên. The five heavens of purity, in the fourth dhyàna heaven, where the saints dwell who will not return to another rebirth.

Tịnh chiếu minh. (Tam muội)

Tịnh chủ. The donor of chastity, i.e. of an abode for monks or nuns.

Tịnh chúng. Pure assembly, the company of the chaste, the body of monks.

Tịnh chư căn. Undefiled senses; i.e. undefiled eye, ear, mouth, nose, body.

Tịnh danh. Vimalakìrti (S). Name of person. Also Duy ma cật, Tì ma la cật.

Tịnh danh kinh. Vimalakìrtinirdesa-sùtra (S)

Tịnh đạo. The pure enlightenment of Buddha.

Tịnh đầu. The monk who controls the latrines.

Tịnh địa. Pure locality, i.e. where a chaste monk dwells.

Tịnh độ. Sukhàvati (S). The Pure Land, or Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitàbha. Other Buddhas have their Pure Lands; seventeen other kinds of pure land are also described, all of them of moral or spiritual conditions of development, e.g. the pure land of patience, zeal, wisdom, etc.

Tịnh độ tông. Pure Land sect, whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitàbha.

Tịnh giác. Pure enlightenment.

Tịnh giới. The pure commandments (precepts), or to keep them in purity.

Tịnh hạnh. Pure conduct.

Tịnh hạnh giả. One who observes ascetic practices; one of pure or celibate conduct; a Brahman.

Tịnh hoa chúng. The pure flower multitude, i.e. those who are born into the Pure Land by means of a lotus flower.

Tịnh khiết ngũ dục. The five pure desires, or senses, i.e. of the higher worlds in contrast with the coarse senses of the lower worlds.

Tịnh lưu li thế giới. The pure crystal realm in the eastern region, the paradise of Phật Dược Sư; it is the Bhaisajyaguruvaidùrya-prabhàsa.

Tịnh lữ. The company of pure ones, i.e. monks or nuns.

Tịnh mệnh. Pure livelihood chính mệnh, i.e. that of the monk.

Tịnh môn. Gate of purity to nirvàna; one of the lục diệu pháp môn.

Tịnh nghiệp. Good karma; also the deeds which lead to birth in the Pure Land.

Tịnh Nguyệt. Suddhacandra (S). Name.

Tịnh ngữ. Pure words; words that express reality.

Tịnh nhãn. The clear or pure eyes that behold, with enlightened vision, things not only as they seem but in their reality.

Tịnh nhục. Pure flesh, the kind which may be eaten by a monk without sin, three, five, and nine classes being given.

Tịnh Phạm vương. Bràhma, as the pure divine ruler.

Tịnh Phạn vương. Suddhodana (S). The father of the Buddha.

Tịnh pháp giới. The realm of pure dharma, the unsullied realm.

Tịnh phát. To cleanse the hair, i.e. to shave the head as do the monks.

Tịnh Phật. Pure Buddha, perfect Buddhahood, of the dharmakàya nature.

Tịnh phương. The Pure Land of Amitàbha.

Tịnh quán. Pure contemplation, such as the sixteen mentioned in the Vô lượng thọ kinh.

Tịnh Quang Phật. Suddharasmiprabha-Buddha (S).

Tịnh quốc. The pure land, i.e.Buddha-land.

Tịnh sát. Pure ksetra, i.e. Buddha-land.

Tịnh Sư Tử. Subhàkarasimha (S). Also Thiện Vô Úy, Vô Úy Tam Tạng.

Tịnh Tạng. Vimalagarba (S). Eldest son of Subhavyùha in the Lotus sùtra.

Tịnh tâm. The pure heart or mind, which is the original Buddha-nature in everyman. Tịnh tâm trụ, the pure heart stage, the third of the six resting places of a bodhisattva, in which all illusory views are abandoned.

Tịnh tín. Pure faith.

Tịnh thánh. Pure saints, the superior class of saints.

Tịnh thất. House of chastity, i.e. a monastery or convent.

Tịnh thí. Pure charity, which does not seek fame or blessing in this world.

Tịnh thiên. Pure heaven, or pure devas; srota-àpannas to pratyeka-buddhas are so called. Tịnh thiên nhãn, the pure deve eye, which can see all things small and great, near and far, and the forms of all beings before their transmigration.

Tịnh thủy. Pure water.

Tịnh trai. Strict abstinence.

Tịnh trụ. A pure rest, or abode of purity, a term for a Buddhist monastery.

Tịnh viên giác tâm. Pure and perfect enlightened mind: the complete enlightenment of the Buddha.

Tịnh vực. The Pure Lands of all Buddhas.

Tọa. Nisad, nisanna (S). Sit, rest, situated.

Tọa cụ. Nisìdana (S). An article for sitting on, said to be a cloth or mat. Also Ni sư đàn.

Tọa chứng. Dhyàna contemplation.

Tọa cửu thành lao. To accomplish one's labour by prolonged sitting, as did Bodhidharma.

Tọa đường. A sitting room, the assembly room of the monks.

Tọa hạ, tọa lạp. Varsà (S). The retreat or rest during the summer rains.

Tọa tham. The evening meditation at a monastery (preceding instruction by the abbot).

Tọa thiền. Zazen (J). To sit in dhyàna, i.e. abstract meditation.

Tọa (tòa). Asana (S). A seat; throne; classifier of buiding etc.

Tọa chủ. A chairman, president; the head of the monks; an abbot. Also Tọa thượng, tọa thủ, tọa nguyên.

Tọa lạp. The end of the summer retreat; the monastic end of the year.

Tọa quang. The halo behind the throne of an image; a halo throne.

Toàn giác. Tathàgata (S). One who has found the Truth, Buddha.

Tòng lâm. Monastery.

Tô. Refreshing thyme; revive, cheer. Translit su, so, sa, s. Most frequently it translit the Sanskrit su, which means god, well, excellent, very.

Tô ba ha. Svàhà (S). Hail! A mystic word indicating completion, good luck, nirvàna, may evil disappear and good be increased. Also Ta bà ha, tá ha, tát bà ha.

Tô bạt đà la. Subhadra (S). The last disciple of Buddha. Also Tu bạt đà la, Thiện Hiền.

Tô du. Ghrta, ghee (S). Clarified butter; scented oil extracted from the sumanà plant.

Tô đạt đa. Sudatta (S). Name of Anàtpindaka. Also Thiện Thí.

Tô đạt nã. Sudàna (S). A former name of the Buddha. Also Thiện Nha.

Tô đăng. A lamp using butter and fragrant oil.

Tô đần đà. Suvinda (S). One of the 16 arhats.

Tô mê lư. Sumeru (S). Sumeru Mount. Also Núi Tu Di, Tu Di Sơn.

Tô tất địa. Susiddhi (S). A mystic word of the Tantra School, meaning "may it be excellently accomplished". Also Diệu thành tựu.

Tổ. Grandfather, ancestor; patriarch; founder.

Tổ sư Đông độ. Chinese Patriarch. (1) Bồ đề đạt ma. Bodhidharma (S). (2) Huệ Khả. Hoei Keu (C). (3) Tăng Xán. Seng Tsan (C). (4) Đạo Tín. Tao Sinn (C). (5) Hoằng Nhẫn. Houng Jenn (C). (6) Huệ Năng. Hoei Neng (C).

Tổ sư Tây Thiên. Indian Patriarch. The twenty eight Buddhist Patriarchs as stated by the Mahàyànists. The Thiên Thai school reckons twenty three, or twenty four but Thiền Tông reckons twenty eight:(1) Đại Ca diếp. Mahà-Kasyapa (S). (2) A nan. Ananda. (3) Thương na hòa tu. Sànakavàsa. (4) Ưu ba cúc đa. Upagupta. (5) Đề ca đa. Dhrtaka. (6) Dị già ca. Mikkaka, or Micchaka. (7) Bà tu mật. Vasumitra. (8) Phật đà nan đề. Buddhanandi (9) Phật đà mật đa. Buddhamitra. (10) Hiếp tôn giả. Pàrsva, or Pàrsvika. (11) Phú na dạ xa. Punyayasas. (12) Mã Minh. Asvaghosa. (13) Ca tì ma la. Kapimala. (14) Long Thụ. Nàgàrjuna. (15) Ca na đề bà. Kànadeva. (16) La hầu la đa. Rahùlata. (17) Tăng già nan đề. Samghanandi. (18) Tăng già da xá. Samghayasas. (19) Cưu ma la đa. Kumàrata. (20) Xà dạ đa. Jayata. (21) Bà tu bàn đầu. Vasubhandu. (22) Ma nô la. Manorhita. (23) Hạc lặc na. Haklena. (24) Sư tử tì kheo. Aryasimha. (25) Bà xá tư đa. Basiasita. (26) Bất như mật đa. Punyamitra. (27) Bát nhã đa la. Prajnàtàra. (28) Bồ đề đạt ma. Bodhidharma.

Tổ sư thiền. Patriarch's Meditation.

Tối. Most, very, superlative.

Tối chính giác. Supreme perfect enlightenmen; Buddhahood.

Tối hậu. The last of all, ultimate; final, finally, at death.

Tối hậu niệm. Xem Tối hậu tâm.

Tối hậu tâm. The final mind, or ultimate thought, on entering final Nirvàna.

Tối hậu thân. The final body, or rebirth, that of an arhat, or a bodhisattva in the last stage.

Tối hậu thập niệm. To call on Amitàbha ten times when dying.

Tối thắng. Jina, vìjaya (S). Conquering, all conquering, pre eminent, peerless, supreme.

Tối thắng âm Phật. Dundubhisvaranirghosa-Buddha.

Tối thắng tôn. Themost honoured one, Buddha.

Tối thắng thừa. The supreme vehicle, Mahàyàna.

Tối thượng. Supreme, superlative.

Tối thượng đại tất địa. The stage of supreme siddhi or wisdom, Buddhahood.

Tối thượng thừa. The supreme vehicle, teaching.

Tội. That which is blameworthy and brings about bad karma; entangled in the net of wrong doing; sin, crime; misdemeanour, offence. Có tội với cha mẹ, to fail in one's duty to one's parents. Có tội với trời, to sin against heaven. Làm thiện được phúc, làm ác phải tội, good deeds are rewarded and evil deeds punished.

Tội ác. Sin and evil.

Tội báo. The retribution of sin, its punishment in suffering.

Tội căn. The root ođ sin, i.e. unenlightenment or ignorance.

Tội cấu. The filth of sin, moral defilement.

Tội chướng. The veil, or barrier of sin, which hinders the obtaining of good karma, and the obedient hearing of the truth.

Tội hạnh. Sinful acts, or conduct.

Tội nghiệp. That which sin does, its karma, producing subsequent suffering.

Tội nhân. Cause of sin. Criminal, culprit, offender.

Tội phúc. Sinfulness and blessedness.

Tội phúc vô chủ. Sinfulness and blessedness have no lord, or governer, i.e. we induce them ourselves.

Tội tính. A sinful nature; the nature of sin.

Tôn. Arya (S).To honour, honoured, honourable.

Tôn chứng. Venerable witness.

Tôn giả. Arya (S). Honourable one, a sage, a saint, an arhat.

Tôn kinh. The honourable scripture, Buddhist sùtra.

Tôn ký. The prediction of Buddhahood to his disciples by the Honoured One; the honourable prediction.

Tôn nhan. Honourable face.

Tôn sắc. The honourable commands, Buddha's teaching.

Tôn sùng. To idolize, worship s.o.,sth.

Tôn sư. Honourable Teacher.

Tôn thắng. Honoured and victorious. Tôn thắng giả, the honoured victorious one, one of the five Phật Đỉnh also known as Trừ chướng Phật đỉnh, one of the divinities of the Yoga School.

Tôn thắng pháp. The honoured and victorious dharma.

Tôn túc. A monk honoured and advanced in years.

Tôn đà la nan đà. Upananda, a disciple of the Buddha.

Tông. (Tôn) Ancestors, ancestral; clan, category, kind; school, sect; siddhànta: summary, main doctrine, syllogism, prposition, conclusion, realization. Con nhà tông chẳng giống lông cũng giống cánh, what's bred in the bone comes out in the flesh. Like father like son.

Tông Cáp Ba. Sumatikirti (S). Tsong Kha Pa (Tib). The reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow Hat Sect.

Tông cực. Ultimate or fundamental principles.

Tông chỉ. he main thesis, or ideas, e.g. of a text.

Tông dụng. Principles and their practice, or application.

Tông đồ. Disciples of a sect.

Tông giáo. The teaching of the sect.

Tông học. The study or teaching of a sect.

Tông Mật. Tsung Mi (C). One of the five patriarchs of the Hoa Nghiêm sect.

Tông môn. Originally, the general name for sects. Later appropriated to itself by the Thiền tông, which refers to the other school as Giáo môn, teaching sects, i.e. those who rely on the written word rather than on the "inner light".

Tông nghi. The rules or rituals of a sect.

Tông nghĩa. The tenets of a sect.

Tông nguyên. The basic principle of a sect; its origin or cause of existence.

Tông nhân dụ. Proposition, reason, example, the three parts of a syllogism.

Tông phái. Sects (of Buddhism).

Tông pháp. The thesis of a syllogism consisting of two terms, each of which has five different names: tự tính subject; sai biệt its differentiation; hữu pháp that which acts; pháp the action; sở biệt that which is differentiated; năng biệt that which differentiates; tiền trần first statement; hậu trần following statement; tông y that on which the syllogism depends, both for subject and predicate. Also Tông thể.

Tông phong. The customs or traditions of a sect. In the Thiền tông it means the regulations of the founder.

Tông sư. Teacher of the sect.

Tông thông thuyết thông. In doctrine and expression, both thorough, a term applied to a great teacher.

Tông thừa. The vehicle of a sect, i.e. its essential tenets.

Tông tổ. The founder of a sect or school. Tông Gia a name for Thiện Đạo Shan Tao, a writer of commentaries on the sùtras of the Pure Land sect, and one of its principal literary men.

Tông tượng. The master workman of a sect who founded its doctrine.

Tông y. That on which a sect depends.

Tông yếu. The fundamental tenets of a sect; the important elements, or main principle.

Tống Vân. Song-yun (C).

Tổng. Sàdhàrana (S). Altogether, all, whole, general; certainly.

Tổng báo. General retribution.

Tổng báo nghiệp. General karma determining the species, race, and dountry into which one is born. Biệt nghiệp is the particular karma relating to one's condition in that species, e.g. rich, poor, well, ill, etc.

Tổng minh luận. A name for the Abhidharma-kosa.

Tổng nguyện. Universal vows common to all Buddhas, in contrast with Biệt nguyện specific vows, e.g. the forty eight of Amitàbha.

Tổng tướng. Universal characteristics of all phenomena, in contrast with Biệt tướng specific characteristics.

Tổng tướng giới. The general precepts for all disciples in contrast with the Biệt tướng giới, e.g. the 250 monastic rules.

Tổng trì. Dhàrani (S) Entire control; absolute control over good and evil passions and influences.

Tổng trì môn. The esoteric or Tantric sects and methods.

Trà tì. Cremation. To cremate. Also Thiêu. Lò thiêu: crematorium.

Trai. Virati (S). Abstinence. Trường trai, long abstinence, long fast. Ăn chay, vegetarianism.

Trai đàn. Altar for expiatory or atonement ceremony.

Trai đảo. To fast and pray.

Trai giới. Abstinence, fast; to fast, to observe a fast.

Trai kì. Fasting period.

Trai nhật. Upavasatha (S). Fasting day.

Trai phòng. Fasting room. Also Trai xá.

Trai tăng. To offer presents to the monks and nuns on the occaion of a fasting ceremony.

Trang. Sedate, serious, proper, stern.

Trang nghiêm. Alamkàraka (S). Adorn, adornment, glory, honour, ornament, ornate; e.g. the adornments of morality, meditation, wisdom, and the control of good and evil forces. In Amitàbha's paradise twenty nine forms of adornments are described.

Trang nghiêm kiếp. The glorious kalpa to which the thousand Buddhas, one succeeding another, bring their contribution of adornment.

Trang nghiêm kinh. Vyùharàja sùtra (S). An exposition of the principal doctrines of the Tantra school.

Trang nghiêm luận. Mahàyàna sùtra lankara satra (S). A sastra written by Asanga.

Trang nghiêm môn. The gate or school of the adornment of the spirit, in contrast with external practices, ceremonies, asceticism, etc.

Trang nghiêm vương Bồ tát. Vyùharàja (S). A Bodhisattva in the retenue of Sàkyamuni.

Tràng. Dhvaja, ketu (S). A pennant, streammer, flag, sign.

Tràng phan. A flag, banner. Also Cờ phướn.

Tràng phan, bảo cái. Banner, jewelled canopy.

Trạo cử. Anuddhatya-kukrtya (S). Restlessness, Turmoil. Also Xao động, chao động.

Trầm. To immerse, sink; heavy.

Trầm hương. Tàgara (S) Fragant shrub. Aguru (S), the sandal incense. Eagle wood, aloes wood.

Trầm không. To sink into emptiness, or uselessness.

Trầm luân. To sink; to be engulfed, to go down; to immerse oneself in; to be lost in. Trầm luân trong bể khổ, to immerse oneself in the sea of pains and sorrows.

Trầm minh. Sunk in the gloom of reincarnation and ignorance.

Trầm một. To sink; to be immersed, lost, in water.

Trầm nịch. To be infatuated with, to have an infatuation for; to be addicted to. Trầm nịch tửu sắc, to be addicted to drink and women; to indulge in dissipation.

Trầm thủy. Aguru (S). Xem trầm hương.

Trần. Dust, small particles; molecules, atoms, exhalation. Atom, matter.

Trần cảnh. The environment of the six gunas or qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and thought.

Trần cấu. Material, or phenomenal defilement; the defilement of the passions.

Trần dục. The desires connected to the six gunas.

Trần duyên. The circumstances or condition environing the mind created by the six gunas.

Trần hương. The native place or home of the six gunas, i.e. that of transmigration.

Trần lao. The trouble of the world, the passions.

Trần lụy. The passion karma, which entangles the mind.

Trần sa. Dust and sand, i.e. numberless.

Trần sa hoặc. The illusion, numberless as dust and sand; the trial of the Bodhisattva in facing the vast amount of detail in knowledge and operation required for his task of saving the world.

Trần sát. Gunaksetra (S). "Field of qualities", certain sins.

Trần trần sát độ. Numberless lands; also in every grain, or atom, there is a whole realm.

Trần vọng. Impure and false, as are all temporal things.

Tri. To know. Sanskrit root Vid, hence Vidyà knowledge; the vedas etc. Tri vijnà to know, Trí is vijnàna, wisdom arising from perception or knowing.

Tri căn. The organs ođ perception, To know the roots, or capacities (of all beings, as does a Bodhisattva; hence he has no fears). Tri căn vô sở úy.

Tri đạo giả. The one who knows the path to salvation, an epithet of the Buddha.

Tri kiến. To know, to know by seeing, becoming aware, intellection; the function of knowing; views; doctrines.

Tri khách. The director of guests, i.e. the host.

Tri khố. The bursar (of a monastery)

Tri khổ đoạn tập. To know (the truth of) suffering and be able to cut off its accumulation.

Tri lễ. Knowing the right modes of respect, or ceremonial; courteous, reverential; Chih li, name of the famous tenth century monk of the Tống dynasty, Tứ Minh so called after the name of his monastery, a follower of the Thiên Thai school, sought out by a Japanese deputation in 1017.

Tri nhất thiết chúng sinh trí. The Buddha-wisdom which knows (the karma of) all beings.

Tri nhất thiết pháp trí. The Buddha-wisdom of knowing everything or method (of salvation).

Tri pháp. To know the Buddha-law, or the rules; to know things; in the exoteric sects, to know the deep meaning of the sùtras; in the esoteric sects, to know the mysteries.

Tri sự. To know affairs. The karmadàna director of affairs in a monastery, next below the abbot.

Tri túc. Complete knowledge; satisfaction.

Tri túc thiên. Tusita, the fourth devaloka, Maitreya's heaven of full knowledge, where all Bodhisattvas are reborn before rebirth as Buddhas.

Tri thế gian. Lokavid (S). He who knows the world, one of the ten characteristics of an Buddha. Also Thế gian giải.

Tri thức. (1) To know and perceive, perception, knowledge. (2) A friend, anintimate. (3) The false ideas produced in the mind by common, or unenlightened-knowledge one of the Ngũ thức in the Khởi tín luận.

Tri vô biên chư Phật trí. To have the infinite Buddha-wisdom (of knowing all the Buddha-worlds and how to save the beings in them).

Tri. Black garments; at one time black was used for monastic robes.

Tri bạch. Monk and lay person.

Tri điền. Monk's robe.

Tri y. Black robes, monks.

Tri lâm. A monastery.

Tri lưu. Monks.

Tri môn. The black-robe order, monks

Trí. Jnàna (S) Knowledge, wisdom.

Trí ấn. The seal of the knowledge; the meditation of Diệu Âm Bồ tát Gadgadasvara.

Trí bi. All-knowing and all-pitying; these two with Định contemplative make up the Tam Đức three virtues or qualities of a Buddha.

Trí biện. Wisdom and dialectic power; wise discrimination; argument from knowledge.

Trí cảnh. The objects of wisdom, or its state, conditions.

Trí chứng. Wisdom assurance, the witness of knowledge, the wisdom which realizes nirvàna.

Trí cự. The torch of knowledge.

Trí diệu. Mystic knowledge (which reveals spiritual realities).

Trí đoạn. Mystic wisdom which attains absolute truth, and cuts off misery.

Trí độ. Prajnà pàramità (S). The sixth ođ the six pàramitàs, wisdom which brings men to nirvàna.

Trí độ luận. The sàstra, or commentary on the Prajnà pàramità sùtra. It is a famous philosophical Mahàyàna work.

Trí giả. The knower, or wise man.

Trí giới. The realm of knowledge in contrast with Lí giới that of fundamental principles of law.

Trí hỏa. The fire of knowledge.

Trí hoặc. Wisdom and delusion.

Trí kính. The mirror of wisdom.

Trí Khải. Founder of the Thiên Thai school. Also Trí giả Đại sư.

Trí lực. Knowledge and supernatural power; power of knowledge; the efficient use of mystic knowledge.

Trí môn. Wisdom gate; Buddha-wisdom and Buddha-compassion are the two gates or ways through which Buddhism expresses itself; the way of enlightenment directed to the self, and the way of compassion directed to others.

Trí Nghiêm. Fourth patriarch of Hoa Nghiêm school, also called Vân Hoa, A.D. 600-668.

Trí nguyệt. Jnànacandra (S). Knowledge bright as the moon; name of a prince of Karashahr who became a monk A.D.625

Trí nhãn. The eye of wisdom; wisdom as an eye.

Trí nhận. The sword of knowledge; knowledge like a sword. (Nhận là mũi gươm)

Trí quả. The fruit of knowledge, enlightenment.

Trí quang. Jnànaprabha (S). Having the light of knowledge; name of a disciple of Silabhadra.

Trí sơn. The mountain of knowledge; knowledge exalted as a mountain.

Trí tạng. The treasury of Buddha-wisdom; posthumous title of Amogha.

Trí tâm. The mind of knowledge; a wise mind.

Trí thành. The city of mystic wisdom, Buddhahood.

Trí thủ. The knowing hand, the right hand.

Trí tích. Jnànàkara (S). Accumulation of knowledge. Eldest son of Mahàbhijna; also said to be Aksobhya. Prajnàkuta. A Bodhisattva in the retenue of Prabhùtratna, v. Lotus sùtra.

Trí tịnh tướng. Pure wisdom aspect; pure wisdom; wisdom and purity.

Trí tuệ. Jnàna as Trí knowledge and Prajnà as Tuệ discernment, i.e. knowledge of things and realization of truth; in general knowledge and wisdom.

Trí tuệ biện tài. Wisdom and eloquent power.

Trí tuệ hải. Buddha-wisdom deep and wide as the ocean.

Trí tuệ kiếm. The sword of wisdom which cuts away passions and severs the link of transmigration.

Trí tuệ lực. Wisdom, insight.

Trí tuệ môn. The gate of Buddha-wisdom which leads into all truths.

Trí tuệ quán. One of the meditations of Quán thế Âm, insight into reality.

Trí tuệ quang Phật. Wisdom-light Buddha, Amitàbha.

Trí tuệ thủy. The water of wisdom which washes away the filth of passion.

Trí tướng. Wise mien or apparence, the wisdom-light shining from the Buddha's face; also human intelligence.

Trì. Dhr, dhara (S). Lay hold of, grasp, hold, maintain, keep; control.

Trì bản. Holding to the root, or fundamental; ruler of the earth, which is the root and source of all things.

Trì cú. One who holds to or retains the words (of the dharani).

Trì danh. To hold to, i.e. rely on the name (ođ Amitàbha).

Trì Địa. Dharanimdhara (S). Holder or ruler of the earth, or land; name of a Bodhisattva, who predicted the future of Avalokitesvara.

Trì giới, phá giới. To keep the precepts or rules; to offense the law.

Trì kim cương. Vajradara, Vajrapàni (S). A Bohisattva who holds the vajra or thunderbolt, of these there are several; a name for Indra. Also Chấp kim cương.

Trì luật. A keeper or observer of the discipline.

Trì minh. The dhàrani illuminant, i.e. the effective "true word" or magical term.

Trì niệm. To hold in memory.

Trì, phạm. Maintaining and transgressing, i.e. keeping the precepts by Chỉ trì ceasing to do wrong and Tác trì doing ăhat is right, e.g. worship, the monastic life, etc.; transgression is also of two kinds, i.e. Tác phạm positive in doing evil and Chỉ phạm negative in not doing good.

Trì pháp giả. A keeper or protector of the Buddha-law.

Trì Quốc Thiên Vương. Dhrtaràstra, one of the four deva-guardians or mahàràjas, controlling the east, of white colour.

Trì trai. To keep the vegetarian diet; vegetarian. To keep the fast, i.e. not eat after noon.

Trì tức niệm. The contemplation in which the breathing

Triền. Revolve, turn around, whirl.

Triền đà la ni. A spell which endows with extensive powers of evolutiob; also varied involutions of magical terms.

Triền hỏa luân. A whirling wheel of fire, a circle yet not a circle, a simile of the seeming but unreal, i.e. the unreality of phenoma.

Triền phong. A whirl-wind, cyclone. Also Con trốt, gió xoáy, gió lốc.

Triền đề. Xem nhất xiển đề..

Trọc. Turbid, muddy, impure, opposit of Thanh

Trọc ác thế. A world of impurity or degeneration, i.e. ot the Ngũ trọc and Thập ác.

Trọc ác xứ. The present contaminated evil world.

Trọc kiếp. An impure kalpa, the kalpa of impurity, degenerate, corrupt; an age of disease, famine and war.

Trọc nghiệp. Contaminated karma, that produced by Dục desire.

Trọng. Heavy, weighty, grave, serious; to lay stress upon, regard respectfully.

Trọng cấm. Strictly forbidden.

Trọng chướng. Serious hindrances (to enlightenment).

Trọng toán. Chùzan (J). A learned Japanese monk in the 10th century.

Trợ. Help, aid, assist; auxiliary.

Trợ duyên. Auxiliary condition.

Trợ đạo. Auxiliary means, e.g. of meditation; auxiliary discipline; any aid to faith and virtue.

Trợ nghiệp. Auxiliary karma, i.e. deeds or works, e.g. reciting the sùtras about the Pure Land, worship, praise, and offering, as additional to direct karma Chính nghiệp, i.e. faith in Amitàbha, expressed by constant thought of him and calling on his name.

Trụ. Sthiti (S). To abide, dwell, stay, stop, settle. Sinh trụ diệt, birth, existence, death.

Trụ địa. Dwelling place; abiding place in the Truth, i.e. the acquirement by faith of a self believing in the dharma and producing its fruit.

Trụ định. Fixed, certain, firmly, settled.

Trụ định Bồ tát. A Bodhisattva firmly fixed, or abiding in certainty. After a Bodhisattva has completed three great asamkhyeya kalpas he has still one hundred great kalpas to complete. This period is called abiding in fixity or firmness divided into six kinds: certainty of being born in a good gati, in a noble family, with a good body, a man, knowing the abiding character of his good works.

Trụ kiếp. Vivarta siddha kalpa (S). The abiding or existing kalpa; the kalpa of human existence.

Trụ quả. Abiding in the fruit; e.g. sràvakas and pratyeka-buddhas who rest satisfied in their attainments and do not strive for Buddhahood; they are known as Trụ quả Duyên giác or Trụ quả La hán.

Trụ trì. To dwell and control; the abbot of a monastery; resident superintendent; to maintain, or firmly hold to (faith in the Buddha etc.)

Trụ tướng. Sthiti (S). Abiding, being, the state of existence, one of the four characteristics of all beings and things, i.e. sinh birth, trụ existence, dị change (ordecay), diệt death (or cessation).

Trụ vị. Abiding place, one of the ten stages, resting and developing places or abodes of the Bodhisattva, which is entered after the stage of Belief Tín has been passed.

Trúc lâm. Venuvana (S). Bamboo grove.

Trúc viên. The monastery in the Bmboo grove near Rajagriha in Magadha,

Trung. Madhya (S). Middle, central, medium, the mean, within.

Trung ấm. Bardo (Tib). Intermediate state. Xem trung hữu.

Trung căn. Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs. Lục căn; there are three powers of each organ Thượng, Trung and Hạ.

Trung hữu. One of the Tứ hữu, i.e. the antarà-bhava or intermediate state between death and reincarnation. Also Trung ấm.

Trung kiếp. Middling kalpa, a period of 336,000,000 years.

Trung nguyên. The fifteenth of the seventh moon; the Thượng and Hạ are the fifteenth of the first and tenth moons respectively.

Trung quán luận. Madhyamaka-sàstra.

Trung quốc. Madhyadesa (S). The middle kingdom, i.e. Central North India.

Trung thiên thế giới. A middling chiliocosm. Xem Tam thiên đại thiên thế giới

Trung thừa (thặng). The middle vehicle to nirvàna, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hìnayàna and Mahàyàna.

Trung tôn. The central honoured one - in any group of Buddhas, e.g. Bất Động Tôn among the five Minh Vương.

Trùng các giảng đường. The double-storeyed hall at Vaisali where the Buddha stayed.

Trùng quan. The grave barriers (to meditation and enlightenment).

Trùng không. The double space, i.e. the space beyond space, the void beyond the void.

Trùng trùng. Repeated, again and again, manifold etc.

Trùng trùng đế võng. The multi-meshed net of Indra.

Trùng tụng. Geya (S). Repetition in verse of a prose section.

Truyền. To transmit, pass on, hand down, promulgate, propagate; tradition; summon.

Truyền bá. To propagate; to spread abroad, to diffuse, to radiate.

Truyền đạo. To spread a doctrine; to preach a religion.

Truyền đăng. To transmit the light, pass on the lamp of truth.

Truyền đăng lục. Records of those who have passed on the lamp of Buddhist truth.

Truyền giáo. To spread the teaching, or doctrine; to transmit and instruct.

Truyền giáo đại sư. Dengyô-Daishi (J). The founder of the Thiên Thai school in Japan.

Truyền giới. To transmit the precepts, to grant them as at ordination.

Truyền kinh. To hand down the tradition, the meaning of a sùtra.

Truyền pháp. To transmit, or spread abroad the Buddha truth.

Truyền tâm. To pass from mind to mind, to pass by narration or tradition; to transmit the mind of Buddha as in the Thiền tông, Intuitional school, mental transmission.

Truyền trì. To maintain what has been transmitted, to transmit and maintain.

Truyền y. To hand down the mantle, or garments.

Trừ. Get rid of.

Trừ cái chướng. To dispose of hindrances.

Trừ cận. He (or she) who puts away want (by receicing alms), an int. of bhiksu cận sự nam, tỉ khưu and bhisuni cận sự nữ, tỉ khưu ni.

Trừ đoạn. To get rid of completely, to cut off.

Trừ giác chi. To get rid of mental effort and produce mental and physiacal buoyancy.

Trừ nghi. Eliminate doubt.

Trừ nhất thiết ác. To get rid of all evil.

Trừ tai. Get rid of calamity.

Trực. Straight, upright, direct; to arrange.

Trực đạo. The direct way (to Nirvàna or Buddha land).

Trực giác. Intuition, immediate perception. Trực giác chủ nghĩa. Intuitionism.

Trực tâm. Straightforward, sincere, blunt.

Trực truyền. Direct information, or transmission (by word of mouth).

Trước, trứ. To be attached to; to adhere to; to be bound.

Trước cảnh. To be attached to the outside objects.

Trước ngã. To be attached to the self.

Trước y. To don clothes

Trược, trọc. Turbid, impure.

Trường. Long, always.

Trường cửu. Durable, lasting; long lived.

Trường dạ. The whole night, the long night of mortality or transmigration.

Trường hàng. Sùtra (S). Scripture, sùtra.

Trường khất thực. Always to ask food as alms, one of the twelve duties of a monk.

Trường kì. Long, protracted; long term; long range. Trường kì chiến đấu, protracted struggle. Trường kì gian khổ, to endure no end ođ tribulations.

Trường sinh. Long or eternal life (in Paradise). Trường sinh bất tử, long life without death.

Trường thọ. Long life.

Trường thọ thiên. Devas of long life, in the fourth dhyàna heaven.

Trượng phu. Husband. Hero. Man ođ spirit. Hành động của kẻ trượng phu, manly action.

Trưởng giả. Elder, senior.

Trưởng lão. Senior; old folk, the aged, old man.

Trưởng tử. Eldest child.

Tu. To enter into religion, to take the vows, to enter the order, to be a monk. Đi tu, to enter the priesthood. Tu thành chính quả, to attain Buddhahood.To put in order, mend, cultivate, observe.

Tu Bồ tát hạnh. To cultivate the Bodhisattva's virtues.

Tu chứng. To cultivate the Way and attain the Realization.

Tu dưỡng. To cultivate, improve (one's mind, etc.). Tu dưỡng tinh thần, to fortify oneself spiritually; to cultivate sereneness.

Tu đa la. Sùtra (S). Sùtras or addresses attributed to the Buddha, usually introduced by Như thị ngã văn Thus I have heard.

Tu đạo. To cultivate the way of religion; be religious; the way of self cultivation.

Tu đức. To cultivate virtue; to improve oneself morally.

Tu hành. Caryà (S). Conduct; to observe and do; to mend one's way; to cultivate oneself in right practice; be religious, or pious. Tu hành khổ hạnh, to practice ascetism. Nếp sống tu hành, religious life.

Tu hành trụ. A bodhisattva's stage of conduct, the third of his ten stages.

Tu hoặc. Illusion, such as desire, hate, etc., in practice or performance, i.e. in the process of attaining enlightenment.

Tu học. To bend one's mind to study; to study and practice

Tu kiên. Firmness in observing, or maintaining; established conviction, e.g. of the biệt giáo bodhisattva that all phenomena in essence are identical.

Tu la. Asura (S). Demons who wars with Indra; a tu la is also Sura, which means a god, or deity; a tu la quân the army of asura, fighting on the tu la trường asura battlefield against Indra.

Tu mê lư sơn. Sumeru, Meru (S).

Tu nhân tích đức. To do good and cultivate virtue.

Tu sám. To undergo the discipline of penitence.

Tu sĩ. Religious, monk, priest. Giới tu sĩ, the priesthood, the monkdom.

Tu tâm. To cultivate the heart; to self-improve morally. Tu tâm dưỡng tính, to cultivate one's heart and improve one's character.

Tu tập lực. The power acquired by the practice of all (good) conduct; the power of habit.

Tu thân. To self-improve.

Tu thân, giới, tâm, tuệ. To cultivate the self-improvement, the moral discipline, the mind and the perfect wisdom.

Tu thập thiện. To cultivate the ten good deeds.

Tu thiện. To cultivate goodness; the goodness that is cultivated, in contrast with natural goodness.

Tu thiền. To practice Zen, meditation.

Tu thiền Lục diệu môn. The six mysterious gates or way of practising meditation, consisting mostly of breathing exercises.

Tu tính. To cultivate the nature, the natural proclivities.

Tu tính bất nhị môn. The identity of cultivation and the cultivated.

Tu. To expect, wait for, wait on; necessary, must; moment, small, translit for su.

Tu bồ đề. Subhùti (S). One of the ten great discoples of the Buddha, said to have been the best exponent of Sùnya, or the Void Giải không đệ nhất. he is the principal interlocuter in the Prajnàpàramità-sùtra.

Tu dạ ma. Suyàma (S). The ruler of the Yama heaven

Tu di sơn. Sumeru (S). The central mountain of every world. Also Tu di lâu sơn,

Tu mê lư sơn, Diệu cao sơn, Diệu quang sơn.

Tu di đăng. Sumeru lamp Buddha.

Tu di quang Phật. Meru-prabhàsa-Buddha (S). Sumeru light Buddha.

Tu di sơn Phật. Sumerukalpa-Buddha (S).

Tu di tòa. A kind of throne for a Buddha. Also Tu di đài.

Tu di tướng Phật. Merudvaja-Buddha (S). Sumeru appearance Buddha.

Tu diễm ma thiên. Yama (S). The third of the six heavens in the Karmaloka.

Tu du. Instant.

Tu đà. Sùdra (S). The fourth caste.

Tu đà hoàn. Srota-àpanna (S). One who has entered the stream of holy living. Also Nhập lưu. Dự lưu.

Tu đạt, Tu đạt đa. Sudatta (S). Also Thiện Tài.

Tu đạt đa A na bân đàn. Sudatta Anathapindika (S).

Tu lị da. Sùrya (S). The sun.

Tu ma đề. Sukhavati (S). The Western Paradise of Amitàbha.

Tu man na hoa.

Tu niết mật đà. Nirmànarati (S) Also Hóa lạc thiên.

Tu xà đa. Sujàta (S). Also Thiện Sinh.

Tuần. Wander about, patrol, inspect.

Tuần liêu. To inspect all the buildings of a monastery.

Tuần tích. To walk about with a metal stick, i.e. to teach.

Túc. A halting place; to pass the night, sojourn, stay; early, former; left over.

Túc báo. The consequence of deeds done in former existence.

Túc căn. The root of one's present lot planted in previous existence.

Túc chấp. The character acquired in a previous existence and maintained.

Túc duyên. Causation or inheritance from previous existence.

Túc mệnh. Previous life, or lives.

Túc mệnh lực. Buddha-power to know all previous transmigrations.

Túc mệnh minh. The knowledge of the arhat of his own and other previous transmigrations.

Túc mệnh thông. Pùrvanivàsànusmrti (S). Buddha-knowledge of all forms of previous existence of self and others

Túc nghiệp. Former karma, the karma of previous existence.

Túc nguyện. The vow made in a former existence.

Túc nguyện lực. The power of an ancient vow.

Túc nhân. Good or evil cause in previous existence.

Túc phúc. Happy karma from previous existence.

Túc tác. The deeds of a former life.

Túc tập. The practices, habits or deeds of or inherited from former existence.

Túc thế. A former existence.

Túc thiện. Good deeds done in previous existence.

Túc thực. Have spread good seeds in former lives.

Túc trái. The unrepaid debts from, or sins of, former incarnations.

Tú Vương Phật. Natchatraràja Buddha (S). King of stars Buddha.

Tú Vương Hoa Bồ tát. Naksatra-ràja-sankusumitàbhijnà (S). King of the star-flowers, a bodhisattva in the Lotus sùtra.

Tục. Common, ordinary, usual, vulgar.

Tục đế. Common principles, or axioms; normal unenlightened idea, in contrast with reality.

Tục giới. The common precepts for the laity.

Tục lụy. Wordly bondage.

Tục lưu. The common run or flow.

Tục ngã. The popular idea of the ego or soul, i.e. the empirical or false ego giả ngã composed of five skandhas, this is to be distinguished from the true ego chân ngã or thật ngã, the metaphysical substratum from which all empirical elements have been eliminated.

Tục nhãn. Unenlightened eyes; ordinary eyes.

Tục nhân. Grhastha (S). An ordinary householder; an ordinary man; the laity.

Tục tình. Wordly love, vulgar love.

Tục tử. Vulgar, ordinary people; uninitiated person.

Tục trần. Common dust, earthly pollution.

Tục trí. Common or worldly wisdom.

Tuệ (Huệ) .Prajnà, jnàna (S). Wisdom, insight, discernment, understanding; the power to discern thing, and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful.

Tuệ ảo. Wisdom-illusion, wisdom-conjuring; the kaleidoscope of wisdom.

Tuệ ấn. Wisdom-sign, or seal.

Tuệ ba la mật. Prajnà-pàramità (S). Perfection of wisdom.

Tuệ căn. The root, i.e. the organ, of wisdom.

Tuệ cự. Djànolka (S). The torch of wisdom.

Tuệ chiếu. The light of wisdom.

Tuệ đăng. The lamp of wisdom.

Tuệ độ. Prajnàpàramità (S), The supreme wisdom, the wisdom leading to the shore of enlightenment.

Tuệ giác. Amoha (S). Wisdom.

Tuệ giải. The function of wisdom - to explain all things.

Tuệ giải thoát. Panna-vimutti (P). Deliverance through the wisdom.

Tuệ hải. Wisdom ocean.

Tuệ học. Adhiprajnà-siksa (S). Formation of the wisdom.

Tuệ Khả. Hui-k'o (C). The successor of Bodhidharma.

Tuệ kiếm. The sword of wisdom which cuts away illusion.

Tuệ kiến. Wise-views, or insight into wisdom, the views of wisdom.

Tuệ kính. The mirror of wisdom.

Tuệ lực. Prajnàbala (S). Force of wisdom.

Tuệ lưu. The living stream of wisdom able to cleanse all impurity.

Tuệ mạng, mệnh. Wisdom-life, or wisdom as life, wisdom being the basis of spiritual character.

Tuệ môn. The gate of wisdom.

 Tuệ mục. The eye of wisdom.

Tuệ Năng, Huệ Năng. The power of wisdom; name of the sixth patriarch of Thiền tông the Intuitional or Meditation sect.

Tuệ nghĩa. The apprehension of the meaning of reality through wisdom.

Tuệ nghiệp. Undertaking and doing; practical goodness resulting from wisdom.

Tuệ nhãn. The wisdom-eye that sees all things as unreal.

Tuệ nhẫn. Wisdom-patience, one of the thập nhẫn.

Tuệ nhật. Wisdom-sun, Buddha-wisdom

Tuệ Quán. Hui-kuan (C). One of Kumàrajiva's chief assistant in translation, died 424.

Tuệ quang. Wusdom-light.

Tuệ số. Mental conditions in contrast to mind itself.

Tuệ tạng. Wisdom-store, the Abhidharma pitaka which embodies the science of ascertaining the meaning of the sùtras. Also the whole of the Tripitaka.

Tuệ thân. Wisdom-body, one of the five divisions of the Dharmakàya, which is the embodiment inter alia of inherent wisdom.

Tuệ trí. Pajànàti (P). Clearly knowledge.

Tuệ triền. The bond of ignorance and stupidity which fetters wisdom.

Tuệ Tư. The second patriarch of the Thiên Thai school, Nam Nhạc Đại Sư.

Tuệ vân. The clouds of wisdom with which the Tathàgata covers all beings.

Tuệ vô lậu. Jnànam-anàsravam (S). Wisdom non-outflowings., capability, or opportunity. or tùy duyên chân như phenomenal relativity ; and considered as immutable, the bất biến chân như which is likened to the water as opposed to the waves.

Tụng. Geyya (S).To murmur, recite, intone, memorize by repeating in a murmur.

Tụng niệm. To chant the sùtra and recite the Buddha's name.

Tụng trì. To chant and maintain the sùtra and the mantra.

Tụng. Gàtha.

Tùy. Follow, comply with; sequent, consequent, after, according to, as.

Tùy cầu. According to prayer. Name of a deva which was formerly a wicked monk who died and went to hell, but when dying repented, prayed and was reborn the deva.

Tùy cơ. According to capacity, capability, or opportunity.

Tùy duyên. According with, or resulting from conditioning causes, or circumstances, as waves result from wind; also sequent conditions; also according to circumstances, e.g. tùy duyên hóa vật, to convert or transform people according to their conditions, or to circumstances in general.

Tùy duyên bất biến. Ever changing in conditions yet immutable in essence, i.e. the chân như, in its two aspects of tùy duyên chân như phenomenal relativity ; and considered as immutable, the bất biến chân như which is likened to water as opposed to the waves.

Tùy hỉ. To rejoice in the welfare of others. To do that which one enjoys, to follow one's inclination.

Tùy hình hảo. Excellent in every detail; the individual excellences of others united in the Buddha.

Tùy kinh luật. According to the discipline as described in the sùtras, i.e. the various regulations for conduct in the Sùtra-pitaka; the phrase tùy luật kinh means according to the wisdom and insight as described in the Vinaya-pitaka.

Tùy loại. According to the categories.

Tùy loại sinh. According to life species.

Tùy miên. Yielding to sleep, sleepiness, drowsiness, comatose, one of the klesa or temptations; also used by the Sarvàstivàdins as an equivalent for klesa, the passions and delusions, by the Duy thức school as the seed of klesa.

Tùy nghi. As suitable, proper, or needed.

Tùy pháp hành. Those who follow the truth by reason or intellectual ability, in contrast with the non-intellectual, who put their trust in others.

Tùy phần. According to the part assigned or expected; accordingto lot or duty.

Tùy phần giác. Partial enlightenment, the third of tứ giác in the Awakening of Faith Khởi tín luận.

Tùy phiền não. Sequent or associated klesa-trials, or evils; or especially those which follow the six tùy miên. Also called tùy hoặc.

Tùy phương. According to place; suitable to the place; in whatever place; wherever. Tùy phương tì ni, vinaya or rules, suitable to local conditions, or to conditions everywhere.

Tùy tâm. According to mind, or wish.

Tùy tín hành. The religious life which is evolved from faith in the teaching of others; it is of the độn căn unintellectual type.

Tùy tướng. The secondary states, i.e. of birth, stay, change, and death, in allphenomena.

Tùy tướng giới. To follow the forms and discipline of the Buddha, i.e. become a monk.

Tùy thuận. To follow, accord with, obey; to believe and follow the teaching of another.

Tùy ý. At will, following one's

Tuyết. Snow.

Tuyết lĩnh. The snow mountains, the Himàlayas.

Tuyết sơn. Xem Tuyết lĩnh.

Tuyết sơn bộ. Haimavatàh (S). The Himàlaya school, one of the five divisions of the Mahàsanghihah.

Tuyết sơn đại sĩ. The great man of the Himàlayas, the Buddha in a former incarnation. Also Tuyết sơn đồng tử, the youth of the Himàlayas.

Tư. Cint-(S). Think, thought; turn the attention to; intp. by tâm sở pháp mental action or contents, mentality, intellection.

Tư duy. To consider or reflect on an object with discrimination; thought, reflection.

Tư đà hàm. Sakrdàgàmin (S). One who has attained the 2nd stage of the Noble Path.

Tư giả. Thought or its content as illusion.

Tư hoặc. The illusion of thought.

Tư lượng. Thinking and measuring, or comparing; reasoning.

Tư lượng thức. The seventh vijnàna, intellection, reasoning.

Tư thực. Thought-food, mental-food; to desire food.

Tư trạch lực. Power in thought and selection (of correct principles).

Tư tuệ. The wisdom attained by meditating (on the principles and doctines of Buddhism),

Tứ. Catur (S). Four.

Tứ A hàm. The four Agamas, or divisions of the Hìnayàna scriptures: Trường A Hàm dirghàgamas, long works, cosmological; Trung A Hàm madhyamàgamas, metaphysical;

Tạp A Hàm samyuktàgamas, general, on dhyàna, trance etc.; Tăng Nhất A Hàm ekottarikàgamas, numerically arranged subjects.

Tứ ác đạo. The four apàya or evil destinies: the hells địa ngục, as hungry ghosts ngạ quỉ, animals súc sinh, or asuras a tu la. The asuras are sometimes evil, sometimes good, hence the term tam ác đạo three evil destinies excepts the asuras.

Tứ ác thú. Cũng như tứ ác đạo.

Tứ an lạc hạnh. The four means of attaining to a happy contentment, by proper direction of the deeds of the body thân an lạc hạnh; the words of the mouth khẩu an lạc hạnh; the thoughts of the mind ý an lạc hạnh; and the resolve (of the will) to preach to all the Lotus sùtra thệ nguyện an lạc hạnh.

Tứ ân. The four debts of gratitude: (1) Ân cha mẹ debt of gratitude to one's parents; (2) Ân chúng sinh debt of gratitude to all living creatures; (3) Ân quốc vương debt of gratitude to the rulers of the nation; (4) Ân Tam bảo debt of gratitude to the Triple Gems (Buddha, Sangha and Dharma).

Tứ ba la di. The four pàràjikas, or grievous sins of monks or nuns: (1) dâm giới abrahmacarya, sexual immorality, or bestiality; (2) đạo giới adattàdàna, stealing; (3) sát giới vadha(himsà), killing; (4) đại vọng ngữ giới taramanusvadharma-pralàpa, false speaking. Also tứ trọng, tứ cực trọng hoặc đọa tội.

Tứ bản chỉ quán. The four books of Thiên Thai on meditation: Ma ha chỉ quán,Thiền ba la mật, Lục diệu môn, Tọa thiền pháp yếu.

Tứ bạo thủy. Four violent torrents of water.

Tứ bất khả đắc. The four unattainables, perpetual youth, no sickness, perennial life, no death.

Tứ bất khả khinh. The four that may not be treated lightly: a prince though young, a snake though small, a fire though tiny, anf above all a "novice" though a beginner, for he may become an arhat.

Tứ bất khả tư nghị. The four things of a Buddha which are beyond human conception: thế giới his world, chúng sinh his living beings, long his nàgas, and Phật độ cảnh giới the bounds of his Buddha-realm.

Tứ bất kiến. The four invisibles - water to fish, wind (or air) to man, the nature (of things) to the deluded, and the không void to the ngộ enlightened, because he is in his own element, and the void is beyond conception.

Tứ bất sinh. That a thing is not born or not produced of itself, of another, of both, of neither.

Tứ bất thành. Four forms of a siddha or incomplete statement, part of the thirty three fallacies in logic.

Tứ bệnh. The four aliments, or mistaken ways of seeking protection: tác bệnh, works or effort; nhiệm bệnh, laissez-faire; chỉ bệnh, cessation of all mental operation; diệt bệnh, annihilation (of all desire).

Tứ binh. Catur-angabalakàya (S). The four divisions of a cakravarti's troops: tượng binh hastikàya, elephant; mã binh asvakàya, horse; xa binh rathakàya, chariot; bộ binh pattikàya, foot.

Tứ bồ tát. The four bodhisattvas: Quán Thế Âm Avalokitesvara, Di Lặc Maitreya, Phổ Hiền Samantabhadra, Văn Thù Manjusri. Also the four chief bodhisattvas in the Garbhadhàtu. There are also the Bản hóa tứ bồ tát of the Lotus sùtra named Thượng Hạnh, Vô Biên Hạnh, Tịnh Hạnh, and An Lạc Hạnh.

Tứ bộ chúng. Four kinds of disciples of the Buddha.

Tứ cấm. Parajika (S). Xem tứ ba la di.

Tứ cú. The four terms, phrases, or four-line verses.

Tứ cú kệ. Gàtha (S). A stanza of four-line verses.

Tứ cú phân biệt. The four terms of differentiation, e.g. of all things into hữu the existing; không non existing; diệc hữu diệc không both; bất hữu bất không neither; or phenomenal, noumenal, both, neither. Also double, single, both, neither; and other similar applications.

Tứ cú thành đạo. The swan-song of an arhat, who has attained to the perfect life. "Chư lậu dĩ tận, Phạm hạnh dĩ lập, Sở tác dĩ biện, Bất thụ hậu hữu". All rebirths are ended, The noble life established, My work is accomplished, No further existence is mine.

Tứ chấp. The four erronous tenets. Also tứ tà, tứ mê.

Tứ châu. Catur-dvipa (S). The four inhabited continents of every universe; they are situated S. E. W. and N. of the central mountain Sumeru: Nam Thiệm bộ châu Jambùdvìpa, Đông thắng thần châu, Pùrva-videha, Tây ngưu hóa châu, Apara-godànìya, Bắc câu lư châu, Uttara kuru.

Tứ chính cần. Samyakprahàna (S). The four right efforts: (1) điều dữ đã sinh trừ dứt đi, to put an end to existing evil; (2) điều dữ chưa sinh khiến cho chẳng sinh, prevent evil arising; (3) điều lành chưa sinh khiến cho sinh ra, bring good into existence; (4) điều lành đã sinh khiến cho thêm lớn, develop existing good.

Tứ chính đoạn. Xem tứ chính cần.

Tứ chúng. The four varga (groups, or orders), i.e. tì khưu bhiksu, monks; tì khưu ni bhiksuni, nuns; ưu bà tắc upàsaka, male devotees; and ưu bà di upàsikà, female devotees.

Tứ chủng. Four kinds. Xem tứ tính.

Tứ chủng căn bản tội. The four deadly sins. Xem tứ chủng tam muội da.

Tứ chủng độc. Xem tứ độc.

Tứ chủng sinh tử. Four kinds of rebirth dependent on present deeds: from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in the same condition; from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in light and honour; from light and honour to be reborn in obscurity and poverty; from light and honour to be reborn in heavens.

Tứ chủng tam muội da. The four samaya, i.e. the four pàràjanikas: killing, stealing, carnality, lying.

Tứ chủng tín tâm. The four kinds of faith given in the Khởi tín luận the Awakening of Faith: (1) in the Chân như, as the teacher of all Buddhas and fount of all actions; (2) in Buddha, or the Buddhas; (3) in the Dharma; and (4) in the Sangha.

Tứ chủng thành tựu pháp. The four kinds of altar-worship of the esoteric sect for: (1) averting calamities from self and others; (2) seeking good fortune; (3) seeking the love and protection of Buddhas; (4 subduing enemies. Also tứ chủng đàn pháp, tứ chủng tất địa.

Tứ chủng tổng trì. The four kinds of dhàrani.

Tứ diệu đế. Xem tứ đế.

Tứ dụ. The four metaphors (of infinity, etc.): sơn cân the weight of all mountains in pound; hải the drops in the ocean; địa trần the atoms of dust in the earth; không giới the extent of space.

Tứ dục. The four desires or passions: tình dục sexual love; sắc dục sexual beauty or attractiveness; thực dục food; dâm dục lust.

Tứ đại. Mahàbhùta (S). The four elements of which all things are made: (1) Địa prithin, earth; (2) Thủy apas, water; (3) Hỏa tjas, fire; (4) Phong vayu, wind.

Tứ đại bất điều. The inharmonious working of the four elements in the body, which causes the 440 ailments.

Tứ đại bồ tát. The four great Bodhisattvas of the Lotus sùtra, i.e. Di Lặc Maitreya, Văn Thù Sư Lợi Manjusri, Quán Thế Âm Avalokitesvara, and Phổ Hiền Samantabhadra. Another list of previous Bodhisattvas is: Thượng Hạnh Visistacàritra, Vô Biên Hạnh Anantacàritra, Tịnh Hạnh Vasudhacàritra, and An Lập Hạnh Supratisthitacàritra.

Tứ đại bộ kinh. Four great sùtras: Hoa Nghiêm, Niết Bàn Nirvàna, Bảo Tích Mahàratnakùta, Bát Nhã Prajnà.

Tứ đại châu. The four great continents of a world.

Tứ đại danh sơn. The four famous "hills" or monasteries in China: Phổ Đà P'u T'o, for Quán thế Âm, element water; Ngũ Đài Wu T'ai, Văn thù, wind; Nga Mi O-mei, Phổ Hiền, fire; Cửu hoa Chiu hua, Địa tạng, earth.

Tứ đại đệ tử. The four great disciples of the Buddha: Xá lợi phất Sariputra, Mục kiền liên Mahà Maudgalyàyana, Tu bồ đề Subhùti, and Ma ha Ca diếp Mahà Kàsyapa.

Tứ đại hải. The four great oceans in a world, around Sumeru, in which are the four great continents.

Tứ đại thiên vương. Caturmahàràja, Lokapàla (S). The four deva-kings of the four quarters, guardians in a monastery. Xem tứ thiên vương.

Tứ đảo. Xem tứ điên đảo.

Tứ đáp. The Buddha's four methods of dealing with questions:

Tứ đẳng. The four virtues which a Buddha out of his infinite heart manifests equally to all. They are: từ, bi, hỉ, xả. Another group is Tự, Ngữ, Pháp, Thân, i.e. tự that all Buddhas have the same tittle or tittles; ngữ speak the same language; pháp proclaim the same truth; and thân have each the threefold body or trikàya. A third group is chư pháp all things are equally included in the bhùtatathatà; phát tâm the mind nature being universal, its field of action is universal; đạo đẳng the way or method is also universal; therefore từ bi the compassion (of the Buddha) is universal for all. Also tứ vô lượng tâm.

Tứ đế. Catvàri-àrya-satyàni (S). The Four Noble Truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Sakyamuni. The four are: (1) Khổ đế dukkha-àrya-satya, The Noble Truth of Suffering; (2) Tập đế dukkha-samudaya-àrya-satya, The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering; (3) Diệt đế dukkha-nirodha-àrya-satya, The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering; (4) Đạo đế dukkha-nirodha-màrga-àrya- satya, The Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering. Also tứ chân đế, tứ diệu đế, tứ thánh đế.

Tứ điên đảo. The four viparvaya, i.e. inverted or false beliefs on regard to Thường, Lạc, Ngã, Tịnh. There are two groups: (1) The common belief in the four above, denied by the early Buddhist doctrine that all is impermanent, suffering, impersonal, and impure; (2) The false belief of the Hìnayàna school that nirvàna is not a state of permanence, joy, personality, and purity.

Tứ điền. The four fields for cultivating happiness: animals; the poor; parents; the religion.

Tứ độ. The four Buddha-ksetra, or realms, of Thiên Thai: (1) Phàm thánh đồng cư độ, realms where all classes dwell - men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e.g. this world, and the pure, e.g. the Western Pure land. (2) Phương tiện hữu dư độ, temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of kiến tư unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) Thật báo vô chướng ngại độ, realm of permanent reward and freedom for those who have attained to bodhisattva rank. (4) Thường tịch quang độ, realm of eternal rest and light (i.e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakàya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience sake.

Tứ độc tiễn. The four poisonous arrows: desire, anger, ignorance, pride.

Tứ độc xà. Four poisonous snakes (in the basket), e.g. the four elements earth, water, fire and air, of which a man is formed.

Tứ đức. The four nirvàna virtues, or values according to the Mahàyàna Nirvàna sùtra: (1) Thường permanence or eternity; (2) Lạc joy; (3) Ngã personality; (4) Tịnh purity. The four important terms, while denied in the lower realms, are affirmed by the sùtra in the transcendental or nirvàna-realm.

Tứ đức ba la mật. The joyful realm or acme of the tứ đức, the nirvàna-realm, the abode of dharmakàya ođ the Tathàgata.

Tứ gia hạnh. Xem tứ thiện căn.

Tứ giác. The four "intelligences, or apprehensions" of the Awakening of Faith Khởi Tín Luận: bản giác, tương tự giác, tùy phần giác and cứu kính giác.

Tứ hành. The four disciplinary processes: enlightenment; good deeds; wisdom; and worship.

Tứ hoa. The four (divine) flowers: mạn đà la mandàra, ma ha mạn đà la mahàmandàra, mạn thù sa manjùsaka, ma ha mạn thù sa mahàmanjùsaka. Also pundarìka, utpala, padma, and kumuda, or white, blue, red, and yellow lotuses.

Tứ hoằng thệ nguyện. The four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva: Chúng sinh vô biên thệ nguyện độ, to save all living beings without limit; Phiền não vô tận thệ nguyện đoạn, to put an end to all passions and delusions however numerous; Pháp môn vô lượng thệ nguyện học, to study and learn all methods and means without end; Phật đạo vô thượng thệ nguyện thành, to become perfect in the Supreme Buddha Law. The four vows are considered as arising one by one out of the Four Noble Truths Tứ Diệu Đế.

Tứ hộ thế. Xem tứ thiên vương.

Tứ hướng. The four stages in Hìnayàna sanctity: tu đà hoàn srota-àpanna, tư đà hàm sakrdàgàmin; a na hàm, anàgàmin; and a la hán, arhan.

Tứ hữu vi tướng. The four functioning forms: sinh birth, trụ stay, dị change, diệt extinction.

Tứ kết. The four knots, or bonds, samyojana, which hinder free development.

Tứ khổ. The four miseries, or sufferings, sinh birth; lão age; bệnh disease; and tử death.

Tứ không xứ. Catur-àrùpya (brahma) loka (S). The four immaterial or formless heavens, arùpa-dhàtu, above the eighteen brahmalokas: (1) không vô biên xứ àkàsàmantyàyatana, the sate or heaven of boundless space; (2) thức vô biên xứ vijnànanàntyàyatana, of boundless knowledge; (3) vô sở hữu xứ àkincanyàyatana, of nothing or non existence; (4) phi tưởng phi phi tưởng xứ naivasanjnànà-sanjnàyatana, the state of neither thinking nor not thinking.

Tứ kiếp. The four kalpas, or epochs, of a world, thành kiếp that of formation and completion; trụ kiếp existing or abiding; hoại kiếp destruction; and không kiếp annihilation, or the succeeding void.

Tứ liệu giản. A summary of the Lâm Tế tông in reference to subjective, objective, both, neither.

Tứ lô. The four furnaces, or altars of the esoteric cult, each differing in shape: earth, square; water, round; fire, triangular; wind, half-moon shape.

Tứ luận. Four famous sàstras: (1) Trung quán luận Prànyamùla-sàstratìka by Long Thọ Nàgàrjuna; (2) Bách luận Sata-sàstra by Đề Bà Devabodhisattva; (3) Thập nhị môn luận Dvàdasanikàya-(mukha)-sàstra by Nàgàrjuna; (4) Đại trí độ luận Mahàprajnàparàmità-sàstra by Nàgàrjuna.

Tứ lực. The four powers for attaining enlightenment: tự lực independent personal power; tha lực power derived from others; nhân duyên lực power of past good karma; phương tiện lực power arising from environment.

Tứ lưu. The four currents (that carry the unthinking along); i.e. the illusions of kiến seeing things as they seem, not as they really are; dục desires; hữu existence, life; vô minh ignoranve, or an unlightened condition.

Tứ minh. Four Chân ngôn Shingon emblems, aids to Yoga-possession by a Buddha or bodhisattva; they are câu a hook, thằng a cord, tỏa a lock, and linh a bell; the hook for summoning, the cord for leading, the lock for firmly holding, and the bell for resultant joy. Also the four Veda sàstras: Thọ Minh, Rig-Veda; Tự Minh,Yajur-Veda; Bình Minh, Sama-Veda; Thuật Minh, Artharva-Veda.

Tứ nhân quán thế. The world from four points of view: that of men in general -its pleasure, thoughtlessly; of sràvakas and pratyekabuddhas, as a burning house, uneasily; of bodhisattvas as an empty flower; of Buddha, as mind, all things being for (or of) intelligent mind.

Tứ nhất. The four "ones", or the unity contained (according to Thiên Thai) in the Phương tiện phẩm of the Lotus sùtra; i.e giáo nhất its teaching of one vehicle; hành nhất the sole bodhisattva procedure; nhân nhất its men all and only as bodhisattva; lí nhất its one ultimate truth of the reality of all existence.

Tứ nhiếp pháp. Catuh-samgraha-vastu (S). Four all-embracing (bodhisattva) virtues: (1) bố thí dàna, giving what others like, in order to lead them to love and receive the truth; (2) ái ngữ priyavacana, affectionate speech, with the same purpose; (3) lợi hành arthakrtya, conduct profitable to others, with the same purpose; (4) đồng sự samànàrthatà, co-operation with and adaptation of oneself to others, to lead them into the truth.

Tứ nhiếp bồ tát. The four Bodhisattvas in the Vajradhàtu with the hook, the rope, the chain and the bell whose office is to hóa tha convert the living. Also tứ nhiếp chúng, tứ nhiếp kim cương.

Tứ như ý túc. Rddhipàda (S). The four steps to rddhi, or supernatural powers, making the body independent of ordinary or natural law. The four steps are said to be tứ chủng thiền định four kinds of dhyàna, but there are several definitions e.g. dục như ý túc chanda-rddhi-pàda, desire (for intensive longing, or concentration); cần như ý túc vìrya-r-p., energy (or intensified effort); tâm như ý túc citta-r-p., memory (or intense holding on to the position reached); quán như ý túc mimàmsa-r-p., meditation (or survey, the state of dhyàna). Also tứ thần túc.

Tứ niệm châu. The four classes of "prayer-beads" numbering 27, 54, 108, 1080.

Tứ niệm trụ. Xem tứ niệm xứ.

Tứ niệm xứ. Smrti-upasthàna (S). The fourfold stage of mindfulness, or meditation that follows the Ngũ đình tâm quán fivefold procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of contemplating: (1) quán thân bất tịnh the body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) quán thụ thị khổ sensation, or consciousness, as always resulting in suffering; (3) quán tâm vô thường mind as impermanent, merely one sensation after another; (4) quán pháp vô ngã things in general as being dependent and without a nature of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality and purity.

Tứ oai nghi. Four respect-inspiring forms of demeanour in walking, standing, sitting, lying.

Tứ oán. The four enemies - the passions-and-delusions màras dục ma; death màra tử ma; the five-skandhas màra ngũ ấm ma; and the supreme màra-king thiên ma.

Tứ phạm trụ. The noble stage of từ bi hỉ xả love, pity, joy and indifference

Tứ pháp. There are several groups of four dharmas:(I) (1) Giáo pháp, the teachinh of Buddha; (2) Lí pháp, its principles, or meaning; (3) Hạnh pháp, its practice; (4) Quả pháp, its fruit or rewards. (II) Another group relates to Bodhisattvas: (1) Bất xả Bồ đề tâm, their never losing the bodhi-mind; (2) Bất xả thiện tri thức or the wisdom attained; (3) Bất xả kham nhẫn ái, lạc, or perseverence in progress; (4) Bất xả a lan nhã, or the monastic forest life. (III) Also tín faith, giải discernment, hạnh performance, and chứng assurance. (IV) A "Lotus" division of tứ pháp is the answer to a question of Phổ Hiền Samantabhadra how the Lotus is to be possessed after the Buddha's demise, i.e. by thought (or protection) of the Buddha; the cultivation of virtue; enter into correct dhyàna; and having a mind to save all creatures.

Tứ pháp ấn. The seal or impession of the four dogmas: suffering, impermanence, non ego, nirvàna.

Tứ pháp bản mạt. The alpha and omega in four laws or dogmas - that nothing is permanent, that all things involve suffering, that there is no personality, andthat nirvàna is eternal rest.

Tứ pháp giới. The four dharma-realms of Hoa Nghiêm school: (1) Sự pháp giới, the phenomenal realm, with differentiation; (2) Lí pháp giới, noumenal, with unity; (3) Lí sự vô ngại pháp giới, both lí noumenal and sự phenomenal are interdependent; (4) Sự sự vô ngại pháp giới, phenomena are also interdependent.

Tứ phần. The Pháp tướng Dharmalaksana school divides the function of Thức consciousness into four, i.e. tướng phần mental phenoma, kiến phần discriminating such phenomena, tự chứng phần the power that discriminates, and chứng tự chứng phần the proof or assurance of that power. Another group is tín faith, giải liberty, hành action, and chứng assurance or realization.

Tứ phần luật. The four-division Vinaya or discipline of the Dharmagupta school, divided into four sections.

Tứ phần tăng giới bản. Extracts from the Tứ phần luật for use on days when the discipline is recited.

Tứ phiền não. The four delusions in reference to the ego: ngã si ignorance in regard to the ego; ngã kiến holding to the ego ides; ngã mạn self-esteem, egotism, pride; ngã ái self-seeking, or desire, both the latter arising from belief in the ego.

Tứ phọc, phược. The four bandhana, or bonds: (1) desire, resentment, heretical morality, egoism; (2) desire, possession (or existence), ignorance, and unenlightened views.

Tứ phương. Caturdisà (S). Belonging to the four directions.

Tứ quả. The four phala, i.e. fruition, or rewards: tu đà hoàn quả srota-àpanna phala; tư đà hàm quả sakradàgàmi-phala; a na hàm quả anàgàmi-phala; a la hán quả arhat-phala.

Tứ sinh. Catur-yoni (S). The four forms of birth: (1) thai sinh jaràyuja, viviparous, as with mammalia; (2) noãn sinh andaja, oviparous, as with birds; (3) thấp sinh samsvedaja, moisture, or water-born, as with worms and fishes; (4) hóa sinh aupapàduka, metamorphic, as with moths from the chrysalis, or with devas, or in the hells.

Tứ sơn. Like four closing-in mountains are birth, age, sickness, and death.

Tứ sự. The four necessaries of a monk - clothing, victuals, bedding, medicines.

Tứ sự cúng dường. The four offerings or provisions for a monk.

Tứ sự pháp môn. Four methods of a bodhisattava's preparation for preaching the Law: -entry into meditation; into wisdom; into complete moral control; and into clear discernment or reasoning biện tài môn.

Tứ tầm từ quán. A study or contemplation of the Pháp Tướng Tông Dharmalaksana sect, on danh the terms used, nghĩa the meanings of the things or phenomena, tự tính the nature of the things, sai biệt their differentiation.

Tứ tất đàn. The four siddhànta. The Buddha taught by: (1) Thế giới tất đàn mundane or ordinary mode of expression; (2) Vị nhân tất đàn individual treatment, adapting his teaching to the capacity of his hearers; (3) Đối trị tất đàn diagnostic treatment of their moral diseases; (4) and Đệ nhất nghĩa tất đàn the perfect and highest truth.

Tứ thánh. The four kinds of holy men: thanh văn sràvakas, duyên giác pratyeka-buddhas, bồ tát bodhisattvas, Phật Buddhas.

Tứ thánh đế. The four holy or noble truths.

Tứ thánh hạnh. The four holy ways: phấn tảo y wearing rags from dust-heaps; khất thực begging for food; thụ hạ sitting under tress; and thân tâm tịch tĩnh entire withdrawal from the world.

Tứ tháp. The four stupas at the places of Buddha's birth, Kapilavastu; enlightenment Magadha; preaching, Benares; and parinirvàna, Kusinagara.

Tứ thân. The four kàya, or "bodies". The Lankàvatàra sùtra gives Hóa Phật; Công Đức Phật; Trí Tuệ Phật; and Như Như Phật; the first is hóa thân nirmànakàya, the second and third báo thân sambhogakàya, and the fourth pháp thân dharmakàya. The Duy Thức Luận gives: Tự Tính Thân, Tha Thụ Dụng Thân, Tự Thụ Dụng Thân, and Biến Hóa Thân; the first being pháp thân, the second and third báo thân, and the fourth hóa thân. The Thiên Thai Tông gives: pháp thân, báo thân, ứng thân, hóa thân.

Tứ thần túc. Xem tứ như ý túc.

Tứ thập. Catvàrimsat (S) Forty

Tứ thập bát nguyện. The forty eight vows of Amitabha Buddha.

Tứ thập cửu nhật. The seven times seven days of funeral services; the forty ninth day.

Tứ thập cửu tăng, đăng. The service to Dược Sư Phật the Master of Healing, when forty nine lamps are displayed and forty nine monks engaged; seven of his images are used, seven of the lamps being placed before each image.

Tứ thập nhị chương kinh. Dvàchatvàrmsat-khanda-sùtra (S) The "Sùtra of Forty two sections "generally attributed to Kàsyapa Màtanga and Gobharana, the first Indian monks to arrive officially in China.

Tứ thập nhị phẩm vô minh. The forty two species of ignorance which, according to Thiên Thai, are to be cut off seriatim in the forty two stages.

Tứ thập nhị vị. The forty two stages, i.e. all above the thập tín of the fifty two stages.

Tứ thập nhị tự môn. The doctrine of the forty two Siddham letters as given in the Hoa Nghiêm and Bát Nhã kinh.

Tứ thập vị. The "forty bodhisattva positions" of the Phạm Võng Kinh. They are classified into four groups: (1) Thập phát thú, ten initial stages, i.e. the minds tâm of abandoning things of the world, of keeping the moral law, patience, zealous progress, dhyàna, wisdom, resolve, guarding (the Law), joy and spiritual baptism by the Buddha. These are associated with the thập trụ. (2) Thập trưởng dưỡng, ten stages in the nourishment of perfection, i.e. minds of kinfness, pity, joy, relinquishing, almsgiving, good discourse, benefiting, friendship, dhyàna, wisdom. These are associated with the thập hạnh.; (3) thập kim cương, ten "diamond" step of firmness, i.e. a mind of faith, remembrance, bestowing one's merits on others, understanding, uprightness, no-retreat, mahàyàna, formlessness, wisdom, indestructibility. These are associated with the thập hồi hướng. (4) Thập địa, xem thập địa.

Tứ thiên hạ. The four quarters or continents of the world.

Tứ thiên vương. Catur-mahàràjàs, Lokapalas (S). The four deva-kings. Indra's external "generals" who dwell each on a side of Mount Meru, and who ward off from the world the attacks of malicious spirits, or asuras, hence their name Hộ thế Tứ Thiên Vương, the four deva-kings, guardians of the world. Their abode is the Tứ Thiên Vương thiên catur-mahàràjàs-kàyikas; and their titles are: (1) East, Trì quốc Thiên Vương Dhrtaràstra, Deva who keeps (his) kingdom, white. (2) South, Tăng trưởng Thiên Vương Virùdhaka, Deva of increase and growth, blue. (3) West, Quảng mục Thiên Vương Virùpaksa, the broad-eyed Deva, red. (4) North, Đa văn Thiên Vương Vaisravana or Dhadana, the Deva who hears much and is well versed, colour yellow. He is a form of Kuvera, the god of wealth.

Tứ thiền thiên. The four dhyàna heavens, tứ tĩnh lự thiên, i.e. the division of the eighteen brahmalokas into four dhyànas; the disciple attain to one of these heavens according to the dhyàna he observes: (1) Sơ thiền thiên, the first region, "as large as one whole universe", comprises the three heavens: (a) Phạm chúng thiên, Brahma-pàrisadya; (b) Phạm phụ thiên Brahma-purohita; (c) Đại Phạm thiên, Mahàbrahma; the inhabitants are without gustatory or olfactory organs, not needing food, but possess the other four of the six organs. (2) Nhị thiền thiên, the second region, equal to "a small chiliocosmo", comprises the three heavens: (a) Thiểu quang thiên Parittabha, minor light; (b) Vô lượng quang thiên Apramànàbha, infinite light; (c) Quang âm thiên Abhàsvara, utmost light purity; the inhabitants have ceased to require the five physical organs, possessing only the organ of mind. (3) Tam thiền thiên, the third region, equal to "a midding chiliocosmo", comprises the three heavens: (a) Thiểu tịnh thiên Parittàsubha, minor purity; (b) Vô lượng tịnh thiên Apramànasubha, infinite purity; (c) Biến tịnh thiên Subhakrtsna, universal purity; the inhabitants still have the organ of mind and are receptive of great joy. (4) Tứ thiền thiên, the fourth region, equal to "a great chiliocosmo", comprises the remaining nine Brahmalokas, namely:(a) Phúc sinh thiên Punyaprasava, felicitous birth; (b) Vô vân thiên Anabhraka, cloudless; (c) Quảng quả thiên Brhatphala, large fruitage; (d) Vô phiền thiên Asanjnisattva, no vexations; (e) Vô nhiệt thiên Atapa, no heat. (f) Vô tưởng thiên Avrha, the heaven above thought; (g) Thiện kiến thiên Sudrsa, beutiful to see; (h) Thiện hiện Sudarsana, beautiful appearing; (i) Sắc cứu kính thiên Akanistha the end of form; the inhabitants of this fourth region still have mind. The number of the dhyàna heavens differs; the Sarvàstivàdins say 16, the Sùtra school 17, and the Sthaviràh 18.

Tứ thiền bát định. The four dhyànas-concentrations, i.e. four on the form-realms, and four on the formless-realms.

Tứ thiện căn. Catus-kusala-mùla (S). The four good roots, or source from which spring good fruit or development. In Hìnayàna they form the stage after Biệt tướng niệm trụ as represented by the Câu Xá and Thành Thật; in Mahàyàna it is the final stage of the Thập hồi hướng as represented by the Pháp Tướng Tông. There are also four similar stages connected with sravàka, pratyekabuddha and Buddha styled Tam Phẩm Tứ Thiện Căn. The four of the Câu Xá Tông are Noãn pháp, Đỉnh pháp, Nhẫn pháp and Thế đệ nhất pháp. The four of the Thành Thật Tông are the same. The Pháp Tướng Tông retains the same four terms but connects them with the four dhyàna stages of the Chân Duy Thức Quán in its four first Gia Hạnh developments.

Tứ thú. Durgati (S). The four evil directions, or destinations: hells, hungry ghosts, animals, and asuras.

Tứ thủ. Catuh-paràmarsas (S). The four attachments, i.e. desire, unenlightened views, (fakir) morals, and ideas arising from the conception of the self.

Tứ thừa. The goat, deer and ox carts and the great white bullock cart of the Lotus sùtra. Xem tứ xa.

Tứ thực. The four kinds of food, i.e. đoàn thực for the body and its senses; xúc thực for the emotions; tư thực for thought; and thức thực for wisdom.

Tứ thực thì. The four times for food, i.e. for the deva at dawn, of all Buddhas at noon, of animals in the evening, and of demons and ghosts at night.

Tứ tính. The four Indian castes: (1) Bà la môn bràhmana, priestly, born from the mouth; (2) Sát đế lợi ksatriya, military and ruling, born from the shoulders; (3) Phệ xá vaisya, farmers and traders, born from the flanks; and (4) Thủ đà la sùdra, serf, born from the feet of Brahmà.

Tứ tính hạnh. The four kinds of conduct natural to a Bodhisattva, that arising from: (1) Tự tính hạnh his native goodness; (2) Nguyện tính hạnh his vow-nature; (3) Thuận tính hạnh his compliant nature, i.e. to the six pàramitàs; and (4) Chuyển tính hạnh his transforming nature, i.e. his powers of conversion or salvation.

Tứ trí. The four forms of wisdom of a Buddha according to the Pháp Tướng tông Dharmalaksana school: (1) Đại viên cảnh trí the great mirror wisdom of Aksokhya; (2) Bình đẳng tính trí the universal wisdom of Ratnaketu; (3) Diệu quan sát trí the profound observing wisdom of Amitàbha; (4) Thành sở tác trí the perfecting wisdom of Amoghasiddhi. There are various other groups.

Tứ trọng (cấm). The four grave prohibitions, or sins. Tứ chủng tội pàràjikàs: killing, stealing, carnality, lying. All four of the esoteric sect. i.e. discarding the truth; discarding the bodhi-mind; being mean or selfish in regard to the supreme law; injuring the living.

Tứ trọng bát trọng. The four pàràjikàs for monks and eight for nuns.

Tứ trụ. The four abodes or stages in the Trí độ luận: (1) Thiên trụ, the devalokas, equivalents of charity, morality, abd goodness of heart; (2) Phạm trụ the brahmalokas, equivalents of benevolence, pity, joy, and indifference; (3) Thánh trụ, the abode of sràvakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas, equivalent of the samàdhi of the immaterial realm, formless and still; (4) Phật trụ, the Buddha-abode, the equivalent of the samàdhi ođ the infinite.

Tứ trụ địa. The four stages or conditions found in mortality, wherein are the delusions of misleading views and desires. They are: (1) Kiến nhất thiết trụ địa, the delusions arising from seeing things as they seem, not as they really are; (2) Dục ái trụ địa, the desires in the desire-realm; (3) Sắc ái trụ địa, the desires in the form-realm; (4) Hữu ái trụ địa, the desires in the formless-realm. When Vô minh trụ địa, the state of ignorance, is added we have the Ngũ trụ địa, five states.

Tứ tuệ. The four kinds of wisdom received: (1) by birth, or nature; (2) by hearing or being taught; (3) by thought; (4) by dhyàna motivation.

Tứ tuyệt. The four ideas to be got rid of in order to obtain the "mean" or ultimate reality, according to the trung luận; they are that things exist, do not exist, both, neither.

Tứ tự tại. The four sovereign powers: giới the moral law; thần thôngsupernatural powers; trí knowledge; and tuệ wisdom.

Tứ tự xâm. The four self-raidings, or self-injuries: in youth not to study from morn till night; in advancing years not to cease sexual intercourse; wealthy and not being charitable; not accepting the Buddha's teaching.

Tứ tướng. The four avasthà, or states of all phenomena, sinh birth, trụ being, dị change (i.e. decay), diệt death, also tứ hữu vi tướng. There are several groups, e.g. quả báo tứ tướng birth, age, disease, death. Also tàng thức tứ tướng of the "Awakening of Faith" (Khởi tín luận), referring to the initiation, continuation, change, and cessation of the Alaya-vijnàna. Also ngã nhân tứ tướng. The ideas: (1) ngã tướng, that there is an ego; (2) nhân tướng, that man is different from other organism; (3) chúng sinh tướng, that all the living are produced by the skandhas; (4) thọ giả tướng, that life is limited to the organism.

Tứ vị. The four "tastes", the Thiên Thai definition of the four periods of the Buddha's teaching preliminary to the fifth, i.e. that of the Lotus sùtra.

Tứ vô lượng. Catvàri-apramànàni (S). The four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha states of mind, also styled tứ đẳng the four equalities, or universals, and tứ phạm hạnh four noble acts or characteristics; i.e. four of the twelve thiền dhyànas (1) từ vô lượng tâm maitri, boundless kindness, or bestowing of joy and happiness; (2) bi vô lượng tâm karuna, boundless pity, to save from suffering; (3) hỉ vô lượng tâm mudità, boundless joy, or seeing others rescued from suffering; (4) xả vô lượng tâm upeksa, limitless indifference, i.e. rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e.g. distinctions of friend anf enemy, love and hate, etc. Also styled the four sublime states: loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, equanimity.

Tứ vô ngại trí. Pratisamvid (S). The four unhindered or unlimited bodhisattva powers of interpretation, or reasoning, i.e. (1) pháp vô ngại trí dharma, in the letter of the law; (2) nghĩa vô ngại trí artha, its meaning; (3) từ vô ngại trí nirukti, in any language, or form of expression; (4) lạc thuyết vô ngại trí pratibhàna, in eloquence or pleasure in speaking, or argument.

Tứ vô sắc định. The last four of the twelve dhyànas, the ecstatic entry into the four states represented by the four dhyàna-heavens, i.e. tứ không xứ. In the first, the mind becomes void and vast like space; in the second the powers of perception and understanding are unlimited; in the third, the discriminative powers of mind are subdued; in the fourth, the realm of consciousness without thought is reached, e.g. intuitive wisdom.

Tứ vô thường kệ. Eight stanzas in the Nhân Vương Kinh, two each on Vô thường impermenence, Khổ suffering, Không the void, and Vô ngã non personaliy; the whole four sets embodying the impermanence of all things.

Tứ vô úy. The four kinds of fearlessness, or courage, of which there are two groups: Buddha-fearlessness arises from: (1) nhất thiết trí vô sở úy, his omniscience; (2) lậu tận vô sở úy, perfection of character; (3) thuyết chướng đạo vô sở úy, overcoming opposition; (4) thuyết tận khổ đạo vô sở úy, and ending of suffering. Bodhisattva-fearlessness arises from: (1) tổng trì bất vong, thuyết pháp vô úy, powers of memory; (2) tận tri pháp dược cập tri chúng sinh căn dục, tính tâm, thuyết pháp vô úy, of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy; (3) thiện năng vấn đáp, thuyết pháp vô úy, of ratiocination; (4) năng đoạn vật nghi, thuyết pháp vô úy, and of solving doubts.

Tứ y. The four necessaries or things on which the religious rely. The four of ascetic practitioners: rag clothing; begging for food; sitting under trees; purgatives and diuretics as moral and spiritual means.

Tứ y pháp. The four dharmas on which the Buddhists rely: (1) Y pháp bất y nhân, the truth which is eternal, rather than man (2) Y nghĩa bất y ngữ, the meaning, or spirit, not the letter; (3) Y trí bất y thức, wisdom, i.e. Buddha wisdom rather than mere knowledge. (4) Y liễu nghĩa kinh, bất y bất liễu nghĩa kinh, the sùtras of perfect meaning.

Tứ yếu phẩm. The four most important chapters of the Lotus sùtra: Phương tiện phẩm, An lạc hạnh phẩm, Thọ lượng phẩm, and Phổ môn phẩm. This is Thiên Thai's selection.

Từ. Maitrì (S). Mother, loving-kindness. Affection (as that of a mother), tenderness.

Từ ái. To love tenderly; compassion.

Từ ân. Compassion and grace, meciful favour. Name of a temple in Lạc Dương, under the Đường dynasty, which gave its name to Khuy Cơ, founder of the Pháp Tướng Tông, known also as Từ Ân tông and Duy Thức tông. He was a disciple of and collaborator with Huyền Trang.

Từ bi. Loving-kindness and compassion. Compassion and pity, merciful, compassionate.

Từ, Bi, Hỉ, Xả. Loving kindness, Compassion, Joy, Equanimity.

Từ bi quán. The compassion-contemplation, in which pity destroys resentment.

Từ bi vạn hạnh. Tender compassion in all things, or with compassion all things succeed.

Từ bi y. Compassionate garment, the monk's robe.

Từ hàng. The bark of mercy. To cross the sea of sorrows.

Từ kính. Loving-reverence.

Từ lực. Maitribala (S). Meciful virtue, or power.

Từ lực vương. Maitribala-ràja (S). King of merciful power, a former incarnation of the Buddha.

Từ mẫu. Affectionate, loving mother.

Từ Minh. A noted monk of the Tống (Sung) dynasty.

Từ môn. The gate of mercy, Buddhism.

Từ nghiêm. Compassion and strictness, the maternal-cum-paternal spirit.

Từ nhãn. The compassionate eye (of Buddha).

Từ nhẫn. Compassion and patience, compassionate tolerance.

Từ phụ. Affectionate, fond father.

Từ quang. Meciful light, that of the Buddhas.

Từ tâm. A compassionate heart, loving-kind heart.

Từ tâm bất sát. Lokecvra (S). Not killing because of the compassionate heart.

Từ tâm tam muội. Contemplation on the compassionate mind, meditation to develop the compassionate heart.

Từ thị. The compassionate one, Maitreya.

Từ tôn. The compassionate-honoured one, Maitreya.

Từ thị Bồ tát. Maitreya Bodhisattva.

Từ thiện. Charity.

Từ thủy. Mercy as water fertilizing the life.

Từ tử. Sons of compassion, i.e. the disciples of Maitreya.

Từ vân. The over-spreading, fructifying cloud of compassion, the Buddha's heart. Also, the name of a noted Tống monk.

Từ ý. The mind or spirit of compassion and kindness.

Tử. Marana, mrta (S). To die, death; dead.

Tử hải. The ocean of mortality.

Tử hỏa. Death is a fire disaster.

Tử khổ. The misery, or pain, of death.

Tử ma. Death-màra.

Tử môn. The gate or border of death.

Tử phong. The destroying wind in the final destruction of the world.

Tử sinh. Death and life, mortality, transmigration.

Tử tặc. The robber death.

Tử tướng. The appearance of death.

Tử tưởng. Death contemplation.

Tử úy. The fear of death.

Tử vong. Dead and gone (or lost).

Tử vương. Yama, as Lord of death and hell.

Tử kim quang tì khưu ni.

Tự. Vihàra, Sanghàràma (S). An official hall, a temple, adopted by Buddhists for a monastery. Tự viện. Monastery grounds and buildings, a monastery.

Tự. Aksara (S). A letter, character. Tự tướng tự nghĩa, word form word meaning, differentiated by the esoteric sect for its own ends.

Tự. Preface. Also tựa, bài tựa, tự phần.

Tự. Sva, svayam (S). The self, one's own, personal; of itself, naturally, of course; also from (i.e. from the self as central). Tự is used as the opposite of Tha another, other's, etc.

Tự ái. Self-love, cause of all pursuit or seeking, which in turn causes all suffering.

Tự chứng. The witness within, inner assurance.

Tự chứng thánh trí. Pratyàtmàryajnàna (S). Personal apprehension of Buddha-truth.

Tự chứng thân. A tittle of Vairocana, his dharmakàya of self-assurance, or realization, from which issues his retenue of proclaimers of the truth.

Tự điều tự tịnh tự độ. The sràvaka method of salvation by personal discipline, or "works": tự điều, self-progress by keeping the commandments; tự tịnh, self-purification by emptying the mind; tự độ, self-release by the attainment of gnosis, or wisdom.

Tự giác ngộ tâm. A mind independent of externals, pure thought, capable of enlightenment from within.

Tự giác thánh trí. The uncaused omniscience of Vairocana. Also called pháp giới thể tính trí, kim cương trí.

Tự hành hóa tha. To discipline, or perform, oneself and (or in order to) convert or transform others. Xem tự lợi lợi tha.

Tự lợi. Atmahitam (S). Self-profit; beneficial to oneself.

Tự lợi lợi tha. "Self-profit profits others", i.e. the essential nature and work of a bodhisattva, to benefit himself and benefit others, or himself press forward in the Buddhist life in order to carry others forward.

Tự lực. One's own strength, as contrasted with tha lực the strength of another.

Tự nhiên. Svayambhù (S). Also tự nhĩ, pháp nhĩ. Self-existing, the self-existent; Self so, so of itself, natural, of course, spontaneous. Uncaused existence.

Tự nhiên hư vô thân. A Buddha's spiritual or absolute body, his dharmakàya; also those who are born in Paradise, i.e. who are spontaneously and independently produced there.

Tự nhiên ngoại đạo. Sect of heretics denying Buddhist cause and effect and holding that things happen spontaneously.

Tự nhiên ngộ đạo. Enlightenment by the inner light, independent of external teaching; to become Buddha by one's own power, e.g. Sàkyamuni who is called Tự nhiên Thích Ca.

Tự nhiên thành Phật đạo. Svayambhuvah (S). Independent attainment to Buddhahood.

Tự nhiên trí. The intuitive or inborn wisdom of a Buddha, untaught to him and outside the causal nexus.

Tự nhiên từ. Intuitive mercy possessed by a bodhisattva, untaught and without causal nexus.

Tự tác tự thụ. As one does one receives, every man receives the reward of his deeds, creating his own karma.

Tự tại. Isvara (S). Can, king, master sovereign, independent, royal; intp. as free from resistance; also the mind free from delusion.

Tự tại pháp vương. Buddha.

Tự tại thiên. Isvaradeva (S). A title of Siva, king of the devas, also known as Đại tự tại thiên. Mahesvara (S).

Tự tại vương. A title of Vairocana.

Tự tại vương Phật. Lokisvara-Buddha (S). Also Thế tự tại vương Phật .

Tự tâm. Svacitta (S). Self-mind, one's own mind.

Tự thụ dụng độ. The third of the four Buddha-ksetra or Buddha domains, that in which there is complete response to his teaching and powers.

Tự thụ dụng thân. One of the two kinds of sambhogakàya, for his own enjoyment.

Tự thụ pháp lạc. The dharma-delights a Buddha enjoys in the above state.

Tự tính. Own nature; of (its) own nature. As an intp. of Pradhàna (and resembling chân tính). As svabhàva, it is the self-substance, self nature, or unchanging character of anything.

Tự tính giới. The ten natural moral laws, i.e. which are natural to man, apart from the Buddha's precepts; also tự tính thiện.

Tự tính tam bảo. The Triratna, each with its own characteristic, Buddha being wisdom giác; the Law correctness chính; and the Order purity tịnh.

Tự thệ thụ giới. To make the vows and undertake the commandments oneself (before the image of a Buddha), i.e. self-ordination when unable to obtain ordination from the ordained.

Tự thuyết kinh. Udana (S).

Tự tứ. Pravàrana (S). To follow one's own bent, the modern term being tùy ý; it means the end of restraint, i.e. following a period of retreat.

Tự tứ nhật. The last day of the annual retreat.

Tự tướng, Svalaksana (S). Individuality, particular, personal as contrasted with cọng tướng genaral or common.

Tức. To draw up to, or near; approach; forthwith; to be; if, even if; united together; bất nhị not two; bất li not separate, inseparable.

Tức đắc. Immediately to obtain, e.g. rebirth in the Pure Land, or the new birth here and now.

Tức hữu tức không. All things, or phenomena, are identical with the void, or the noumenon.

Tức không tức giả tức trung. All things are void, or noumenal, are phenomenal, are medial, the three meditations tam quán of Thiên Thai tông.

Tức li. Identity and difference, agreement and disagreement.

Tức phi. Identity and difference.

Tức sự nhi chân. Phenomena are identical with reality, e.g. water and wave.

Tức sự tức lí. The identity of phenomena with their underlying principle, e.g. body and spirit are a unity.

Tức tâm. Of the mind, mental, i.e. all things are mental, and are not apart from mind.

Tức tâm niệm Phật. To remember, or call upon, Amtàbha Buddha within the heart, which is his Pure Land.

Tức tâm thị Phật. The identity of mind and Buddha, mind is Buddha, the highest doctrine of Mahàyàna; the negative form is phi tâm phi Phật no mimd no Buddha, or apart from mind there is no Buddha.

Tức thân. The doctrine of Chân Ngôn tông that the body is also Buddha; in other words Buddha is not only tức tâm mind, but body; hence tức thân thành Phật. Tức thân bồ đề, the body is to become (consciously) Buddha by Yoga practice.

Tức thời. Immediately, forthwith.

Tức trung. The via media is that which lies between or embraces both the không and the giả, i.e. the void or noumenal, and the phenomenal.

Tức tướng tức tâm. Both form and mind are identical, e.g. the Pure Land as a place is identical with the Pure Land in the mind or heart - a doctrine of the Pure Land or Jodo sect, Tịnh Độ.

Tương đãi. The doctrine of mutual dependence or relativity of all things for their existence, e.g. the triangle depends on its three lines, the eye on things having colour and form, long or short.

Tương đối. Opposite, opposed; in comparison.

Tương nhập. Mutual entry; the blending of things, eg. the common light from many lamps.

Tương tục. Santati (S). Continuity, especially of cause and effect.

Tương tục giả. Illusory ideas continuously succeed one another producing other illusory ideas, one of the three hypotheses of Thành thật luận.

Tương tục tâm. Continuity of memory, or sensation, in regard to agreeables or disagreeables, remaining through other succeeding sensations.

Tương tục thường. Nodal or successive continuity in contrast with bất đoạn thường uninterrupted continuity.

Tương tức. Phenomenal identity, e.g. the wave is water and water the wave.

Tương tự. Alike, like, similar, identical. Tương tự Phật, approximation or identity of the individual and Buddha, a doctrine of Thiên Thai; the stage of thập tín. Tương tự tức (Phật), one of the six of such identities, similiarity in form. Tương tự giác, the approximate enlightenment which in the stage of thập trụ, thập hạnh, and thập hồi hướng approximates to perfect enlightenment by the subjection of all illusion; the second of the four degrees of bodhi in the Awakening of Faith Khởi tín luận.

Tương ưng A hàm. Samyuktàgamas (S). Miscellaneous Agamas.

Tương ứng. Response, correspond, tally, agreement, yukta, or yoga intp. as khế hợp union of the tallies, one agreeing or uniting with the others.

Tương ứng nhân. Corresponding, or mutual causation, e.g. mind, or mental conditions causing mentation, and vice-versa.

Tương ứng pháp. The correspondence of mind with mental data dependent on five correspondences common to both, i.e. the senses, reasoning, process, time and object.

Tương ứng tông. Yoga, the sect of mutual response between the man and his object of worship resulting in correspondence in body, mouth, and mind. It is a term for Chân Ngôn tông.

Tướng. Laksana (S). External appearance; the appearance of things; form; a phenomenon hữu vi pháp in the sense of appearance, mutual; to regard. The four forms taken by every phenomenon are sinh rise, trụ stay, dị chamge, diệt cease, i.e. sinh birth, lão old age, bệnh sickness, tử death.

Tướng đại. The greatness of the potentialities, or attributes of the Tathàgata.

Tướng hảo. Laksana-vyanjana (S). The thirty two tướng or marks and the eighty hảo or signs on the physical body of Buddha.

Tướng không. The unreality of form; the doctrine that phenomena have no reality in themselves.

Tướng luân. The sign or form of wheels, also luân tướng, i.e. the nine wheels or circles at the top of a pagoda.

Tướng phần. The part of laksana or objective appearance.

Tướng sư. Physiognomist.

Tướng tông. Xem Pháp tướng tông.

Tướng trí. Knowledge derived from phenomena.

Tướng vô tính. Unreal in phenomena, e.g. lông rùa turtle hair and sừng thỏ rabbit's horns; the unreality of phenomena, one of the tam vô tính.

Tượng. Pratirùpa, pratirùpaka (S). Like, similar, resemblance; semblance; image; portrait; form, formal.

Tượng hóa. The religion of the image or symbol, Buddhism.

Tượng pháp. The second or formal period of the teaching of Buddhism by symbol. The three periods are chính pháp those of the real, tượng pháp the formal, and mạt pháp the final.

Tượng. Gaja, hastin, also nàga (S). An elephant.

Tượng đầu sơn. Gayà-siras (S). Elephant-head mountain, name of two mountains, one near Gayà, the other said to be near the river Nairanjanà.

Tượng vương. Gajapati (S). Lord of Elephants, a term for Sàkyamuni; also the fabulous ruler of the southern division of the Jambudvipa continent.

Tưởng. To think, meditate, reflect, expect; a function of mind.

Tưởng ái. Thought of and desire for, thought leading to desire.

Tưởng điên đảo. Inverted thoughts or perceptions, i.e. the illusion of regarding the seeming as real.

Tưởng uẩn. Sanjnà (S). One of the five skandhas, perception.

Tưởng giới. The sphere of thought. 

Lời giới thiệu | A | B | C | D | Đ | G | H | K | L | M | N
O | P | Q | R | S | T1 | T2 | U | V | X | Y | Sách tham khảo


Vào mạng: 17-10-2001

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