Trang tiếng Anh

      Đạo Phật Ngày Nay 

Trang tiếng Việt


...... ... .  . .  .  .
Từ Ngữ Phật Học Việt-Anh
Ấn bản Internet 2001


Ta, ngã. Atman (S). Self, ego, personality, soul.

Ta bà, sa bà. Sahà (S). That which bears, the earth; intp as bearing, enduring; the place of good and evil; a universe, or great chiliocosm,w here all are subject to transmigration and which a Buddha transforms. It is divided into three regions tam giới and Mahà Brahmà Sahàmpati PhạmThiên is its lord.

Ta bà ha. Svàhà (S). An oblation by fire, also Hail! a brahminical salutation at the end of a sacrifice. It also means: successful, auspicious, blissful, etc.

Ta già la. Sàgara (S). The ocean. The Nàga king of the ocean palace north of Mt Meru, possessed of priceless pearls; the dragon king of rain; his eight year old daughter instantly attained Buddhahood, v. the Lotus sùtra.

Ta ha. A miraculous medicine.

Ta kiệt la. Xem Ta già la.

Ta la. Sàla, sàla (S). The Sàl tree.

Ta la song thụ, Ta la lâm. Sàlavana (S). The grove of Sàl trees near Kusinagara, the reputed place of the Buddha's death.

Ta ma Vệ đà. Sàma-Veda (S). The 3rd of four books of Veda.

Ta ra. Tàrà (S). Name of a Goddess related to Avalokitesvara.

Tá ha. Xem ta bà ha.

Tà. Deflected, erroneous, heterodox, depraved; the opposite of chính right.

Tà chấp. Heterodox tenets and attachment to them.

Tà dâm. Kàmamithyàcàra (S). Unlawful sexual intercourse.

Tà đạo. Mithya màrga (S). Heterodox ways, or doctrines. Wrong path.

Tà đảo kiến. Heterodoxy; perverted views or opinions.

Tà giáo. Heterodox teachings.

Tà hạnh. Erronous ways, the ninety-six heretical ways; the disciplines of non-Buddhist sects. Tà hạnh chân như, the phenomenal bhùtatathatà, from which arises the accumulation of misery.

Tà kiến. Drsti (S). Heterical views, not recognizing the doctrine of moral karma, one of the five heterodox opinions and ten evils ngũ kiến thập ác.

Tà ma. Màra (S). The Evil One, the Death personified, the Tempter.

Tà mạn. Mithyàmana (S). Perverse or evil pride, doing evil for self-advancement; to hold to heterodox views and and not to reverence the Triratna.

Tà mệnh. Heterodox or improper ways of obtaining a living on the part of a monk, e.g by doing work with his hands, by astrology, his wits, flattery, magics, etc. Begging, or seeking alms, was the orthodox way of obtaining a living.

Tà mệnh thuyết pháp. The heterodox way of preaching or teaching, for the purpose of making a living.

Tà pháp. Heterodoxy, false doctrines or methods.

Tà phiến. Heterodox fanning, i.e. to influence people by false doctrines.

Tà quán. Heterodox contemplation.

Tà sơn. A mountain of error or heterodox ideas; such ideas as great as a mountain.

Tà tính định (tụ). The accumulation (of suffering) to be endured in purgatory by one of heterodox nature. One of the three accumulations tam tụ.

Tà tụ. The accumulation of misery, produced bt false views, one of the tam tụ.

Tà tư. Depraved and selfish desires, lust.

Tà tư duy. Heterodox reflection, or thought.

Tà vân. Clouds of falsity or heterodoxy, which cover over the Buddha-nature in the heart.

Tà võng. The net of heterodoxy, or falsity.

Tác. To make, do, act, be; arise.

Tác ác. To do evil.

Tác bạch. Jnàpti (S). Announciation, declaration.

Tác cử. The accusation of sin made against particular monks by the virtuous monk who presides at the pravàrana gathering on the last day of the summer's rest.

Tác dụng. Function, activity, act.

Tác gia. Leader, founder, head of a sect, a term used by Thiền tông.

Tác giả. Kartr (S). A doer, he who does things, hence the àtman, ego, or person within; the active element or principle; one of the sixteen non-Buddhist definitions of the soul. Also kàranà, a cause, maker, creator, deity.

Tác giới. Obedience to the commandments, external fulfilment of them; also called biểu sắc, in contrast with vô tác giới, vô biểu sắc the inner grace; moral action in contrast with inner moral character.

Tác lễ. To pay one's respect by worship; to make an obeisance.

Tác nghiệp. Karma produced,i.e. by the action of body, words, and thought, which educe the kernel of the next rebirth.

Tác nghiệp căn. Karmìndriya (S). Sense organs which produce karma.

Tác nguyện môn. To make a vow to benefit self and others, and to fulfl the vow so as to be born in the Pure Land of Amitàbha. The third of the five doors or ways of entering the Pure Land.

Tác phạm. Transgression, sin by action, active sin.

Tác pháp. Karma, which results from action, i.e. the "deeds" of body or mouth; to perform ceremonies.

Tác pháp đắc. To receive ceremonial ordination as a monk.

Tác pháp giới. The place of assembly for ceremonial purposes.

Tác pháp sám. One of the three kinds of monastic confession and repentance.

Tác Phật. To become or be a Buddha; to cut off illusion. attain complete enlightenment, and end the stage of bodhisattva discipline.

Tác Phật sự. To do the works ofBuddha; perform Buddhist ceremonies.

Tác thiện To do good, e.g. worship, bestow alms, etc.

Tác trì giới. Active keeping of the commandments, active law, in contrast with chỉ trì giới passive, such as not killing, not stealing, etc.

Tác ý. Cittotpàda, Cetàna (S). To have the thought arise, be aroused, beget the resolve. Intentional action, wilful action.

Tái sinh. Pratisamdhi (S). Rebirth.

Tài. Vasu, artha (S). Wealth, riches.

Tài chủ. A wealthy man, rich.

Tài thí, tài cúng dường. Offerings or gifts of material goods.

Tại. At, on, in, present.

Tại gia. At home, a lay man or woman not xuất gia. i.e. not leaving home as a monk or nun.

Tại gia nhị giới. The two grades of commandments observed by the lay, one the five, the other the eight ngũ and bát giới. These are the Hìnayàna rules; the Mahàyàna are the thập thiện giới ten good rules.

Tại gia xuất gia. One who while remaining at home observes the whole of a monk's or a nun's rules.

Tại tại xứ xứ. In every place.

Tại thế. In the world, while alive here.

Tại triền. In bonds, i.e chân như tại triền the bhùtatathatà in limitations, e.g. relative v. Khởi tín luận Awakening of Faith.

Tại tục. In and of the world, unenlightened; in a lay condition.

Tam. Tri, trayas (S). Three.

Tam ác. Three evil paths of transmigration; also tam ác đạo, tam ác thú, the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

Tam ác đạo. The three evil ways.

Tam ác giác. The three evil mental states: dục desire, sân hate, hại malevolance.

Tam ác thú. Three evil directions or destinies.

Tam an cư. Varsàh (S). The three months ơođ summer retreat.

Tam ấn. Three signs or proofs of a Hìnayàna sùtra: 1-Vô thường non permanence; 2-Vô ngã non personality; 3-Niết bàn Nirvàna; without these the sùtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Màra.

Tam bách tứ thập bát giới. 348 rules for a nun.

Tam bảo. Triratna, or Ratnatraya (S). The three Precious Ones: Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Order. Popularly the tam bảo are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Sàkyamuni, on his left Bhaisajya Dược Sư, and on his right Amitàbha. Three Gems, three jewels.

Tam bảo tạng. The Triratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the Tripitaka tam tạng, sùtras kinh, vinaya luật, luận abhidharma; also sravakas thanh văn, pratyeka-buddhas duyên giác, bodhisattvas bồ tát.

Tam bảo vật. The things appertaining to the Triratna, i.e. to the Buddha-temples and images etc; to the Dharma-the scriptures; to the Sangha-cassock, bowl etc.

Tam bát nhã. Three perfect enlightenments: (1)-thực tướng bát nhã wisdom in its essence or reality; (2) quán chiếu bát nhã the wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the last; (3) phương tiện or văn tự bát nhã the wisdom of knowing things in their temporary and changing condition.

Tam bất hộ. The three that need no guarding, i.e. the tam nghiệp of a Buddha, his body, mouth and mind which he does not need to guard as they are above error.

Tam bất kiên pháp. Three unstable things - the body thân, length of life thọ mệnh, wealth tài sản.

Tam bất tam tín. This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three bất are impure, not single, not constant; the three tín are the opposite.

Tam bất thất. The three never lost, idem tam bất hộ.

Tam bất thiện căn. Three bad roots, or qualities - desire tham, anger sân, and stupidity si. Also tam độc.

Tam bất thoái. The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursued, and in dhyàna.

Tam bất tịnh nhục. The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk.

Tam bệnh. Three ailments.

Tam bí mật. The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for thân, khẩu, ý; i.e. the symbol; the mystic word, or sound; the meditation of the mind. Tam bí mật thân is a term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol and the image.

Tam bình đẳng. The esoteric doctrine that the three body, mouth, and mind - are one and universal. Thus in samàdhi the Buddha "body" is found everywhere and in averything (pan-Buddha), every sound becomes a "true word", dhàrani or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind. Other definitions of the three are: Phật, Pháp, Tăng the Triratna;

Tâm, Phật, Chúng sinh. Mind, Buddha, and the living.

Tam bình đẳng địa. The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by không, vô tướng, and vô nguyện.

Tam bệnh. Three ailments (1) (a) Tham lust, for which the bất tịnh quán meditation on uncleaness is the remedy; (b) Sân anger or hate, remedy từ bi quán meditation on kindness and pity or compassion; (c) Si stupidity ignorance, remedy nhân duyên quán meditation on causality. (2) (a) Báng slander of Mahàyàna; (b) Ngũ nghịch tội the five gross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider.

Tam bồ đề. Sambodhi (S). Chính đẳng giác. Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened.

Tam Ca diếp. Three brothers Kàsyapa, all three said to be disciples of the Buddha: Ưu lâu tần loa Ca diếp Uruvilva Kàsyapa, Già da Ca diếp Gaya Kàsyapa, Na đề Ca diếp Nadi Kàsyapa.

Tam căn. The three (evil) roots - desire, hate, stupidity, idem tam độc. Another group is the three grades of good roots, or abilities, thượng, trung, hạ superior, medium and inđerior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness tam vô lậu căn.

Tam cấu. The three defilers - desire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance)

Tam chân như. Three aspects of the bhùtatathatà, implying it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul: (1) (a) vô tướng chân như without form; (b) vô sinh chân như without creation; (c) vô tính chân như without anything that can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) thiện pháp chân như the bhùtatathatà as good; (b) bất thiện pháp chân như as evil; (c) vô ký pháp chân như as neutral.

Tam chi (tỷ lượng). Three members of a syllogism: pratijnà tông the proposition, hetu nhân the reason, udàharana dụ the example. cf Nhân minh.

Tam chiếu. The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Thiên Thai teaching of the Hoa Nghiêm sùtra, the Buddha's doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Hoa Nghiêm sùtra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhisattva; (b) second, the Hìnayàna sùtras in general to sravaka and pratyeka-buddha in the Lumbini garden; (c) the phương đẳng sùtras down to the Niết bàn kinh for all the living.

Tam chủng. Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.

Tam chủng ba la mật. The three kinds of pàramità ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) Thế gian ba la mật that of people in general relating to this world; (b) xuất thế gian ba la mật that of sràvakas and pratyeka buddhas; (c) xuất thế gian thượng thượng ba la mật the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the future life of all.

Tam chủng cúng dường. Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) Lợi cúng dường ọfferings of incense, flowers, food, etc.; (b) Kính cúng dường of praise and reverence; (c) Hạnh cúng dường of right conduct.

Tam chủng chỉ quán. Three Thiên Thai modes of entering dhyàna: (a) Tiệm thứ gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) bất định irregular, simple and complex mixed; (c) viên đốn immediate and whole.

Tam chủng dục. The three kinds of desire - food, sleep, sex.

Tam chủng duyên từ. Xem tam chủng từ bi.

Tam chủng đại trí. The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) vô sư trí self acquired,no master needed; (b) tự nhiên trí unacquired and natural; (c) vô nghi trí universal.

Tam chủng địa ngục. The three kinds of hells - hot, cold, and solitary.

Tam chủng đoạn. The three kinds of uccheda, cutting off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) tự tính đoạn with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) bất sinh đoạn with realization of the doctrine that all is không unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) duyên phược đoạn illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappear and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three sràvakas or ascetic stages are: (a) kiến sở đoạn ending the condition of false views; (b) tu hành đoạn getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) phi sở đoạn no more illusion or desire to be cut off.

Tam chủng giáo tướng. The three modes of the Buddha's teaching of the South Sects; đốn immediate; tiệm gradual or progressive; bất định indeterminate.

Tam chủng hữu. Three kinds of existence (a) Tương đối hữu that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and shortness; (b) giả danh hữu that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) pháp hữu that of the nounenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a "hare's horn" or a "turtle fur".

Tam chủng không. The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) không; (b) vô tướng; (c) vô nguyện; xem tam tam muội. The second (a) ngã; (b) pháp; (c) câu không, the self, things, all phenomena as empty or immaterial. The third relates to charity (a) giver; (b) receiver; (c) gift, all area empty tam luân không tịch.

Tam chủng kiến hoặc. Three classes of delusive views, or illusions - those common to humanity; those of inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind.

Tam chủng sám hối pháp. Three modes of repentance: (a) vô sinh sám to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (b) thủ tướng sám to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c) tác pháp sám in proper form to confess one's breech of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission.

Tam chủng quán đỉnh. The threekinds of baptism: (1) (a) Ma đỉnh quán đỉnh every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his head; (b) thụ ký by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) phóng quang by revealing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon Chân ngôn tông has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic word; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life.

Tam chủng quang minh. The three kinds of lights: (a) external -sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddha, bodhisattva, deva.

Tam chủng sắc. Three kinds of rùpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour; (b) shape; (c) quality.

Tam chủng sinh. The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) Tưởng sinh the mind, or active thought; (b) tướng sinh the objective world; (c) lưu chú sinh their constant interaction, or the continuous stream of latent predispositions.

Tam chủng tam muội. The three meditations on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal of the Hoa Nghiêm tông: (a) lý pháp giới the universe as law or mind, that all things are chân như, i.e. all things or phenomena are of the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) lý sự vô ngại pháp giới that the Buddha-nature and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) sự sự vô ngại pháp giới that phenomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a common harmony as part of the whole.

Tam chủng tam quán. The three types of meditation on the principles of tam đề, i.e. không, giả, trung.

Tam chủng tâm khổ. The three kinds of mental distress, desire tham, anger sân, stupidity si; idem tam độc.

Tam chủng tịnh nghiệp. The threfold way of obtaining a pure karma, idem tam phúc

Tam chủng thanh tịnh. The three purities of a bodhisattva: (a) Tâm thanh tịnh a mind free from all impurity; (b) thân thanh tịnh a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation; (c) tướng thanh tịnh an apparence perfectly pure and adorned.

Tam chủng thân. The Thiên Thai school has a definition of sắc thân the physical body of Buddha; pháp môn thân his psychological body with its vast variety; thật tướng thân his real body or dharmakàya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikàya to each of its honoured ones.

Tam chủng thiên. Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name, o oname, or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Buddha-land.

Tam chủng thiện căn. The three kinds of good roots - almsgiving bố thí, mercy từ bi, and wisdom trí tuệ.

Tam chủng thị đạo. Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. thân physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; ý mentally, through power of memory and enlightenment; khẩu orally, by moral exhortation.

Tam chủng thường. A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) bản tính thường in his nature or dharmakàya pháp thân; (b) bất đoạn thường in his unbroken eternity, sambhogakàya báo thân; (c) in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmànakàya ứng hóa thân. (c) tương tục thường

Tam chủng từ bi (duyên từ). The three reasons of a bodhisattva's pity: because all beings are like helpless infants chúng sinh duyên từ bi; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences pháp duyên từ bi; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature, vô duyên từ bi.

Tam chủng tướng. The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) Tiêu tướng inferential, as fire is inferred in smoke; (b) hình tướng formal, or spatial, as length, breadth, etc. (c) thể tướng qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) Giả danh tướng names, which are merely indications of the temporal; (b) pháp tướng dharmas, or things; (c) vô tướng tướng the formless - all threes are incorrect positions.

Tam chủng viên dung. Three kinds of unity or identity of: (a) Sự lý phenomena with "substance" e.g. waves and the water; (b) Sự sự phenoma with phenoma, e.g. wave with wave; (c) Lý lý substance with substance, e.g. water with water.

Tam chuyển pháp luân. The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park Lộc Uyển: (a) thị chuyển indicative, i.e. postulation and definition of the tứ đế four noble truths; (b) khuyến chuyển hortative, e.g. khổ đương tri suffering should be diagnosed; (c) chứng chuyển evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering etc.

Tam chướng. The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers of which three groups are given: (1) (a) phiền não chướng the passions; (b) nghiệp chướng the deeds done; (c) báo chướng the retributions. (2) (a) bì phiền não chướng; (b) nhục phiền não chướng; (c) tâm phiền não chướng skin, flesh and heart (or mind) troublers, i.e. delusions from external objects, internal views, and mental ifnorance. (3) tam trọng chướng the three weighty obstructions: (a) ngã mạn self-importance; (b) tật đố envy;(c) tham dục desire.

Tam cụ túc. The three essential articles for worship: flower vase, candlestick and censer.

Tam cử. The three exposures, i.e. the three sins of a monk, each entailing his unfrocking - wilful non confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine.

Tam cực thiểu. The three smallest things, i.e. an atom, as the smallest particle of matter; a letter, as the shortest possible name; a ksana, as the shortest periodof time.

Tam cương. The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) thượng tọa sthavira, elder, president; (b) tự chủ, viện chủ vihàrasvàmin, trụ trì the abbot; (c) duy na karmàdana who directs the monks.

Tam diệu hạnh. A muni, recluse or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind thân khẩu ý. Also tam mâu ni.

Tam dục. The three lusts, i.e. for form, carriage or beauty, and refinement or softness to the touch.

Tam duyên. The three nidànas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure land sect: (1) thân duyên that he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them; (2) cận duyên that he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (3) tăng thượng duyên that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death.

Tam dư. The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences of sràvakas and pratyeka-buddhas who mistakenly think they are going to vô dư niết bàn final nirvàna, but will still find phiền não dư further passion and illusion, nghiệp dư further karma and quả dư continued rebirth, in realms beyond tam giới trailokya.

Tam đại. The three great characteristics of the chân như bhùtatathatà ìn the Khởi tín luận Awakening of Faith: (1) Thể đại the greatness of the bhùtatathatà in its essence or substance; it is chúng sinh tâm chi thể tính the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) Tướng đại the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement. (3) Dụng đại the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter.

Tam đàn. The three kinds of dàna, i.e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya or fearlessness. Idem tam thí.

Tam đạo. (1) The three paths all have to tread; luân hồi tam đạo, tam luân, i.e. (a) phiền não đạo, hoặc đạo the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) nghiệp đạo the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma (c) khổ đạo the resultant path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) Thanh, Duyên, Bồ, sràvakas, pratyeka-buddhas, bodhisattvas.

Tam đạt. Xem tam minh.

Tam đẳng. The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathàgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his body thân; (b) discourse ngữ ;(c) mind ý (2) (a) his life or works tu hành; (b) spiritual body pháp thân; (c) salvation độ sinh; in their equal values and universality.

Tam đẳng lưu. Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. chân đẳng lưu the certain consequences that follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; giả đẳng lưu the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life's ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life; phân vị đẳng lưu each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind.

Tam đề. The three dogmas. The "middle school" of Thiên Thai says tức không, tức giả, tức trung; (a) by không sùnya is meant that things causally produced are in their essential nature unreal (or immaterial); (b) giả though things are unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) trung but both are one, being of the one như or reality. These three dogmas are founded on a verse of Nàgàrjuna: Nhân duyên sở sinh pháp, Ngã thuyết tức thị không, Diệc vi thị giả danh, Diệc thị trung đạo nghĩa. All causally produced phenoma, I say, are unreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the "mean".

Tam đề tương tức. The unity of không, giả, trung, three aspects of the same reality, taught by the viên giáo as distinguished from the biệt giáo which separates them.

Tam điên đảo. The three subversions or subverters: tưởng đảo evil thoughts, kiến đảo false views, tâm đảo deluded mind.

Tam điền. The three "fields" of varaying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, sràvakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred fold, fifty fold, one-fold.

Tam đoạn. The three cutting off or exisions (of hoặc beguiling delusions or perplexities. 1-a-Kiến sở đoạn to cut off delusions of view, of which Hìnayàna has eighty-eight kinds; b-Tu sở đoạn in practice, eighty-one kinds; c-Phi sở đoạn nothing left to cut off, perfect. 2-a-Tự tính đoạn to cut off the nature, or root (of delusion); b-Duyên phược đoạn to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); c-Bất sinh đoạn (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat.

Tam đồ. The three unhappy gati or ways: (1) Hỏa đồ to the fire of hell; (2) Huyết đồ to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (3) Đao đồ the asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords.

Tam độc. The three poisons, also styled tam căn. They are Tham concupiscece or wrong desire; Sân anger, hate, or resentment; Si stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these threes are the source of all the passions and delusions.

Tam đỗng. Three penetrations.

Tam đức. The three virtues or powers of which three groups are given below: (1) a-Pháp thân đức, The virtue, or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakàya; b-Bát nhã đức, of his prajnà, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; c-Giải thoát đức, of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign liberty. Each of these has the four qualities of thường, lạc, ngã, tịnh, eternity, joy, ersonality, and purity. (2) a-Trí đức, the potency of his perfect knowledge; b-Ly đức, of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvàna; the above two are tự lợi for his own advantage; c-Ân đức, of his universal grace and salvation, which tha lợi bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) a-Nhân viên đức, The perfection of his causative or karmaic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; b-Quả viên đức, the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; c-Ân viên đức, the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

Tam giả. Prajnapti (S). The word giả in Buddhist terminology means that every thing is merely phenomenal, and consist of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existence, but all is empty and unreal hư vọng bất thật. The three giả are pháp things, thụ sensations, and danh names.

Tam giả thí thiết, tam nhiếp đề. The three fallacious postulates in regard to pháp, thụ, danh. Tam giả quán the meditation on the above.

Tam giác. The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) tự giác enlightenment for self; (b) giác tha for others; (c) giác hạnh viên mãn perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the first and second a bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of Faith Khởi tín luận: (a) bản giác inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being ; (b) thủy giác initial, or early stages of such enlightenment brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subsconscious intelligence; (c) cứu cánh giác completion of enlightenment the subjective mind in perfect accord with the subsconcious mind, or the inherent intelligence.

Tam giác đàn. A three-cornered altar in the fire-worship of Chân Ngôn tông, connected with exorcism.

Tam giải thoát môn, The three emancipations, idem Tam không and Tam tam muội. They are không giải thoát môn, vô tướng giải thoát môn, vô tác giải thoát môn.

Tam giáo. The three teachings, i.e. Nho Confucianism, Phật Buddhism and Đạo Taoism; or Khổng, Lão, Thích Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto thần đạo, Confucianism and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Sàkyamuni's own teaching of which there are several definitions: (1) The Giang Nam school describe his teaching as (a) tiệm progressive or gradual; (b) đốn immediate; (c) bất định indeterminate. (2) Quang Thống describes the three are: (a) tiệm progressive for beginners; (b) đốn immediate for the more advanced; (c) viên complete for the most advanced. (3) The Nam Sơn deals with (a) Tính không of Hìnayàna; (b) Tướng không of Mahàyàna; (c) Duy thức viên the perfect idealism. Thiên Thai accepts the division of tiệm, đốn and bất định for pre-Lotus teaching trước thời Pháp Hoa, but adopts tiệm, đốn, viên with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of tam tạng giáo, thông giáo and biệt giáo.

Tam giới. The three sets of commandments, or precepts, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity.

Tam giới. Trailokya, Triloka (S). The three realms; also tam hữu. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvana-traya, or triple world of bhùr, bhuvah, and svar, earth, atmosphere and heaven. The Buddhist three are dục, sắc, and vô sắc giới, (a) Dục Kàmadhàtu is the realm of sensuous desire, of dâm sex and thực food; it includes the six heavens of deire sáu cõi trời dục, the human world, and the hells; (b) Sắc giới Rùpadhàtu is the realm of form, meaning chất ngại that which is substantial and resistant; it is above the lust-world and contains bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful, it is represented in the tứ thiền thiên Brahmalokas; (c) Vô sắc giới Arùpadhàtu, or arùpyadhàtu, is the formless realm of pure-spirit, where there is no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived of in four stages, i.e. tứ không xứ the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are tứ vô sắc the four formless realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined.

Tam giới duy nhất tâm. The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of Hoa Nghiêm sùtra; it proceeds Tâm ngoại vô biệt pháp, Tâm Phật cập Chúng sinh, thị tam vô sai biệt "outside mind there is no other thing; mind Buddha and all the living, these there are not different"; in other words there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind.

Tam giới duy tâm. Tribhàvacittamàtra (S). The threefold existence is nothing but the mind.

Tam giới hỏa trạch. The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus parable.

Tam giới hùng. The hero of the trailokya, Buddha.

Tam giới sàng. The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering.

Tam giới tạng. The trailokya-garba, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational.

Tam giới tôn. The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha.

Tam giới từ phụ. The kindly father of the triple world, Buddha.

Tam hạnh. Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. phúc hạnh the ten good deeds thập thiện that cause happy karma; Tội hạnh the ten evil deeds thập ác that cause unhappy karma; bất động hạnh (nghiệp) or vô động hạnh karma arising without activity, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy.

Tam hòa. The union of the three, i.e. căn indriya, cảnh àlambana, thức vijnàna, i.e. organ, object, cognition.

Tam hỏa. The three fires - desire, hate, and stupidity. Xem tam độc.

Tam hoặc. A Thiên Thai classification of the three illusions; also styled tam phiền não trials or temptations, tam lậu leakages, tam cấu uncleanesses, tam kết bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from a-Kiến Tư hoặc things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvàna of ascetic or Hìnayàna Buddhists. Mahàyàna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. b-Trần sa hoặc illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and c-Vô minh hoặc the illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.

Tam học. The "three studies" or vehicles of learning - discipline giới, meditation định, wisdom tuệ. Threefold formation: moral formation, spiritual formation, formation of wisdom. Also the Tripitaka tam tạng; the giới being referred to the luật vinaya, the định to the sùtras, and the tuệ to the sàstras.

Tam hữu. The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem tam giới. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i.e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is hiện hữu present existence, or the present body and mind; đương hữu in a future state; trung hữu antarà-bhava in the intermediate state.

Tam hữu đối. The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment.

Tam hữu vi pháp. The three active, or functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form. i.e. that which has "substantial resistance"; (2) mind; and (3) phi sắc phi tâm entities neither of matter nor mind. Tam hữu vi tướng. The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i.e. life), death; utpàda, sthiti, and nirvàna.

am kết. The three ties: (1) kiến kết the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego. (2) giới thủ kết (3) nghi kết

Tam khoa. The three categories of ngũ ấm, thập nhị xứ, thập bát giới.

Tam khổ. The three kinds of dukkha, pain, or suffering: khổ khổ that produced by direct causes; hoại khổ by loss or deprivation; hành khổ by the passing or impermanency of all things.

Tam kiên. The three sure or certain things are thân, mệnh and tài. i.e. the reward of the true disciple is an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) possessions, vô cực chi thân, vô cùng chi mệnh, vô tận chi tài.

Tam kiếp. The three asankheya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the past trang nghiêm, the present hiền, and the future tinh tú kiếp.

Tam kinh nhất luận. The three sùtras and one sàstra on which the Pure-land sect bases its teaching: Phật thuyết vô lượng thọ kinh, Phật thuyết quán vô lượng thọ kinh, Phật thuyết A di đà kinh; Thiên thân Tịnh độ luận.

Tam lạc. The three joys - the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvàna.

Tam lạc xoa. The three laksa; a laksa is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i.e. an ức. The three laksa of the esoteric sects are the tự or magic word, ấn symbol, and bản tôn object worshipped.

Tam kỳ bách (đại) kiếp. The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three asankhyeyas to attain the lục độ and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two tướng or characteristic marks of a Buddha.

Tam lậu. The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: dục desire; hữu (material, or phenomenal) existence; vô minh ignorance (of the way of escape).

Tam luân. The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) body or deeds; (b) mouth or discourses; (c) mind or ideas. (2) (a) thần thông (or biến) his supernatural powers, or powers of self transformation, associated with thân body; (b) ký tâm luân his discriminating understanding of others, associated with ý mind; (c) giáo thành luân or chính giáo luân his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with khẩu mouth. (3) Similarly (a) thần túc luân; (b) thuyết pháp luân; (c) ức niệm luân. (4) hoặc, nghiệp and khổ. The wheel of illusion hoặc produces karma nghiệp, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering khổ, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) impermanence vô thường; (b) uncleanness bất tịnh; (c) suffering khổ.

Tam luân giáo. The three periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Paramàrtha chân đế: (a) chuyển pháp luân the first rolling onwards of the law-wheel, the first seven years teaching of Hìnayàna, i.e. tứ đế, and không; (b) chiếu pháp luân illuminating or explaining the law-wheel, the thirty years teaching of the bát nhã prajnà or wisdom sùtras, illuminating không, and by không illuminating hữu reality; (c) trì pháp luân maintaining the law-wheel, i.e. the remaining years of teaching of the deeper truths of không hữu both unreality and reality. Also the three-fold group of the Lotus schhol: (a) căn bản pháp luân radical or fundamental, as found in Hoa Nghiêm sùtra; (b) chi mạt pháp luân branch and leaf, i.e. all other teaching; until (c) nhiếp mạt qui bản pháp luân branches and leaves are reunited with the root in the Lotus sùtra Pháp hoa kinh.

Tam luân thế giới. The three wheel world, i.e. phong, thủy, kim luân. Every world is founded on a wheel or whirling wind; above this is one with water; above this is one with metal, on which its nine mountains and eight seas are formed.

Tam luân tướng. The three-wheel condition -giver, receiver, gift.

Tam luận tông. Màdhyamika (S). The Middle School bases its doctrines on three sàstras: Trung quán luận Màdhyamika-sàstra Treatise on the Màdhyaka, Thập nhị môn luận Dvàdasanikàya-sàtra Treatise on the twelve gates, Bách luận Sata-sàstra Treatise on the hundred verses.

Tam lực. The three powers, of which there are various groups: 1-a- personal power; b-Tathàgata-power; c-power of the Buddha within. 2-a- power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medecine (for evil); b- of diagnosis of ailment; c- of suiting and applying the medecine to the disease. 3-a- the power of Buddha; b- of samàdhi; c- of personal achievement or merit.

Tam lực kệ. The triple power verse: Dĩ ngã công đức lực In the power of my virtue, Như Lai gia trì lực And the aiding power of the Tathà gata, Cập dữ pháp giới lực And the power of the spiritual realm, Chu biến chúng sinh giới I can go anywhere in the land of the living.

Tam ma. Sama (S). Level, equal, same etc; cf tam muội and bình đẳng.

Tam ma bán da. Samàpanna (S). In the state of samàdhi.

Tam ma bạt đề. Samàdhi (S). Mental concentration.

Tam ma bì đà. Sama-veda (S). The third of the four Vedas.

Tam ma đề. Samàdhi (S). Mental concentration.

Tam ma địa. Samàdhi (S). Mental concentration.

Tam mạn đà. Samanta (S) Tr. by đẳng, phổ, biến. Universal, everywhere. Samantagandha (S). Phổ huân, universal fragrant; a tree in paradise; a title of a Buddha.

Tam mạn đa bạt đà la. Samantabhadra (S). Fouguen (J). Phổ Hiền. Pervading goodness, or "all gracious'. Also Biến Cát universal fortune; also styled Visvàbhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Nga Mi sơn. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Sùtra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school.

Tam mật. The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e.voice), and mind of the Tathàgata Như Lai, which are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sounds this mystic voice, and all thoughts this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind, are only individualized parts of the Tathàgata, but illusion hides their Tathàgata from them. The esoterics seek to realize their Tathàgata nature by physical signs and postures, by voicing of chân ngôn dhàranis and by meditations so that nhập ngã ngã nhập He may enter me and I Him, which is the perfection of siddhi tất địa.

Tam mật lục đại. The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is associted with earth, water and fire; the mystic words with wind and space; the mystic mind with thức consciousness (or cognition).

Tam mật tương ưng. The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind of theTathàgata are identical with those of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dharmakàya, or body of Buddha.

Tam miệu. Samyak (S). Chính đẳng, Perfect, right.

Tam miệu tam bồ đề. Samyakcambodhi (S). Correct universal intelligence, Chính biến tri (đạo). Correct equal or universal enlightenment Chính đẳng giác. Correct universal perfect enlightenment Chính đẳng chính giác. An epithet ođ every Buddha. The full term is anuttara-samyak-sambodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or understanding; omniscience.

Tam miệu tam phật đà. Samyaksambuddha (S). The third of the ten titles of Buddha defined as Chính biến tri or Chính đẳng giác one who has perfect universal knowledge or understanding, omniscient.

Tam minh. Te-vijja (P). Threefold knowledge. Tam minh kinh Tevijja-vacchagota-sutta.

Tam minh. The three insights; also tam đạt. Applied to Buddhas they are called tam đạt, to arhats tam minh: a-Túc mệmh minh insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; b-Thiên nhãn minh supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; c-Lậu tận minh nirvàna insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome all passions or temptations.

Tam minh trí. Trividyà (S). The three clear conceptions that: a-All is impermanent vô thường anitya; b-all is sorrowful khổ dukkha; c-all is devoided of a self vô ngã anàtman.

Tam mục. The three-eyed, a term for Siva, i.e. Mahesvara; simili for the dharmakàya, or spiritual body, prajnà or wsdom, and nirvàna emancipation.

Tam muội. Samàdhi (S). Putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation. Also tam ma địa, tam ma đề, tam ma đế. Interpreted by định or chính định the mind fixed and undisturbed; by chính thụ correct sensation of the object contemplated; by chính tâm hành xứ the  condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by tức lự nghi tâm the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by đẳng trì the mind held in equilibrum; by sa ma tha i.e. chỉ tức to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is giải thoát, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samàdhi.

Tam muội lạc chính thọ ý sinh thân. Samàdhi-sukha-samàpatti-mano-mayakàya (S)

Tam muội da. Samàya (S) is variously defined as hội coming together, meeting, convention; thời timely; tông in agreement, at the same class; bình đẳng equal, equalized; cảnh giác aroused, warned; trừ cấu chướng ridance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva.

Tam muội da giới. Samàya-commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects.

Tam muội da giới. Samàya world, a general name for the esoteric sect.

Tam muội da hình. The distinguising symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Quán thế Âm.

Tam muội da hội. The Samàya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine mandalas, consisting of seventy-three saints represented by the symbols of their power.

Tam muội da mạn đà la. Samàya-mandala (S). One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword.

Tam muội da thân (hình). The embodiment of Samàya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stùpa as one of the symbols of Vairocana Đại nhật; the lotus of Quán thế Âm etc. Thân is used for a Buddha, hình for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the báo thân sambhogakàya.

Tam muội da trí. Samaya wisdom (S). In esoteric teaching, the characteristics of a Buddha or bodhisattva's wisdom, as shown in the mandala.

Tam muội hỏa. Fire of samàdhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when He entered nirvàna.

Tam muội ma. Samàdhi-màra (S). One of the ten màras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom.

Tam muội môn. The different stages of a bodhisattva's samàdhi.

Tam muội Phật. Samàdhi Buddha (S). One of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the HoaNghiêm Kinh.

Tam muội tương ưng. The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image.

Tam muội vương kinh. Samàdhiràja-sùtra (S). Sùtra of the King of Concentration.

Tam năng tam bất năng. The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he cannot (a) annihilate causality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living.

Tam niệm trụ. Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part do not believe, the Buddha never rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-seeing wisdom chính niệm chính trí keeps him above the disturbances of joy and sorrow.

Tam niệm xứ. Xem tam niệm trụ.

Tam Niết bàn môn. The three gates to the city of nirvàna, i.e. Không the Void Vô tướng Formlessness, and Vô tác Inactivity; idem Tam giải thoát môn.

Tam nghi. The three doubts - of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

Tam nghịch. The three unpardonable sins of Devadatta which sent him to the Avici hell - schism, stening the Buddha to the shedding of his blood, killing a nun.

Tam nghiệp. Trividhà-dvàra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karmas of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought thân, khẩu, ý. (2) (a) Present-life happy karma; (b) present-life unhappy karma; (c) bất định karma of an unperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) Lậu nghiệp karma of ordinary rebirth; (b) vô lậu nghiệp karma of Hìnayàna nirvàna; (c) phi lậu phi vô lậu karma of neither, independent of both, Mahàyàna nirvàna. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life.

Tam nghiệp cúng dường. To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind.

Tam nghiệp tương ưng. In worship all three (body, mouth, mind) correspond.

Tam ngữ. Buddha's three modes of discourse, i.e. without reserve, or the whole truth; tactical, or partial, adapting truth to the capacity of his hearers; and a combination of both.

Tam nhân. The six "causes" of the Abhidharma-Kosa Câu xá luận as reduced to three in the Satya siddi sàstra Thành thật luận, i.e. sinh nhân producing cause, tập nhân habit cause, y nhân dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs lục căn and their objects lục cảnh causing the cognitions lục thức.

Tam nhân tam quả. The three causes produce their three effects: (1) Dị thục nhân dị thục quả differently ripening causes produce differently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produce its developed effect, especially the effect of the present causes in the next transmigration; (2) Phúc nhân phúc báo blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) Trí nhân trí quả wisdom (now) produces wisdom-fruit (hereafter).

Tam nhẫn. Three forms of ksànti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred Nại oán hại nhẫn, under physical hardship An thế khổ nhẫn, and in pursuit of the faith Đế sát pháp nhẫn or Vô sanh pháp nhẫn. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear Âm hưởng nhẫn, patience in obeying the truth Nhu thuận nhẫn, patience in attaining absolute reality Vô sanh pháp nhẫn. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitàbha Hỷ nhẫn, patience in meditation on his truth Ngộ nhẫn, and patience in constant faith in him Tín nhẫn.Another is the patience of submission, of faith and of obedience.

Tam Phạm. The three Brahna heavens of the first dhyàna: that of Phạm chúng Brahma-pàrasidya, the assembly of Brahma; Phạm phụ Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; Đại Phạm Mahàbrahmà, Great Brahmà.

Tam pháp. The three dharmas, i.e. giáo pháp the Buddha's teaching; hành pháp the practice of it; chứng pháp realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvàna.

Tam pháp ấn. Xem tam ấn.

Tam phát tâm. The three resolves of the Khởi tín luận Awakening of Faith: (a) tín thành tựu phát tâm to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) giải hành phát tâm to understand and carry in practice the wisdom; (c) chứng phát tâm the realization, or proof of, or union with bodhi.

Tam phẩm. The general meaning is thượng, trung, hạ superior, medium, ihferior.

Tam phẩm sa di. The three grades of sràmanera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled khu ô sa di, 14-19 ứng pháp sa di, and 20 and upwards danh tự sa di.

Tam phẩm tất địa. The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. They are thượng superior, to bo born in the Mật nghiêm quốc Vairocana Pure-land, trung medium in one of the other Pure-lands among which is the Western Paradise, hạ inferior in the Tu la cung Sun palaces among the devas. Also styled tam phẩm thành tựu,

Tam phẩm thính pháp. The three grades of hearers, i.e. thượng with the thần spirit, trung with the tâm mind, hạ with the nhĩ ears.

Tam phân khoa kinh. The three divisions of a treatise on a sùtra, i.e. tự phần introduction, chính tông phần discussion of the subject, lưu thông phần application.

Tam Phật bồ đề. The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the trikàyas tam thân, i.e that under the bodhi-tree, that of parinirvàna, that of tathàgata-garba in its eternal nirvàna aspect.

Tam Phật đà. Sambuddha (S). The truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment.

Tam Phật ngữ. The Buddha's three modes of discourse - unqualified, i.e. out of the fullness of his nature; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both.

Tam Phật tính. The three kinds of Buddha-nature: 1-Tự tính trụ Phật tính the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths; 2-Dẫn xuất Phật tính the Buddha-naure developed by the right discipline; 3-Chí đắc quả Phật tính the final or perfect Buddha-nature.

Tam Phật thân. Xem tam thân.

Tam phật tử. All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds - the commonalty are ngoại tử external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles tiểu and trung thừa are thứ tử, secondary sons; the bodhisattvas (i.e. mahàyànists) are đạo tử true sons.

Tam phúc. The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The Vô lượng thọ kinh has the felicity of (a) thế phúc filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) giới phúc of keeping the other commandments; (c) hành phúc of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of Buddha-way. (2) The Câu xá luận has the blessedness of: (a) thí loại phúc almsgiving, in evoking resulting wealth; (b) giới loại phúc observance of the tính giới (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the già giới (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) tu loại phúc observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round.

Tam phúc nghiệp. The three things that bring a happy lot - almsgiving, impartial kindness and love, pondering over the demands of the life beyond.

Tam phược. The three bonds - desire, anger, stupidity. Xem tam độc.

Tam phương tiện. A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (or speech), and mind, their control and the entry into the tam mật three mysteries.

Tam quán. The three studies, mediatations, or insights. The most general group is that of Thiên Thai: (a) không quán study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) giả quán of all as unreal, transient, or temporal; (c) trung quán as the via media inclusive of both. The Hoa Ngiêm group is chân không quán, lý sự vô ngại quán, chu biến hàm dung quán. The Nam Sơn group is tính không quán, tướng không quán, duy thức quán. The Từ Ân group is hữu quán, không quán, and trung quán.

Tam quang thiên. Sun, moon, and stars. Also in the second dhyàna of the form-worrld there are the two deva regions thiểu quang thiên, vô lượng quang thiên, and quang âm thiên. Also Quán thế âm bồ tát is styled Nhậ thiên tử sun-prince, or divine son of the sun; Đại thế chí bồ tát is styled Nguyệt thiên tử, divine son of the moon; and Hư không tạng bồ tát, the bodhisattva of the empyrean is styled Minh tinh thiên tử, divine son of the bright stars.

Tam qui. Trisarana, Sarana-gamana (S). The three surrenders to, "or formulas of refuge" in the Three Precious Ones Tam Bảo, i.e. to Buddha Phật, the Dharma Pháp, the Sangha Tăng. The three formulas are Qui y Phật Buddham saranam gacchàmi, Qui y Pháp Dharmam saranam gacchàmi, Qui y Tăng Sangham saranam gacchàmi. It is the most primitive formula of the early Buddhism. The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher Sư, the Law as medicine Dược, the Ecclesia as friens Hữu. These are known as the Tam Qui Y. Threefold refuge: I take my refuge in the Buddha, in the Dharma, in the Sangha.

Tam qui thụ pháp. The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the above three refuges.Tam qui ngũ giới. The ceremony which makes the recipient a ưu bà tắc upasaka, male disciple or ưu bà di upàsikà, female disciple, accepting the five precepts.

Tam quí, ba mùa. The "three seasons" of an Indian year - spring, summer, and winter; a year.

Tam quĩ. The three rules of the Thiên Thai Lotus school: (a) chân tính quĩ the absolute and real, the chân như or bhùtatathatà;(b) quán chiếu quĩ meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) tư thành quĩ the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the tam quĩ hoằng kinh the three are traced to the Pháp sư phẩm of the Lotus Sùtra and are developed as: (a) từ bi thất (vào nhà từ bi) the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) nhẫn nhục y (mặc giáp nhẫn nhục) the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) pháp không tòa (ngồi tòa tánh không) the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvàna tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of tư thành quĩ, patience of quán chiếu,and nirvàna tranquility of chân tính quĩ.

Tam quyền nhất thật. The Thiên Thai division of the Schools of Buddhism into four, three termed quyền temporary, i.e. tạng, thông. biệt, the fourth is the thật or viên real or perfect School of Salvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as reavealed in the Lotus Sùtra.

Tam sắc. The three kinds of rùpa, or form-realms: the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas.

Tam sinh. The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Thiên Thai has: (a) Chủng planting the seed; (b) Thục ripening; (c) Giải thoát liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Hoa nghiêm has: (a) Kiến văn sinh a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) Giải hành sinh liberation in the present life; (c) Chứng nhập sinh realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called Tam sinh thaành Phật Buddhahood in the course of three lives.

Tam sư thất chứng. The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.

Tam sứ. The three (divine) messengers - birth, sickness, death. Also thiên sứ.

Tam sự nạp. A term for a monk's robe of five, seven, or nine patches.

Tam sự giới. The commands relating to body, speech andmind.

Tam tai. The three calamities; they are of two kinds minor tiểu tai and major đại tai. The minor appearing during a decadent world period, are sword đao binh tai, pestilence tật dịch tai, and famine cơ cẩn tai; the major, for world destruction, are fire hỏa tai, water thủy tai and wind phong tai.

Tam tam muội (địa). The three samàdhi, or the samàdhi on three subjects; also called tam định, tam đẳng trì, tam trị; tam giải thoát môn, tam chủng tam muội; tam chủng đẳng trì. There are two forms of such meditation, that of hữu lậu reincarnational, or temporal, called tam tam muội; and that of vô lậu liberation, or nirvàna called tam giải thoát. The three subjects and objects of the meditation are: (1) Không to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) Vô tướng to get rid the idea of form, or externals, i.e. the thập tướng which are the five senses, male and female, and the three hữu; (3) Vô nguyện to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed vô tác, vô khởi.

Tam tạng. Tripitaka (S). Three Collections of the Buddhist Canon. Three baskets: Basket of sutra, basket of discipline, basket of philosophical treatises

Tam tạng pháp sư. Master of tripitaka.

Tam tâm. The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by a-Chí thành tâm perfect sincerity; b-Thâm tâm profound resolve for it; c-Hồi hướng phát nguyện tâm resolve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) a-Căn bản tâm the 8th or àlaya-vijnàna consciousness, the store-house, or source of all seeds of good or evil; b-Y bản tâm the 7th or mano-vijnàna consciousness, the mediating cause of all taint; c-Khởi sự tâm the sadàyatana-vijnàna consciousness, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) a-Nhập tâm; b-Trụ tâm; c-Xuất tâm. The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind.

Tam tế. Past, present, future, idem tam thế.

Tam tế. The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with lục thô cruder or common concepts, in the Awakening of Faith Khởi tín luận The three are: (1) vô minh nghiệp tướng ignorance, or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; (2) năng kiến tướng ability to perceive phenomena, perceptive faculty; (3) cảnh giới tướng the object perceived or the empirical world. The first is associated with the thể corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have coexistence. e.g. water and wave.

Tam thánh. The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The Hoa Nghiêm have Vairocana Tỳ lô xá na in the centre with Manjusri Văn thù sư lợi on his left and Samantabhadra Phổ Hiền on his right. TheTịnh Độ Pure land sect have Amitàbha in the centre, ăith Avalokitesvara Quán thế Âm on his left and Mahàsthàmapràpta on his right.

Tam thân. Trikàya (S). The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the Dharmakàya pháp thân, Sambhogakàya báo thân, Nirmànakàya ứng thân.The three are defined as tự tính, thụ dụng, biến hóa, the Buddha body per se, or in its essential nature; his body ođ bliss which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed.

Tam thân nghiệp. The three physical wrong deeds - killing, robbing, adultery.

Tam thân tam đức. The tam thân are pháp, báo, ứng; the tam đức are pháp, bát, giải,i.e. the virtue or merit of the (a) pháp thân being absolute, independence, reality; (b) báo thân being bát nhã prajnà or wisdom; (c) ứng thân being giải thoát đức liberation or nirvàna.

Tam thập lục vật. The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i.e. the vile body.

Tam thập nhị thân. The thirty-two forms of Quán thế Âm and of Phổ Hiền, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a raksas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus sùtra.

Tam thập nhị tướng. Dvàtrimsadvaralaksana (S). The thirty two laksanas or physical marks of a cakravarti or wheel-king chuyển luân thánh vương, especially of the Buddha, i.e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees, well retracted male organ, height and stretch or arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the thất xứ, i.e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a whit ùrnà or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an usnisa or fleshy rotuberance on the crown.

Tam thập sinh. In each of the thập địa ten states there are three conditions, nhập, trụ, xuất, entry, stay, exit, hence the "thirty lives".

Tam thập tam Quán âm. The thirty three forms of Quán âm.

Tam thập tam thiên. Tràiyastrimsas (S). The thirty three heavens, the realm of thirty three gods.

Tam thập thất đạo phẩm. Bodhipaksika (S).The thirty seven conditions leading to Bodhi. Tứ niệm xứ: four objects of mindfulness; Tứ chính cần: four proper lines of exertion; Tứ như ý túc: four steps towards supernatural powers; Ngũ căn: five spiritual faculties; Ngũ lực: their five powers; Thất giác chi: seven branches of enlightenment; Bát chính đạo: eightfold noble path.

Tam thất nhật tư duy. The twenty one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking round the bodhi-tree and considering how to carry his way of salvation to the world.

Tam thế. Three periods: past, present, future.

Tam thế giác mẫu. A name for Mansjusri Văn thù; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana, he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas, past, present, and future.

Tam thế gian. There are two definitions: (1) The realms of khí matter, chúng sinh life, and trí chính giác mind, especially the Buddha's mind. (2) The ngũ ấm psychological realm (mind), chúng sinh life, and quốc độ or khí material realm.

Tam thế bất khả đắc. Everything past, present, future whether mental or material is intangible, fleeting, and can not be held.

Tam thế giả thật. The reality or otherwise of things or events past, present and future. Some Hìnayàna schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past dĩ hữu and the future đương hữu.

Tam thế Phật. The Buddhas of the past, present and future, i.e. Kàsyapa, Sàkyamuni, and Maitreya.

Tam thế tam thiên Phật. The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas - of the past called trang nghiêm kiếp, the present hiền kiếp, and the future tinh tú kiếp.

Tam thế tâm. Mind, or thought, past, present, or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of.

Tam thế tâm, tam thế liễu đạt. A Buddha's perfect knowledge of past, present and future.

Tam thế thật hữu pháp thể hằng hữu. The Sarvàstìvàdah school Nhất thiết hữu bộ maintains that the three states (past, present, future) are real, so the substance of all things is permanent, i.e. time is real, matter is eternal.

Tam thế trí. One of a Tathàgata's Như Lai ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future.

Tam thế vô chướng ngại trí giới. The wisdom-law or moral-law that frees from all impediments past, present and future. Also styled Tam muội da giới, Tự tính bản nguyên giới, Tam bình đẳng giới, Thiện đề tâm giới, Vô vi giới, and Chân pháp giới.

Tam thể. Worship with thân body, khẩu mouth, ý mind.

Tam thí. The three forms of giving: (1) (a) Tài thí one's goods; (b) Pháp thí the Law or Truth; (c) Vô úy thí courage or confidence. (2) (a) Vật thí goods; (b) Cúng dường cung kính thí worship; (c) Pháp thí preaching. (3) (a) Ẩm thực thí food; (b) Trân bảo thí valuables; (c) Thân mạng thí life.

Tam thiên. Trisahasra (S). Three thousand; a term used by the Thiên Thai school for nhất thiết chư pháp, i.e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm or Buddha-world.

Tam thiên đại thiên thế giới. Tri-sahasra-mahà-sahasra-loka-dhàtu (S). A great chiliocosm. Mt Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1,000 of these form a small chiliocosm tiểu thiên thế giới; 1,000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm trung thiên thế giới; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm đại thiên thế giới, which thus consists of 1,000,000,000 small worlds. Tam thiên đại thiên thế giới is the same as Đại thiên thế giới which is one Buddha-world.

Tam thiên oai nghi. A bhiksu's regulations amount to about 250, these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1,000; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3,000 regulations.

Tam thiền. The third dhyàna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form.

Tam thiện căn. The three good "roots", the foundation of all moral development, i.e. vô tham, vô sân, vô si no lust (or selfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also thí giving, từ kindness, tuệ moral wisdom.

Tam thiện đạo. The three good or upward directions or states of existence:thiên the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life; nhân the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; a tu la the inferior class of goodness with the asùra state. Also tam thiện thú.

Tam thiện tri thức. The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), a fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dànapati).

Tam thỉnh. A request thrice repeated - implying earnest desire.

Tam thoái khuất. The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy - the vastness of bodhi, the unlimited call to sacrifice, the uncertainty of final perseverance.

Tam thời. The three periods, after his nirvàna, of every Buddha's teaching. Chính correct or the period of orthodoxy and vigour; Tượng semblance or the period of scholasticism; Mạt end, the period of decline and termination.

Tam thời giáo phán. The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching as defined by the Dharmalaksana school Pháp tướng tông. They are: (1) Hữu when he taught the thật hữu reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in thật ngã real personality, or a permenent soul; this period is represented by the four A hàm kinh Agamas and other Hìnayàna sùtras; (2) Không Sùnya, when he negatived the idea of thật pháp reality of things and advocated that all was không unreal the period of the Bát nhã kinh prajnà sùtras; (3) Trung Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school's specific sùtra Giải thâm mật scripture unlocking the mysteries also the Pháp Hoa Lotus sùtra and later sùtras.

Tam thời niên hạn. The three periods of Buddhism - 1,000 years of Chính pháp pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of Tượng pháp resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of Mạt pháp decay. Other definitions are Chính and Tượng 500 years each, or Chính 1,000 and Tượng 500, or Chính 500 and Tượng 1,000.

Tam thời tọa thiền. The thrice a day meditation -about 10 am, and 4 and 8 pm.

Tam thú. The three animals - hare, horse, elephant - crossing a stream. The sravaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka is like the horse who crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks accross on the bottom.

Tam thụ. The three states of Vedanà, i.e. sensation, are divided into painful khổ, pleasurable lạc, and freedom from both xả.

Tam thụ nghiệp. The karma, or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both.

Tam thuật. Three devices in meditation for getting rid of Màra-hindrances ma chướng: within, to get rid of passions and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptation.

Tam thừa. Triyàna (S) The three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across samsàra, or mortality (birth and death) to the shore of nirvàna. The three are styled: (1) Tiểu thừa Hìnayàna, lesser vehicle; (2) Trung thừa Madhyamayàna, medium vehicle; (3) Đại thừa Mahayàna, greater vehicle.

Tam thức. The three states of mind or consciousness: chân thức the original unsullied consciousness or Mind, the Tathàgata-garbh, the eighth or àlaya; hiện thức mind or consciousness diversified in contact with or producing phenomena, good and evil; phân biệt thức consciousness discriminating and evolving the objects of the five senses. Also Ý thức manas, Tâm thức àlaya, Vô cấu thức amala.

Tam tiệm. The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to Prajnà school: (a) the Lộc uyển initial stage in the Deer Park; (b) the Phương đẳng period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the Bát nhã Prajnà or wisdom period which succeeded.

Tam tính. Trayah-svabhàvah (S). Three forms of knowledge.

Tam tính phân biệt. The differentiation of the three conditions good, evil, and neutral.

Tam tịnh nhục. The three kinds ođ "clean" flesh - when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.

Tam tôn. The three honoured ones: Buddha, The Law, The Order. Others are: Amitàbha A di đà, Avalokitesvara Quán thế Âm, and Mahàsthàmapràpta Đại thế Chí. Another group is: Bhaisajya Dược sư, Vairocana Tỳ lô xá na, Candraprabha; and another: Sàkyamuni Thích ca mâu ni, Manjusrì Văn thù sư lợi, and Samantabhadra Phổ Hiền.

Tam tôn Phật. The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitàbha, Avalokitesvara, Mahàsthàmapràpta. Though bodhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitàbha.

Tam tông. The three schools of Pháp tướng tông, Phá tướng tông, Pháp tính tông, representing the ideas of không, giả, and bất không giả, i.e. unreality, temporary reality, and neither; or absolute, realtive, and neither.

Tam trang nghiêm. The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e religious men and bodhisattvas.

Tam trí. The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) Nhất thiết trí sràvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharmas or laws are void and unreal; (b) Đạo chủng trí bodhisattva-knowledge of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) Nhất thiết chủng trí Buddha-knowledge or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Thiên Thai associates the above with Không, Giả, Trung (2) (a) Thế gian trí earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) Xuất thế gian trí supra-mundane, or spiritual (sràvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) Xuất thế gian thượng thổ (độ) trí supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas.

Tam tu. The three ways of discipline, i.e. three sràvaka thanh văn and three bodhisattva ways. The three sràvaka ways are vô thường tu no realization of the eternal, seeing everywhere as transient; phi lạc tu joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvàna joy; vô ngã tu non ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these.

Tam tụ giới. Xem tam tụ tịnh giới.

Tam tụ. The three groups, i.e. chính định tụ those decided for the truth; tà định tụ those who are decided for heresy; bất định tụ the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools.

Tam tụ tịnh giới. The three cumulative commandments: (a) nhiếp luật nghi giới the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) nhiếp thiện pháp giới whatever works for goodness; (c) nhiêu ích hữu tình giới whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings.

Tam tuệ. The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: Văn tuệ from reading, hearing, instruction; Tư tuệ from reflection, etc.; Tu tuệ from practice (of abstract meditation).

Tam tư. All action and speech have three mental conditions - reflection, judgement, decision.

Tam tử. The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and competent; one unfilial, stupid and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas bồ tát, sràvakas thanh văn and icchantikas nhất xiển đề.

Tam tự. Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third tự điều self-control, the fourth and fifth tự tịnh self-purification, the last three tự độ self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also tự thể, tự tướng, tự dụng, substance, form and function.

Tam tự tính tướng. Svabhàva-laksana-traya (S). The three forms of knowledge biến y viên tam tính the three aspects of the nature of a thing -biến kế sở chấp tính parikalpita, partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; y tha khởi tính paratantra, only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; viên thành thật tính parinispanna, all round, or perfect when content, form, etc., are all considered.

Tam tức nhất. The three vehicles (Hìnayàna, Madhyamayàna, Mahàyàna) are one, i.e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all.

Tam tướng. The three forms or positions: giải thoát tướng nirvàna; ly tướng no nirvàna; diệt tướng or phi hữu phi vô chi trung đạo absence of both, or the "middle way" of neither.

Tam tướng tục. The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings who arise from the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes.

Tam tưởng. The three evil thoughts are desire, hate, malevolence; the three good thoughts are Oán tưởng thoughts (of love) to enemies, Thân tưởng the same to family and friends, Trung nhân tưởng the same to those who are neither enemies nor friends, i.e. to all.

Tam uẩn. The three kinds of skandhas, aggregations, or combinations, into which all life may be expressed according to the Hóa Địa Bộ or Mahìsàsakàh school: nhất niệm uẩn combintion for a moment, momentary existence; nhất kỳ uẩn combination for a period, e.g. a single human life ; cùng sinh tử uẩn the total existence of all beings.

Tam vị. The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation

Tam Võ (Vũ). The three emperors Vũ who persecuted Buddhism Thái Vũ of Ngụy dynasty A.D. 424-452; Vũ đế of the Chu A.D. 561-578; Vũ tông of Đường A.D. 841-7.

Tam vô lậu học. The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) Giới moral discipline; (b) Định meditation, or trance; (c) Tuệ the resulting wisdom.

Tam vô sai biệt. The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature: (a) Tâm the nature of mind is the same in Buddhas and men, and all the living; (b) Phật the nature and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same; (c) Chúng sinh the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same.

Tam vô tận trang nghiêm tạng. The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories i.e. the thân, khẩu, ý deeds, words, and thoughts of a Buddha.

Tam vô tính. The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) Tướng vô tính form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, i.e. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) Sinh vô tính life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials; (c) Thắng nghĩa vô tính the thắng nghĩa, concept of the chân như or bhùtatathatà is unreal, e.g. the hem of which the rope is made; the bhùtatathatà is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal.The three are also known as tướng vô tính, vô tự nhiên tính, pháp vô tính.

Tam xa. Triyàna (S). The three vehicles across samsàra into nirvàna, i.e. the cart offered by the father in the Lotus Sùtra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing srràvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyeka-buddha; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas.

Tam y. Tricìvara (S). The three regulation garments of a monk, cà sa kàsàya, i.e.(1) tăng già lê sanghàtì, cửu điều đại y, ceremonial robe; (2) uất đa la tăng uttaràsanga, thất điều thượng y, upper garment worn over the (3) an đà hội antaravàsaka, ngũ điều nội y,inner garm

Tán. Viprakrì (S). Scatter, disperse, dismiss.

Tán dương. To praise, laud, commend.

Tán địa. The stage of distraction.

Tán hoa. To scatter flowers in honour of a Buddha, etc.

Tán loạn. Scattered, dispersed, unsettled, disturbed, restless.

Tán nghi tam muội. A samàdhi free from all doubt.

Tán nghiệp. The good karma acquired in a life of activity.

Tán nghiệp niệm Phật. To repeat the name of Buddha generally and habitually.

Tán nhật. The dispersing day, the last of an assembly.

Tán phục. To admire. Also thán phục, khâm phục.

Tán sinh trai. Almsgiving in petition for restoration from illness.

Tán tâm. A distracted or unsettled mind; inattentive.

Tán thán. To eulogize, to overpraise.

Tán tụng. Stotra (S). Songs in praise of the Buddhas. To laud s.o.; to sing s.o's praises.

Tán pháp giới tụng. Dharmadhàtustotra (S).

Tạng, tàng. Treasury, thesaurus, store, to hide; the Canon. An intp. of pitaka, a basket, box, granary, collection of writings. Tam tạng Tripitaka consists of the sùtras, vinana and sàstras.

Tạng điện. A library of the scriptures.

Tạng giáo. The Pitaka, i.e. Tripitaka school, one of the four divisions Tạng, Thông, Biệt, Viên as classified by Thiên Thai.

Tạng kinh. The Canon, of which there are catalogues varying in number of contents, the first by Lương Vũ Đế of 5,400 quyển; Khai Nguyên 5,048 quyển. The oldest existing canon is believed to be the Korean with 6,467 quyển; the Tống canon has 5,714 quyển; the Nguyên 5,397 quyển; the Japanese 665 covers; the Minh 6,771 quyển, reprinted in the Thanh dynasty with supplement.

Tạng lý. The Tathàgatagarbha, or universal storehouse whence all truth comes.

Tạng thức. The Alayavijnàna, the storehouse of all knowledge, the eighth consciousness.

Tạp. Mixed, variegated, heterogenous, hybrid, confused, disordered.

Tạp A hàm kinh. The Samyuktàgama-sùtra tr. by Gunabhadra.

Tạp Hoa kinh. Xem Hoa Nghiêm kinh.

Tạp nhiễm. All kinds of moral infection; imputity, defilement.

Tạp nghiệp. A world of varied karma.

Tạp sinh thế giới. A world of various beings, i.e. that of five destinies, hells, demons, animals, men and devas.

Tạp sắc Bảo hoa nghiêm thân Phật. Ratnakusumasanpuchpitagàtra-Buddha (S).

Tạp tính giới. The world of mixed dwellers, i.e. the five species ngũ thú.

Tát bà đa bộ. Sarvastivàda, Sarvastivàdin (S). Nhất thiết hữu bộ.

Tát bà nhã. Xem Nhất thiết trí.

Tát đỏa. Sattva (S). Creature, living being.

Tăng. Samgha (S). An assembly, collection, company, society. The corporate assembly of at least three (formerly four) monks under a chairman empowered to hear confession, grant absolution, and ordain. The church or monastic order, the third member of the Triratna. The term tăng used alone has come to mean a monk or monks in general.

Tăng bảo. The idealized church, the third member of the Triratna.

Tăng chi bộ kinh. Angutara-Nikaya (P).

Tăng chúng. Samgha (S). The body, or assembly of monks; Buddhist clergy.

Tăng già. Xem tăng.

Tăng già ba la. Samghapàla (S). Also Chúng Dường.

Tăng già bà thi sa. Samghavasesa (S).

Tăng già bạt đà la. Samghabhadra (S). Also Chúng Hiền.

Tăng già bạt ma. Samghavarman (S). Also Chúng Khải.

Tăng già bạt trừng. Samghvarti (S). Also Chúng Hiện

Tăng già da xá. Samghayathata (S). 18th Indian patriarch. Also Chúng Xưng.

Tăng già đề bà. Samghadeva (S). Also Chúng Thiên.

Tăng già lam. Samghàràma (S). A monastery with its garden or grove.

Tăng già lê. Sanghàti (S). The patch-robe, one of the three garments of a monk.

Tăng già nan đề. Samghanandi (S). 17th Indian patriarch. Also Chúng Hà.

Tăng già yết ma. Samghakarma (S).

Tăng giới. The ten prohibitions; the complete commands for monks.

Tăng kì. Sanghika (S). Relating to a sangha; a complete set of land and buildings or a monastery.

Tăng lạp. Monastic age.

Tăng lữ. Monastic companion, or company.

Tăng nghi. The monastic custom, i.e. shaving head and beard, wearing the robe, etc..

Tăng nhất A hàm kinh. Ekottarikàgama (S).

Tăng nhất tập. Anguttara Nikàya (P)

Tăng ni. Monks and nuns.

Tăng phường. A monaster; also a nunnery.

Tăng quan. Director of monk.

Tăng tàn. Sanghàvasesa (S). A sin of an ordained person requiring open confession before the assembly for absolution, or riddance tàn; failing confession, dismissal from the order.

Tăng thống. Samgharàja (S). Chief of the Buddhist clergy in a country. Supreme Patriarch of the Sangha Council.

Tăng thượng quả. Adhipatiphala (S). Dominant fruition.

Tăng thượng tâm kinh. Vitakkasanthàba-suttam (P).

Tăng trưởng thiên vương. Virùdhaka (S). Southern God Protector. Also Tì lưu li.

Tăng tục. Monks and the laity.

Tăng thứ. In order of monastic age, according to years of ordination.

Tăng thượng mạn. Pride, regarding oneself as superior.

Tâm. Hrd, Hrdeya (S). Heart; mind; intention; will; sense; desire; centre; middle.

Tâm ấn. Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth.

Tâm ba. Wave of thoughts; uninterrupted sequence of thoughts.

Tâm bảo. Precious mind.

Tâm băng. The heart chaste as ice; the mind congealed as ice.

Tâm bất tại. Absent minded, inattentive; uneasy mind.

Tâm bình. Serenity, calmness (of the mind).

Tâm can. Heart and liver; will and courage.

Tâm cảnh. Mood; state of mind.

Tâm cấu. The impurities of the mind.

Tâm chí. Will, determination.

Tâm cơ. Cunningness of mind; sagacity, shrewdness; contrivances.

Tâm cực. The pole or extreme of the mind; the mental reach; the Buddha.

Tâm châu. The gem of mind. The mind stuff of all the living, being of the pure Buddha-nature is likened a translucent gem.

Tâm chân. Our mind is by nature that of the bhùta-tathatà. True-mind.

Tâm chú. Mind-spell, true-mantra.

Tâm chứng. The inner witness, or assurance, mind and Buddha witnessing together.

Tâm diệt. Mind-extinction

Tâm dục. Desire.

Tâm duyên. Mental cognition of the environment; to lay hold of external things by means of the mind.

Tâm dược. Mind-medicament.

Tâm đắc. To have an insight into, to see through, to penetrate the essence of (things)

Tâm đăng. The lamp of the mind. Penetration of mind; perspicacity, insight, acumen.

Tâm địa. The bottom of the heart; the mental ground or condition; mind, nature.

Tâm điền. The field of the mind, or heart.

Tâm đình. The pavilion of the mind, i.e.the body.

Tâm giải thoát. Ceto-vimutti (P). Emancipation of Heart (Mind).

Tâm giới. The world of the mind.

Tâm giới, Đại thừa giới. The commandments of Mahayàna.

Tâm hải. Mind as a sea or ocean.

Tâm hạnh (hành). The activities of the mind; also working on the mind for its control; mind and actions.

Tâm hoa. Heart-flower. Good spirits; cheerful disposition.

Tâm hồn. Soul; spirit; heart, feeling; nature; essence, inspiration, life.

Tâm hương. The incense of the mind. Fervour.

Tâm kinh. Heart sùtra.

Tâm kính. The mirror of the mind.

Tâm khí. Mind as receptacle of all phenomina.

Tâm khổ. Mental anguish, sorrow.

Tâm không. Mind space, or mind spaciousness; also the emptied mind.

Tâm liên. The lotus of the mind.

Tâm linh. The mind spirit or genius; intellect, intelligence; psyche.

Tâm lực. Mental vigour; strenght of mind; mental power; psychical energy.

Tâm lượng. Mind measure; the ordinary man's calculating mind; also capacity of mind.

Tâm ma. Mind-mara.

Tâm mã. Restless mind.

Tâm nguyện. Wish, desire, intention, vow, resolve; will of the mind.

Tâm nguyệt. Mind (as the) moon; heart pure and bright as the moon.

Tâm nhãn. The mind's eye; mental vision; acumen; perspicacity; clairvoyance.

Tâm nhất cảnh tính. Città-ekàgrata (S). Concentration, "One pointedness of mind"

Tâm nbiệm. To think of; to reflect upon; to mediatate upon; to ponder over sth.

Tâm niệm bất không quá. Pondering on (Buddha) and not passing (the time) in vain.

Tâm niệm thuyết giới. Aditthàna Uposatha (P). Observance with determination.

Tâm pháp. Citta-dharmas (S) Mental-dharmas. Eight mental-dharmas: (1) nhãn thức caksur-vijnàna, eye-consciousness; (2) nhĩ thức srotra- vijnàna, ear-consciousness; (3) tỉ thức ghràna-vijnàna, nose-consciousness; (4) thiệt thức jihvà-vijnàna, tongue-consciousness; (5) thân thức kàya-vijnàna, body-consciousness; (6) ý thức mano-vijnàna, conscious mind; (7) mạt na thức manana-vijnàna, subsconcious mind; (8) a lại da thức àlaya-vijnàna, ideation store.

Tâm phân biệt tướng. Città-vikalpa-laksana (S). Discriminated appearance by the mind.

Tâm Phật. The Buddha within the heart; from mind is Buddhahood; the Buddha revealed in or to the mind; Mind is Buddha.

Tâm quán. Contemplation of the mind and its thoughts.

Tâm quang. The light from (a Buddha's) mind; merciful heart.

Tâm sinh khởi. Pravrtti-vijnàna (S). Evolving of mind. Also Chuyển thức.

Tâm số. Older term for tâm sở.

Tâm sở. Caitasika (S). Mental factors. Mental conditions; the attributes of the mind.

Tâm sở hữu pháp. Caitasikadharma (S). Mental functions. Fifty one mental functions are: (A) 5 Tâm sở biến hành panca sarvatragà, 5 general mental functions: (1) xúc sparsa, touch; (2) tác ý manaskàra, volition; (3) thụ vedana, sensation; (4) tưởng samjnà, idea; (5) tư cetanà, thought. (B) 5 Tâm sở biệt cảnh panca viniyatà, 5 special mental functions: (1) dục chanda, desire; (2) thắng giải adhimoksa, resolve; (3) niệm smrti, remembrance; (4) định samàdhi, concentration; (5) tuệ prajnà, wisdom. (C) 11 Tâm sở thiện ekàdasa kusalà, 11 good mental functions: (1) tín sraddhà, belief; (2) tàm hrì, shame; (3) quí apatrapà, bashfulness; (4) vô tham alobha, absence of covetousness; (5) vô sân advesa, absence of hatred; (6) vô si amoha, absence of ignorance; (7) cần vìrye energy; (8) khinh an prasrabhdi, repose of mind; (9) bất phóng dật apramada, vigilance; (10) hành xả upeksa, equanimity; (11) bất hại ahimsà, non-injury. (D) 6 Căn bản phiền não sad klesà, 6 evil mental functions: (1) tham raga, greed, covetousness; (2) sân pratigha, hatred; (3) si moha, ignorance; (4) mạn màna, arrogance; (5) nghi vicikitsà, doubt; (6) ác kiến mithyàdrsti, false view. (E) 20 Tùy phiền não vimsatirùpaklesà, 20 minor evil mental functions: (1) phẫn krodha, anger; (2) hận upanàha, enmity; (3) phú mraksa, concealment; (4) não pradàsa, affliction; (5) tật ìrsyà, envy; (6) san màtsarya, parsimony; (7) cuống sàthya, fraudulance; (8) siểm màyà, deception; (9) hại vihimsà, injury; (10) kiêu mada, pride; (11) vô tàm àhrìkya, shamelessness; (12) vô quí anapatràkya, non bashfulness; (13) trạo cử auddhatya, restlessness; (14) hôn trầm styàna, low-spiritedness; (15) bất tín àsraddhya, unbelief; (16) giải đãi kausidya, sloth; (17) phóng dật pramàda, negligence; (18) thất niệm musitasmrti, forgetfulness; (19) tán loạn viksepah, distraction; (20) bất chính tri asamprajnà, non-discernment. (F) 4 Bất định tâm sở catvàro aniatà, 4 indeterminate mental functions: (1) hối kaukrtya, repentance; (2) miên middha, drowsiness; (3) tầm vitarka, reflection; (4) từ vicàra, investigation.

Tâm sư. The mind as master.

Tâm tâm. Every mind; mind and mental conditions.

Tâm thành. The citadel of the mind, i.e. as guardian over action.

Tâm thần. The spirit of the mind; mind, mental intelligence; state of mind.

Tâm thần túc. Città-samàdhi (S). Concentration on consciousness.

Tâm thụ. Mind to mind impartation or impartment (of truth); intuitive handing down (of the Buddha's teachings).

Tâm thú. The bent or direction of mind, or moral nature.

Tâm thủy. The mind as reflecting surface; the mind as water, clear or turbid.

Tâm thừa. Mind-vehicle, i.e. meditation, insight.

Tâm thức. Mental perception; mental cognition; intuitive cognition.

Tâm tích. Footprints or indications of mind, i.e. mind revealed by deeds.

Tâm tính. Immutable mind-corpus, mind-nature; the self-existing fundamental pure mind; the all, the tathàgata-garbha

Tâm tông. The intuitive sect. Zen sect.

Tâm trần. Mind-dust or dirt.

Tâm trí. Mind and knowledge, or the wisdom of the mind; mind being the organ, knowing the function.

Tâm truyền. Mind to mind transmission. Xem Tâm thụ.

Tâm tướng. Heart shape; manifestation of mind in action.

Tâm viên (ý mã). The mind as a restless monkey; to be irresolute; wavering.

Tâm vô sở trú. The mind without resting place.

Tâm vô tướng. Cittàniràbhàva (S). Mental state of non-semblance.

Tâm vương. Citta (S). The mind; the will, the directive or controlling mind; the functioning mind as a whole distinct from its conditions.

Tâm xà. Imposture, deceit.

Tâm ý thức. Mind, thougt and perception.

Tâm yếu. The very core, or essence.

Tân. New, newly, just, opposite of cựu old.

Tân đầu lư phả la đọa. Pindola-Bhàradvàja (S). Name of an arhat.

Tân phát ý. One who has newly resoved on becoming a Buddhist, or on any new line of conduct.

Tân tuế. The new year of the monks, beginning on the day after the summer retreat.

Tần bà sa la. Bimbisàra (S). Name of a king.

Tần già, ca lăng tần già. Karavinka (S). Bird with miraculous song.

Tận. All used up; end, finish, complete, nothing left; all, utmost, entirely.

Tận hư không giới. To the end of the empty space.

Tận lậu. Extinction of the cankers.

Tận nghiệp. Karmaksaya (S). Consumation of the previous actions and the results therof.

Tận thập phương. The entire ten directions, the universe, everywhere.

Tận thọ. Ayuksaya (S). Consumation of life.

Tận tịnh hư dung. The identity of the absolute and the empirical, a doctrine of the Prajnapàramità.

Tận vị lai tế. To the end of all time, eternal.

Tập. Samudaya (S). Origin. Repetition, practice, habit, skilled.

Tập đế. Samudaya-àrya-satya (S). Causes of the dukkha.

Tập. Learn

Tập diệt. To practice (the good) and destroy (the evil).

Tập khí. Vàsanà (S). Habit, the force of habit; the uprising or recurrence of thoughts, passions, or delusions after the passion or delusion has itself been overcome, the remainder or remaining influence of delusion. Former impression; recollection of the past.

Tập nhân tập quả. The continuity of cause and effect, as the cause so the effect.

Tát bát la. (Thụ). Pippala (S).

Tất. To end, final, complete, all.

Tất cánh. Atyanta (S). At bottom, finally, at last, fundamental, final, ultimate

Tất cánh không. Fundamentally unreal, immaterial, or void.

Tất cánh giác. The ultimate enlightenment, or bodhi, of a Buddha.

Tất cánh trí. Ultimate, or final wisdom, or knowledge of the ultimate.

Tất cánh vô. Never, fundamentally not, or none.

Tất cánh y. A final trust, ultimate reliance, i.e. Buddha.

Tất đàm (tất đàn). Xem tứ tất đàn.

Tất đàn. Siddhi (S). Success. Also thành tựu.

Tất đạt đa. Siddharta (S) One who has accomplished his task; prince Siddharta.

Tất địa. Siddharta (S)

Tất lăng già bà sa. Palindavatsa (S). Also Dư Tập.

Tây. Pascima (S). West.

Tây du kí. Journey to the West.

Tây hạnh. Going west; practices of the Amitàbha cult, leading to salvation in the Western Paradise.

Tây ngưu hóa châu. Aparagodàna (S). Continent at the west of the Meru Mount.

Tây phương. The west, or western regions; but it is also much used for the western heavens of Amitabha Buddha.

Tây phương Cực lạc. Sukhàvati (S). Western Pure-Land, Western Paradise.

Tây phương tiếp dẫn. Guide and welcomer to the Western Pure-Land, Amitabha Buddha.

Tây sơn trụ bộ. Avarasailà (S). The second subdivision of the Mahàsanghika school.

Tây thiên giáo chủ. The Lord of the West, Amitabha Buddha.

Tây Tạng. Tibet.

Tây thiên. India, the western thiên trúc quốc.

Tây vực. Western countries.

Tây vực cầu pháp cao tăng truyện. Biographies of famous pilgrims, fifty six in number, with four added; it is by Nghĩa Tịnh.

Tây vực ký. Records of Western countries.

Tế. Even, level, equal, uniform; complete, perfect; equalize; tranquilize; alike; all; at the same time, altogether.

Tế. To cross a stream; aid; cause; bring about; to save, succour, relieve.

Tế bần. To relieve, assist the poor.

Tế cấp. To afford assistance to s.o. in urgent circumstances; to minister to s.o.'s wants.

Tế độ. To ferry the living across the sea of reincarnation to the shore of nirvàna; to save sinners from the sea of misery.

Tế khổn. To relieve s.o. in distress.

Tế thế. To save the world.

Tế. Fine, small, minute; in detail; careful.

Tế hoạt dục. Sexual attraction through softness and smoothness.

Tế tâm. Carefully, in detail.

Tế ý thức. The vijnàna of detailed, unintermitting attention.

Tế nghiệp thân. The final body which brings to an end all former karma.

Tế nhuyễn ngữ. Refined and soft speech.

Tế sắc. Refined appearance.

Tha. Another, other, the other, his, her, its, etc.

Tha hóa tự tại thiên. Pranirmita-vasavarti (S). The sixth of the six heavens of of desire, or passion heavens, the last of the six devalokas, the abode of Mahesvara (i.e. Siva) and of Mara.

Tha lực. Another's strength, especially that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, obtained through faith in Màhayàna salvation.

Tha lực tông. Those who trust to salvation by faith, contrasted with tự lực tông those who seek salvation by works, or by their own strength.

Tha lực niệm Phật. Trusting to and calling on the Buddha, especially Amitàbha.

Tha tâm thông. Paracittàjnàna (S). Intuitive knowledge of the minds of all other beings.

Tha tâm trí. Xem tha tâm thông.

Tha thắng tội. Overcome by specific sin: i.e. any of the four parajikas, or sins of excommunication.

Tha thụ dụng độ. That part of the Buddhaksetra, or a reward land of a Buddha in which all beings receive and obey his truth.

Thai. Garbha (S). The womb, uterus.

Thai Đại Nhật. Vairocana in the Garbhadhàtu.

Thai ngục. The womb prison, the womb regarded as a prison. Also thai cung.

Thai noãn thấp hóa. The four yoni, or modes of birth: womb-born, egg-born, spawn-born, and born by transformation (e.g. moths, certain deities etc.)

Thai sinh. Uterine-birth, womb-born.

Thai tạng giới. Garbhàdhàtu (S). The womb-treasury, the universal source from which all things are produced; the matrix; the embryo.

Tham. Ràga (S). Abhijjhà (P). Cupidity, greed, covetousness.

Tham ái. Desire, cupidity.

Tham dục. Kàmaràga (S). Desire for and love of (the things of this life).

Tham dục cái. The cover of desire which overlays the mind and prevents the good from appearing.

Tham dục tức thị đạo. Desire is part of the universal law, and may be used for leading into the truth, a tenet of Thiên Thai.

Tham độc. The poison of desire.

Tham kết. The bond of desire.

Tham kiến. The illusion, or false views caused by desire.

Tham lang. Greedy wolf, wolfish desire or cupidity.

Tham nhiễm. The taint of desire or greed.

Tham nhuế si. Ràga, dvesa, moha (S). Desire, anger, ignorance.

Tham phiền não. The klesa, temptation or passion of desire.

Tham phọc. The tie of desire.

Tham, Sân, Si. Desire, Anger, Ignorance.

Tham sử. The messenger, or temptation of desire

Tham tập. The habit of desire, desire become habitual.

Tham tập nhân. Habitual cupidity leading to punishment in the cold hells.

Tham thủy. Desire is like water carrying things along.

Tham trọc. The contamination of desire.

Tham trước. The attachment of desire.

Tham. Reflect on, counsel, visit, superior. An assembly, a gathering for the purpose of meditation, preaching, worship. Tảo tham morning assembly; vãn tham evening assembly; tiểu tham a special meeting; a discussion following an address.

Tham thiền. To inquire, discuss, seek religious instruction.

Tham vấn. To seek instruction - generally as a class.

Thanh. Nila (S). Blue, dark color; also green, black, or grey; clear.

Thanh Đề nữ. The mother of Maudgalyàyana, noted for her meanness.

Thanh liên. Utpala (S). Blue lotus.

Thanh tâm. An unperturbed mind.

Thanh. Amala (S). Pure, clear.

Thanh bạch. Pure and white, pure white, as Buddha-truth, or as pure goodness.

Thanh Biện. Bhàvaviveka (S). A noted Buddhist philosopher circa AD 600, a follower of Nàgàrjuna.

Thanh lương. Clear and cool; clear, pure.

Thanh Lương Quốc sư. Pure-minded preceptor of the state, tittle of the fourth patriarch of the Hoa Nghiêm school.

Thanh Lương tự. A monastery at Ngũ đài sơn.

Thanh Lương sơn. A name for Ngũ đài sơn in north Shansi Sơn Tây.

Thanh lương nguyệt. The pure moon, i.e. the Buddha.

Thanh minh. Clear and bright.

Thanh Mục. Pingala (S).

Thanh phạm. Pure Sanskrit; Buddha's resonant voice, or pure enunciation.

Thanh tín nam. Upàsaka (S). Male lay devotee.

Thanh tín nữ. Upàsikà (S). Female lay devotee.

Thanh tịnh. Parisuddhi, visuddhi (S). Pure and clean, free from evil and defilement, perfectly clean.

Thanh tịnh bản nhiên. Purely and naturally so, spontaneous.

Thanh tịnh chân như. One of the seven chân như.

Thanh tịnh đạo. Visuddhi-màrga (S). The path of purity.

Thanh tịnh giải thoát tam muội. A samàdhi free from all impurity and in which complete freedom is obtained.

Thanh tịnh giác hải. The pure ocean of enlightenment.

Thanh tịnh Liên hoa mục Như lai.

Thanh tịnh nghiệp xứ. The state which one who has a pure karma reaches.

Thanh tịnh nhân. The pure and clean man, especially the Buddha.

Thanh tịnh pháp. Dharma-viraja (S). Pure truth.

Thanh tịnh pháp giới. The pure Buddha-truth (realm).

Thanh tịnh pháp nhẫn. The pure dharma-eye.

Thanh tịnh quang minh thân. The pure, shining body, or appearance (of the Buddha)

Thanh tịnh tâm. Cittàdrisyadhàràvisuddhi (S). A pure mind free from doubt or defilement. Purity of mind.

Thanh tịnh thế giới. Pure world; purity of world.

Thanh tịnh thức. Amalavijnàna (S). Pure, uncontaminated knowledge; earlier regarded as the ninth, later as the eighth or àlayavijnàna.

Thanh tịnh trai. Pure observance of monastic rules for food, i.e. vegetarian food; fasting.

Thanh tịnh trí. Undefiled knowledge.

Thanh tịnh viên. Pure garden, or garden of purity, i.e. a monastery or convent.

Thanh văn. Sràvaka (S). Hearer.

Thanh văn thừa (thặng). Sràvakayàna (S). Vehicle ơođ Hearer.

Thanh văn thừa thập địa. Xem thập địa.

Thánh. Arya, sàdhu (S). A sage; wise and good; upright, or correct in all his character; sacred, holy, saintly. The thánh nhân is the opposite of the phàm nhân common or unlightened man.

Thánh Bảo tạng Thần. The deva, or devas, of the sacred treasury of precious things (who bestows them on the living).

Thánh chủ Sư tử. The holy lion lord, i.e. Buddha.

Thánh chủ Thiên trung thiên. The holy lord deva of devas, i.e. Buddha.

Thánh chúng. The holy multitude, all the saints.

Thánh chúng lai nghênh. Amitàbha's saintly host come to welcome at death those who call upon him.

Thánh chủng. (1) The holy seed, i.e. the community of monks; (2) that which produces the discipline of the saints, or monastic community.

Thánh cúng. Holy offerings, or those made to the saints, especially to the Triratna tam bảo.

Thánh diệu mẫu đà la ni kinh. Arya-grahamatrka-dhàrani (S).

Thánh duyên. Holy conditions of, or aids to the holy life.

Thánh đạo. Arya-màrga (S).The holy way, Buddhism; the way of the saints, or sages; also the noble eightfold path. Noble path, the path of holiness.

Thánh đạo môn. The ordianary schools of the way of holiness by the processes of devotion, in contrast with immediate salvation by faith in Amitàbha.

Thánh đế. The sacred principles, or those of the saints, or sages; especially the Four Noble Truths tứ thánh đế.

Thánh Đề bà. Aryadeva (S). A native of Sri Lanka and disciple of Nàgàrjuna, famous for his writings and discussions. Also Thánh Thiên.

Thánh địa. Holy Land.

Thánh điển. The sacred canon, or holy classics, the Tripitaka tam tạng.

Thánh đức. A saint's virtue.

Thánh giả. Arya (S). Holy or saintly one; one who has started on the path to nirvàna; holiness.

Thánh giáo. The teaching of the sage, or holy one; holy teaching.

Thánh giáo lượng. The argument or evidence of authority in logic, i.e. that of the sacred books.

Thánh hạnh. The holy bodhisattva life of giới định tuệ the (monastic) commandments, meditation and wisdom.

Thánh hiền. Great sage, saints and sages.

Thánh kinh. Bible; sacred canon; holy scripture.

Thánh minh. Holy enlightenment; or the enlightenment of saints.

Thánh nghi. The saintly appearance, i.e. an image of Buddhả.

Thánh ngôn. Holy words; the words of a saint, or sage; the correct words of Buddhism.

Thánh ngữ. Aryabhàsà (S). Sacred speech, language, words or sayings; Sanscrit.

Thánh nhân. Arya-pudgala (S). Noble one, saint, sage. Thánh nhân đãi kẻ khù khờ, the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong. Also tôn giả.

Thánh pháp. The holy law of Buddha; the law or teaching of the saints, or sages.

Thánh pháp ấn kinh. Acalà-dharma-mudrà (S).

Thánh phúc. Holy happiness, that of Buddhism, in contrast with Phạm phúc that of Brahma and Brahmanism.

Thánh phương. Aryadesa (S). The holy land, India; the land of the sage, Buddha.

Thánh quả. The holy fruit, or fruit of the saintly life, i.e. bodhi, nirvàna.

Thánh sư. Gurùdeva (S). Highest teacher.

Thánh tăng. The holy monk, the image in the monks' assembly room; in Mahàyàna that of Manjusri; in Hìnayàna that of Kasyapa, or Subhùti, etc.

Thánh tâm. The holy mind, that of Buddha.

Thánh tích. Relic of a saint.

Thánh tiên. The holy rsi, Buddha.

Thánh tính. The holy nature, according to the Abhidharma kosa Câu xá luận, of the passionless life; according to the Vijnànamàtrasiddhi Duy thức luận, of enlightenment and wisdom.

Thánh tính li sinh. The life of holiness apart or distinguished from the life of common unenlightened people.

Thánh tịnh. The schools of Buddhism and the Pure Land School.

Thánh tôn. The holy honored one, Buddha.

Thánh thai. The womb of holiness which enfolds and develops the bodhisttva, i.e. the tam hiền vị three excellent positions attained in the thập trụ, thập hạnh, and thập hồi hướng.

Thánh thiện. Divine saintly, godly (person, life)

Thánh trí. Aryajnàna (S). The wisdom of Buddha, or the saints, or sages; the wisdom which is above all particularization, i.e. that of transcendental truth.

Thánh tuệ nhãn. Aryaprajnàcaksu (S). Noble eye of wisdom.

Thánh tượng. Icon, ikon; iconic statue. Sự phá hủy thánh tượng iconoclasm.

Thánh ứng. The influence of Buddha; the response of Buddha, or saints.

Thánh vị. The holy position, the holy life of Buddhism.

Thánh võng. The holy jàla, or net, of Buddha's teaching which gathers all into the truth.

Thánh vương. Holy King.

Thành. Complete, finish, perfect, become.

Thành đạo. To attain the Way, or become enlightened, e.g. Buddha under the bodhi tree.

Thành duy thức luận. Vidyà-màtra-siddhi-sàstra (S).

Thành đẳng chính giác. To attain to perfect enlightenment, become Buddha.

Thành kiếp. Vivarta-kalpa (S). One of the four kalpas, consisting of twenty small kalpas during which worlds and the beings on them are formed. Cosmic period of the creation of the world.

Thành Phật. To become Buddha, as a Bodhisattva does on reaching supreme perfect bodhi.

Thành thật. Completely true, or reliable, pefect truth. An abbreviation for thành thật tông, thành thật luận, thành thật sư.

Thành thật tông. Satyasiddi (S) Jòjitsu shù (J). Satyasiddi sect, based upon the Satyasiddi-sàstra Thành thật luận of Harivarman. In China it was a branch of Tam Luận tông.

Thành thục giả. The ripe; those who attain; those in whom the good nature, immanent in all the living, complete their salvation.

Thành tự nhiên giác. To attain to natural enlightenment as all may do by beholding eternal truth thực tướng within their own hearts.

Thành tựu. Siddi (S). Accomplishment, fulfilment, completion, to bring to perfection.

Thành tựu chúng sinh. To transform all beings by developing their Buddha-nature and causing them to obtain enlightenment.

Tháp. Stùpa (S). A tumulus, or mound, for the bones, or remains of the dead, or for other sacred relics, especially of the Buddha. Tháp Cửu phẩm Liên hoa: Tower of the Nine Holy Grade of Lotus. Tháp tổ Minh Hải: Tower of Patriarch Minh Hải. Tháp Xá lợi: Relics stùpa. Tháp Xá lợi Phật: The stùpa of Buddha relics.

Tháp miếu. Pagodas and temples.

Thắng. Jina (S). Victorious; to overcome, surpass.

Thắng châu. Xem Đông thắng thần châu.

Thắng công đức. Surpassing merits.

Thắng giả. Pradhàna (S). Pre-eminent, predominant

Thắng hạnh. Surpassing action, virtues.

Thắng hội. A pleasant gathering; a happy meeting.

Thắng Hữu. Jinamitra (S). Name of an eloquent monk at Nàladà, circa AD 630, author of Sarvastivàda-vinaya-sangraha.

Thắng luận. Vaisesika-sàstra (S).

Thắng luận tông. The Vaisesika school of Indian philosophy, whose foundation is ascribed to Kanàda (Ulùka); he and his successors are respectfully styled luận sư or slightinly luận ngoại đạo; the school when combined with the Nyàya, is also known as Nyàya-vaisesika.

Thắng Mạn phu nhân. Màlyasrì, Srimàla (S). Daughter of Prasenajit, wife of the king of Kosala (Oudh), after whom the Srimàlà-devi-simhanàda hội and kinh are named.

Thắng Mạn kinh. Srimàla-sùtra (S). Sùtra of the queen Srimàla.

Thắng Mật. Srgupta (S). Also Đức Hộ.

Thắng nghĩa. Beyond description, that which surpasses mere earthly ideas; superlative, inscrutable.

Thắng nghĩa căn. The surpassing organ, i.e. intellectual perception, behind the ordinary organs of perception, e.g. eyes, ears, etc.

Thắng nghĩa đế. Paramàrtha-satya (S). The superior truth, enlightened truth as contrasted with wordly truth. Also chân đế, đệ nhất nghĩa đế.

Thắng nghĩa đế luận. Paramàrtha-satya-sàstra (S). A philosophical work by Vasubandhu Thế Thân.

Thắng nghĩa không. Nirvàna as surpassingly real or transcendental.

Thắng nghĩa pháp. The superlative dharma, nirvàna.

Thắng nghiệp. Surpassing karma.

Thắng quả. The surpassing fruit.

Thắng quân. Prasenajit (S). Conquering army, or conquerer of an army; king of Kosala and patron of Sàkyamuni. Also Ba tư nặc.

Thắng sĩ. Victor, one who keeps the commandments.

Thắng tâm. The victorious mind, which carries out the Buddhist discipline.

Thắng thừa. The victorious vehicle, i.e. Màhayàna.

Thắng tích. Famous places of ruins; famous historical vestiges, or monuments.

Thắng tử thụ. Jetavana (S). The Jeta grove.

Thân. Kàya, tanu, deha (S). The body, the self.

Thân bình đẳng. Kàyasamatà (S). Equal state ơođ body.

Thân căn. Kàyendriya (S). The organ of touch.

Thân đăng. The body as a lamp, burnt in offering to a Buddha, e.g. the Medicine King in the Lotus sùtra.

Thân điền. The body regarded as a field which produces good or evil fruit in future existence.

Thân hành niệm. Kàyagatàsmrti (S) Mindfulness with regard to the body. Also niệm thân.

Thân khí. The body as a utensil. i.e. containing all the twelve parts skin, flesh, blood, hair, etc.

Thân kiến. Satkàyadrsti (S). The illusion that the body, or self is real and not simply a compound of the five skandhas; one of the five wrong views ngũ kiến.

Thân liên. The lotus in the body, i.e. the heart or eight-leaved lotus in all beings; it represents also the Garbhadhatù, which is the matrix of the material world out of which all beings come.

Thân mệnh. Body and life.

Thân nghiệp. The karma operating in the body

Thân nhập. The sense of touch, one of the six senses lục nhập.

Thân như ý thông. Rddhividhi-jnàna (S). The power to trasnfer oneself to various regions at will, also to change the body at will. Also thần thông, thần túc thông.

Thân niệm xứ. Mindfulness with regard to the body.

Thân quang. The body shining from the person of a Buddha, or a Bodhisattva; a halo, aura.

Thân tâm. Body and mind, the direct fruit of the previous life.

Thân Thắng. Badhusrì (S).

Thân thức. Kàya-vijnàna (S). Cognition of the objects of touch.

Thân tòa. The body as the throne oơđ Buddha.

Thân tướng. Bodily form; the body.

Thân vân. The numberless bodies of Buddhas, hovering like clouds over men; the nunberless forms which the Buddhas take to protect and save men, resembling clouds; the numberless saints compared to clouds.

Thân. Personally realated, own, intimate; family, wife, marriage. Phụ thân father; mẫu thân mother.

Thân giáo sư. Upàdhyaya (S). One's own teacher.

Thân hữu. An intimate friend.

Thần. Inscrutable spiritual powers, or power; a spirit; a deva, god or divinity; the human spirit; divine, spiritual, supernatural. Thần chiến tranh god of war.

Thần tài. Goddess of fortune.

Thần ám. The darkened mind without faith.

Thần bí. Mystic(al); mysterious; occult.

Thần biến. Supernatural influences causing the changes in natural events; miracles; miraculous transformations, e.g. the transforming powers of a Buddha, both in regard to himself and others.

Thần căn. The vital spirit as the basis of bodily life.

Thần chú. Rddhi-mantra, dhàrani (S). Divine, or magic incantations.

Thần chủ. Ancestral tablet.

Thần cúng. Offerings placed before the gods or spirits.

Thần diệu. Wonderful, miraculous, marvellous.

Thần đạo. The spirit world of devas, asuras and pretas. The doctrines concerning the soul. Shintò (J), the Way of the Gods, a Japanese national religion.

Thần điểu. Garuda (S). Mystical bird. Also kim xí điểu, ca lâu la.

Thần giao. Spiritual relations.

Thần giao cách cảm. Telepathy.

Thần hóa. Miraculous change; to spiritualize; to divinize, deify.

Thần học. Theology.

Thần hồn. Soul, mind, spirit. Liệu cái thần hồn mind yourself. Thần hồn nát thần tính to take fright, to be afraid of one's own shadow.

Thần hộ mệnh. Guardian angel, guardian spirit.

Thần linh. God, deity, spirit.

Thần lực. Rddhibala (S). Divine power. Superhuman strength.

Thần minh. The spirits of heaven and earth, the gods; also the intelligent or spiritual nature.

Thần nhân. Gods, or spirits, and men.

Thần ngã. Purusa, Atman (S). The soul, the spiritual ego, or permanent person, which by non-Buddhists was said to migrate on the death of the body. Purusa is also the Supreme Soul, or Spirit, which produces all forms of existence.

Thần nữ. A devi, a goddess, a female spirit.

Thần quang. Deva light, the light of the gods.

Thần quyền. Divine right; spiritual power.

Thần thoại. Myth, legend.

Thần thông. Rddhi (S). Ubiquitous supernatural power, especially of a Buddha, his ten powers including power to shake the earth, to issue light from his pores, extend his tongue to the Brahma-heavens effulgent with light, cause divine flowers to rain from the sky, be omnipresent and other powers. Supernatural powers of eye, ear, body, mind etc. Thần thông thừa, the supernatural or magic vehicle, i.e. the esoteric sect of Chân Ngôn Shingon.

Thần tích. Myth, legend.

Thần tiên. The genii, immortals, rsi, of whom the five kinds are thiên tiên deva immortals, thần tiên spirit immortals, nhân tiên human immortals, địa tiên earth (or cave) immortals and quỉ tiên preta immortals.

Thần tọa. Deva or spirit thrones.

Thần trí. Spiritual wisdom, divine wisdom which comprehends all things, material and immaterial.

Thần Tú. Shin Shau (C). Name.

Thần túc thông. Rddhipàda; rddhi-sàksàtkriyà (S). Supernatural power to appear at will in any place, to fly or go without hindrance, to have absolute freedom. Also thần cảnh trí thông, như ý thông. Thần túc nguyệt, the first, fifth, and ninth months, when the devas go on circuit throughout the earth.

Thần thức. The intelligent spirit, also called linh hồn the soul; incomprehensible or divine wisdom.

Thập. Dasa (S). Ten.

Thập ác. Dasàkusala (S). Ten evil things: (1) sát sinh, pànatipàto (P) killing; (2) trộm cướp, àdinnàdànam (P) stealing; (3) tà dâm, kamesumicchàcàro (P) adultery; (4) vọng ngữ, musàvàdo (P) lying; (5) ỷ ngữ, sambhàppalàpo (P) filthy language; (6) lưỡng thiệt, pisunàvàcà (P) double tongue; (7) ác khẩu, pharusavàcà (P) coarse language; (8) tham, abhijjhà (P) covetousness; (9) sân, byàpàto (P) anger; (10) si, micchàditthi (P), perverted views. Also thập ác nghiệp, thập bất thiện nghiệp.

Thập ba la di. The ten pàràjikas, or sins unpardonable in a monk involving his exclusion from the community.

Thập ba la mật. Dasapàramità (S). The ten pàramitàs: (1) Bố thí ba la mật dànapàramità, charity; (2) Trì giới silapàramità, purity (or morality); (3) Nhẫn nhục ksantipàramità, patience; (4) Tinh tiến viryapàramità, zealous progress; (5) Thiền định dhyànapàramità, meditation; (6) Bát nhã prajnàpàramità, wisdom; (7) Phương tiện thiện xảo upayapàramità adaptability (or teaching as suited to the occasion and hearer; (8) Nguyện pranidanapàramità vows; (9) Lực balapàramità, force of purpose; (10) Trí jnànapàramità, knowledge.

Thập bát. Astàdasa (S). Eighteen.

Thập bát bất cụ pháp. Avenikadharma, buddhadharma (S). The eighteen different characteristics of a Buddha as compared with bodhisattvas: (1) his perfection of body (or person) thân vô thất; (2) mouth (or speech) khẩu vô thất; (3) memory niệm vô thất; (4) impartiality to all vô dị tưởng; (5) serenity vô bất định tâm; (6) self-sacrifice vô bất tri dĩ xả; (7) unceasing desire to save dục vô diệt; (8) unflagging zeal therein tinh tiến vô diệt; (9) unfailing thought thereto niệm vô diệt; (10) wisdom in it tuệ vô diệt; (11) powers of deliverance giải thoát vô diệt; (12) the principles of it giải thoát tri kiến vô diệt; (13) revealing perfect wisdom in deed nhất thiết thân nghiệp tùy trí tuệ hành; (14) in word nhất thiết khẩu nghiệp tùy trí tuệ hành; (15) in thought nhất thiết ý nghiệp tùy trí tuệ hành; (16) perfect knowledge of past trí tuệ tri quá khứ thế vô ngại; (17) future trí tuệ tri vị lai thế vô ngại; (18) and present trí tuệ tri hiện tại thế vô ngại.

Thập bát chủng địa ngục. The eighteen layers of hells, which are described by one writer as the conditions in which the six sense organs, their six objects and their six perceptions do not harmonize. Another says the eighteen are the hell of knives, the boiling sands, the boiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc.

Thập bát đạo. In the two mandala Vajradhàtu and Garbhadhàtu each has nine central objects of worship. The Shingon Chân ngôn disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen each day.

Thập bát giới. The eighteen dhàtu, or realms of sense, i.e. lục căn the six organs, lục cảnh their objects or conditions, lục thức and their perceptions.

Thập bát sinh xứ. The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still exists.

Thập bát thiên. Bràhmaloka (S). The eighteen heavens of form, rùpadhatu sắc giới three of the first dhyana: Phạm chúng, Phạm phụ, Đại Phạm; three of the second: Thiểu quang, Vô lượng quang, Quang âm: three of the third: Thiểu tịnh, Vô lượng tịnh, Biến tịnh; and nine of the fourth: Vô vân, Phúc sinh, Quảng quả, Vô tưởng, Vô phiền, Vô , Thiện kiến, Thiện hiện, Sắc cứu kính.

Thập bất nhị môn. The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by Kinh Khê Đại sư on the teaching of the Lotus sùtra. The unifying principle is that of the identity of contraries, and the ten apparent contraries are matter and mind sắc tâm bất nhị môn, internal and external nội ngoại bnm, practice and proof (or realization) tu tính bnm, cause and effect nhân quả bnm, impurity and purity nhiễm tịnh bnm, objective and subjective y chính bnm, self and other tự tha bnm, action speech and thought tam nghiệp bnm, relative and absolute quyền thật bnm, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i.e. receiver and giver) thụ nhuận bất nhị môn.

Thập cảnh. Ten objects of or stages in meditation quán in the Thiên Thai school, i.e. cõi ấm, the five skandhas; cảnh phiền não, life's distresses and illusion; cảnh bệnh hoạn, sickness, or dukkha, its cause and cure; cảnh nghiệp tướng, age-long karmaic influence; cảnh ma sự, màra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; cảnh thiền định, the conditions of dhyàna and samàdhi; cõi các kiến, various views and doubts that arise; cõi mạn, pride in progress and the delusion that one has attained nirvàna; cõi nhị thừa, temptation to be contest with the lower nirvàna, instead of going to the greater reward; cõi bồ tát, bodhisattvahood.

Thập chân như. The ten aspects of bhùtatathatà chân như.

Thập chướng. Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of thập địa overcome these ten hindrances and realize the thập chân như. The hindrances are: (1) Dị sinh tính chướng, the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) Tà hạnh chướng, common unenlightened conduct; (3) Ám độn chướng, ignorant and dull ideas; (4) Tế hoặc hiện hành chướng, the illusion that things are real and have independant existence; (5) Hạ thừa Niết bàn chướng, the lower ideas in Hìnayàna of nirvàna; (6) Thô tướng hiện hành chướng, the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) Tế tướng hiện hành chướng, the idea of reincarnation; (8) Vô tướng gia hành chướng, the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) Bất dục hành chướng, no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) Pháp vị tự tại chướng, non attainment of complete mastery of all things.

Thập công đức. Ten merits (or powers) commended by the Buddha to his bhiksus - zealous progress, contentment with few desires, courage; learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of the commands and the fraternity's regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it.

Thập diệu. The ten wonders or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the tích traceable or manifested and bản môn the fundamental. The tích môn thập diệu are the wonder of: (1) cảnh diệu, the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha and all things as a unity; (2) trí diệu, a Buddha's all embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) hành diệu, his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) vị diệu, his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. thập trụ and thập địa; (5) tam pháp diệu, his three laws; (6) cảm ứng diệu, his response to appeal; (7) thần thông diệu, his supernatural powers; (8) thuyết pháp diệu, his preaching; (9) quyến thuộc diệu, his supernatural retenue; (10) lợi ích diệu, the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The bản môn thập diệu are the wonder of: (1) bản nhân diệu, the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood ; (2) bản quả diệu, its fruit or result; (3) quốc độ diệu, his (Buddha) realm; (4) cảm ứng diệu, his response (to human needs); (5) thần thông diệu, his supernatural powers; (6) thuyết pháp diệu, his preaching; (7) quyến thuộc diệu, his supernatural retinue; (8) niết bàn diệu, his nirvàna; (9) thọ mệnh diệu, his (eternal) life; (10) lợi ích diệu, his blessings.

Thập đại đệ tử. The ten chief disciples of Sakyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift: (1) Xá lợi phất, trí tuệ đệ nhất, Sariputra of wisdom; (2) Mục kiền liên, thần thông đệ nhất, Maudgalyàyana of supernatural powers; (3) Ma ha Ca diếp, đầu đà đệ nhất, Mahàkàsyapa of discipline; (4) A na luật, thiên nhãn đệ nhất, Aniruddha of deva-vision; (5) Tu bồ đề, giải không đệ nhất, Subhùti of explaining the void or immaterial; (6) Phú lâu na, thuyết pháp đệ nhất; Pùrna of expounding the law; (7) Ca chiên diên, luận nghị đệ nhất, Kàtyàyana of its fundamental principles; (8) Ưu na li, trì luật đệ nhất, Upàli of maintaining the rules; (9) La hầu la, mật hạnh đệ nhất, Ràhula of the esoteric; (10) A nan đà, đa văn đệ nhất, Ananda of hearing and remembering.

Thập địa. Dasabhùmi (S). Ten grounds, ten stages in the fifty two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the thập tứ hướng he proceeds to the thập địa. There are several groups. I-The ten stages common to the three vehicles are: (1) càn tuệ địa dry wisdom stage, i.e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth; (2) tính địa the embryo stage of the nature of Buddha-truth; (3) nhập nhân (or nhẫn) địa the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) kiến địa of freedom from wrong views; (5) bạc địa of freedom from the firstsix of the nine delusions in practice; (6) li dục địa of freedom from the remaining three; (7) dĩ biện địa complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) chi Phật địa pratyekabuddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) bồ tát địa bodhisattvahood; (10) Phật địa Buddhahood. II-Đại thừa bồ tát thập địa the ten stages of Mahàyàna bodhisattva development are: (1) hoan hỉ địa pramudita, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) li cấu địa vimalà, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) phát quang địa prabhàkari, stage of further enlightenment; (4) diệm tuệ địa arcismati, of glowing wisdom; (5) cực nan thắng địa sudurjayà, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) hiện tiền địa abhimukhi, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) viễn hành địa dùramgamà, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) bất động địa acalà, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) thiện tuệ địa sàdhumati, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the thập lực ten powers; (10) pháp vân địa dharmamega, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pàramitàs. III-Thanh văn thừa thập địa, ten Sràvaka stages are: (1) thụ tam qui địa, initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; (2) tín địa, belief, or the faith-root; (3) tín pháp địa, belief in the four truths; (4) nội phàm phu địa, ordinary disciples who observe the ngũ đình tâm quán etc.; (5) học tín giới địa, those who pursue the tam học three studies; (6) nhập nhân địa, the stage of kiến đạo seeing the true Way; (7) Tu đà hoàn địa, Srota-àpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvàna; (8) Tư đà hàm địa, sakrdàgàmin, only one mere rebirth; (9) A na hàm địa, anàgàmin, no rebirth; (10) A la hán địa, arhatship. IV-Duyên giác thừa, the ten stages of the Pratyekabuddha are: (1) khổ hạnh cụ túc địa, perfect asceticism; (2) tự giác thậm thâm thập nhị nhân duyên địa, mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) giác liễu Tứ thánh đế địa, of the four noble truths; (4) thậm thâm lợi trí địa, of the deeper knowledge; (5) cửu Thánh đạo địa, of the eightfold noble path; (6) giác liễu pháp giới, hư không, chúng sinh giới địa, of the three realms; (7) chứng tịch diệt địa, of the nirvàna stage; (8) lục thông địa, of the six supernatural powers; (9) triệt hòa-mật địa arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) tập khí tiệm bạc địa, mastery of the remaining influence of the former habits. V-Phật thừa thập địa: (1) thậm thâm nan tri quảng minh trí tuệ địa; (2)thanh tịnh tự phân oai nghiêm bất tư nghị minh đức địa; (3) thiện minh nhật tràng thật tướng hải tạng địa, ; (4) tinh diệu kim quang công chư thần thông trí đức địa; (5) đại luân oai tạng minh đức địa; (6) hư không nội thanh tịnh vô cấu viêm quang khai tường địa; (7) quảng thắng pháp giới tạng minh giới địa; (8) phổ thông trí tạng năng tịnh vô cấu biên vô ngại trí thông địa; (9) Vô biên đức trang nghiêm hồi hướng năng chiếu minh địa; (10) tì lô xá na trí hải tạng địa. The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, màra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth.

Thập địa tâm. Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1) tứ vô lượng tâm, the four kinds of boundless mind; (2) thập thiện tâm, the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) minh quang tâm, the illuminated mind; (4) diệm tuệ tâm, the mind of glowing wisdom; (5) đại thắng tâm, the mind of mastery; (6) hiện tiền tâm the mind of the open way (above normal definitions); (7) vô sinh tâm, the mind of no rebirth;; (8) bất tư nghị tâm, the mind of the inexpressible; (9) tuệ quang tâm, the mind of wisdom-radiance; (10) thụ vị tâm, the mind of perfect receptivity.

Thập địa Tì bà sa luận. Dasbhùmivibhàsa-sàstra (S). Treatise on the Explanation of the ten bhùmi (grounds, stages)

Thập điện. The ten palaces of Yama king.

Thập điện Diêm Vương. The ten Yama courts.

Thập độ. The ten pàramitàs or virtues. Xem thập ba la mật.

Thập đức. The ten virtues, powers, or qualities of which there are several groups.

Thập giới. Dasa-sila (S). The ten prohibitions: (1) chẳng giết mệnh sống, not to destroy life; (2) chẳng trộm cắp, not to steal; (3) chẳng dâm dục, not to commit adultery; (4) chẳng nói bậy, not to lie; (5) chẳng uống rượu, not to take intoxicating liquor; (6) chẳng đeo chuỗi anh lạc, chẳng thoa dầu thơm vào mình, not to use garlands or perfumes; (7) chẳng đóng vai trò múa hát và cố đi xem nghe, not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatral performances, not to see or listen to such; (8) chẳng được ngồi trên giường lớn cao rộng, not to sleep on high or broad beds; (9) chẳng được ăn trái bữa, not to eat food out of regulated hours; (10) chẳng được chứa tiền và vàng bạc châu báu, to refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, silver or jewels.

Thập giới. The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence: (1) Phật,Buddhas; (2) Bồ tát, bodhisattvas; (3) Duyên giác, pratyekabuddhas; (4) Thanh văn, sravakas; (5) Thiên, devas; (6) Nhân, men; (7) A tu la, asuras; (8) Súc sinh, animals; (9) Ngạ quỉ, pretas; (10) Địa ngục, hells.

Thập hạnh. The ten lines of actions: (1) Hoan hỉ hạnh, joyful service; (2) Nhiêu ích hạnh, beneficial service: (3) Vô sân hận hạnh, never resenting; (4) Vô tận hạnh, without limit; (5) Li si loạn hạnh, never out of order; (6) Thiện hiện hạnh, appearing in any form at will; (7) Vô trước hạnh, unimpeded; (8) Tôn trọng hạnh, exalting the pàramitàs amongst all beings; (9) Thiện pháp hạnh, perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtue: (10) Chân thật hạnh, manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.

Thập hiệu. Ten tittles of a Buddha: (1) Như lai Tathàgata, Thus come ones; (2) -ng cúng Arhat, worthy of offerings: (3) Chính biến tri Samyak-sambuddha, of proper and universal khowledge; (4) Minh hạnh túc Vidyàcarana, perfect in understanding and conduct; (5) Thiện thệ Sugata, skillful; Thế gian giải Lokavidin leaving the world through liberation (6) Vơ thượng sĩ Anuttara, unsurpassed knights; (7) Điều ngự trượng phu Purusa-damya-sàrathi, taming heroes; (8) Thiên nhân sư Sàstà-deva-manusyànàm, teachers of gods and people; (9) Phật Buddha, Buddhas; (10) Thế tôn lokanàtha, Bhagavàn, world honored ones.

Thập kiến. The ten wrong views.

Thập kiếp. The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitàbha made his forty vows,, or thập kiếp chính giác attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled thập kiếp Di Đà. These ten kalpas as seen by Phổ Hiền are thập kiếp tu du but as a moment.

Thập kim cương tâm. Ten characteristics of the "diamond heart" as developed by a bodhisattva: (1) Giác liễu pháp tính, complete insight into all truth; (2) Hóa độ chúng sinh, saving of all creatures; (3) Trang nghiêm thế giới, glorifying all Buddha-worlds; (4) Thiện căn hồi hướng, supererogation of his good deeds; (5) Phụng sự Đại sư, service of all Buddhas; (6) Thật chứng chư pháp, realization of the truth of all Buddha-laws; (7) Quảng hành nhẫn nhục, manifestation of all patience and endurance; (8) Trường thời tu hành, unflagging devotion to his vocation; (9) Tự hạnh mãn túc, perfection of his work; (10) Linh tha nguyện mãn, aiding all to fulfil their vows and accomplish their spiritual ends.

Thập lục. Sodasa (S). Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number

Thập lục đại lực. The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva: chí lực of will; ý lực mind; hạnh lực action; tàm lực shame (to do evil); cường lực energy; trì lực firmness; tuệ lực wisdom; đức lực virtue; biện lực reasoning; sắc lực personal appearance; thân lực physical powers; tài lực wealth; tâm lực spirit; thần túc lực magic; hoằng pháp lực spreading the truth; hàng ma lực subduing demons.

Thập lục đại quốc. The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the Nhân Vương Kinh, i.e. Vaisàli Tì xá li, Kosala Câu tát la, Sràvasti Xá vệ, Magadha Ma kiệt đề, Bàrànasi Ba la nại, Kapilavastu Ca tì la vệ, Kusinagara Câu thi na, Kausàmbi, Pancàla, Pàtaliputra Hoa thị thành, Mathurà, Usa (Usira), Punyavardhana, Devàvatara, Kàsi Ca thi, and Campà Chiêm bà.

Thập lục hạnh. The sixteen hạnh tướng of the Four Noble Truths Tứ diệu đế, i.e. four forms of considering each of the Truths, associated with kiến đạo.

Thập lục quán. The sixteen meditations of Amitàbha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc.), the earth and so on.

Thập lục sư. The sixteen non-Buddhist Indian philosophers.

Thập lục tâm. The bát nhẫn eight kinds of patience and bát trí eight kinds of jnàna or gnosis acquired.

Thập lực. Dasabala (S).The ten powers of a Buddha, giving complete knowledge of (1) tri thị xứ phi xứ trí lực what is right and wrong in every condition; (2) tri tam thế nghiệp báo trí lực what is the karma of every being, past, present and future; (3) tri chư thiền giải thoát tam muội trí lực all stages of dhyàna liberation, and samàdhi; (4) tri chúng sinh tâm tính trí lực the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) tri chủng chủng giải trí lực the desires, or moral directions of all beings; (6) tri chủng chủng giới trí lực the actual condition of every individual; (7) tri nhất thiết sở đạo trí lực the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) tri thiên nhãn vô ngại trí lực all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) tri túc mệnh vô lậu trí lực the end of all beings and nirvàna; (10) tri vĩnh đoạn tập khí trí lực the destruction of all illusion of every kind.

Thập lực Ca diếp. Dasabala-Kàsyapa (S). One of the five first disciples of Buddha.

Thập não loạn. The ten disturbers of the religious life: (1) hào thế, a domineering (spirit); (2) tà nhân pháp, heretical ways; (3) hung hí, dangerous amusements; (4) chiên đà la, a butcher's or any low occupation; (5) nhị thừa, asceticism (or selfish hìnayàna salvation); (6) bất nam, the condition of an eunuque; (7) dục tưởng, lust; (8) nguy hại, endangering (the character by improper intimacy; (9) cơ hiềm, contempt; (10) súc dưỡng, breeding animals.

Thập môn. The ten "doors" or connections between sự and lí; sự is defined as hiện tượng form, and lí as bản thể substance; the common illustration of wave and water indicates the idea thus expressed. The Lí Sự Vô Ngại thập môn means that in ten ways form and substance are not separate, unconnected entities: (1) Lí the substance is always with Sự the phenomena; (2) Sự is always present with Lí; (3) Sự depends on Lí for its existence; (4) the Sự can reveal the Lí; (5) The Sự (mere form, which is unreal) can disappear in the Lí; (6) The Sự can conceal the Lí; (7) The true Lí is the Sự; (8) The Sự is Lí; (9) The true Lí (or reality) is not the Sự; (10) The Sự is not the (whole) Lí.

Thập nguyện. Ten vows: (1) Nhất giả lễ kính chư Phật, the first is to worship and respect all Buddhas; (2) Nhị giả xưng tán Như lai, the second is to praise the Thus-Come-Ones; (3) Tam giả quảng tu cúng dường, the third is to cultivate the giving of offerings; (4) Tứ giả sám hối nghiệp chướng, the fourth, to repent and reform all karmic faults; (5) Ngũ giả tùy hỉ công đức, the fifth, to compliantly rejoice in merit and virtue; (6) Lục giả thỉnh chuyển pháo luân, the sixth, to request the turning of Dharma-wheel; (7) Thất giả thỉnh Phật trụ thế, the seventh, to request that Buddhas dwell in the world; (8) Bát giả thường tùy Phật học, the eighth is to always follow Buddhas in study; (9) Cửu giả hằng thuận chúng sinh, the ninth; (10) Thập giả phổ giai hồi hướng, the tenth, to universally transfer all merit and virtue.

Thập nguyện vương. The King of the ten vows, Phổ Hiền Bồ Tát, Samantabhadra.

Thập ngưu đồ. The ten oxherding pictures. I-Mahàyàna: (1) Vị mục, undisciplined; (2) Sơ điều, discipline begun; (3) Thụ chế, in harness; (4) Hồi thủ, faced round; (5) Tuần phục, tamed; (6) Vô ngại, unimpeded; (7) Nhậm vận, laissez faire; (8) Tương vong, all forgotten; (9) Độc chiếu, the soltary moon; (10) Song dẫn, both vanished. II- Zen: (1) Tầm ngưu, searcing for the ox; (2) Kiến tích, seeing the traces; (3) Kiến ngưu, seeing the ox; (4) Đắc ngưu, catching the ox; (5) Mục ngưu, herding the ox; (6) Kị ngưu qui gia, coming home on the ox's back; (7) Vong ngưu tồn nhân, the ox forgotten leaving the man alone; (8) Nhân ngưu câu vong, the ox and the man both gone out of sight; (9) Phản bản hoàn nguyên, returning to the origin, back to the source; (10) Nhập triền thùy thủ, entering the city with bliss-bestowing hands.

Thập nhãn. The ten kinds of eye: (1) Nhục nhãn, eyes of flesh; (2) thiên nhãn, deva eyes; (3) tuệ nhãn, wisdom eyes; (4) pháp nhãn, dharma eyes; (5) Phật nhãn. Buddha eyes; (6) trí nhãn, eyes of judgement; (7) quang minh nhãn, eyes shining with Buddha light; (8) xuất sinh tử nhãn, immortal eyes; (9) vô ngại, unhindered eyes; (10) nhất thiết trí nhãn, omniscient eyes.

Thập nhẫn. Thập nhị ác luật nghi. The twelve bad occupations: sheep-butcher; poulterer (or hen-breeder); pork-butcher; fowler; fisherman; hunter; thief; executioner; jailer; juggler; dog-butcher; beater (i.e. hunt-servant).

Thập nhị bộ kinh. Twelve divisions of the Mahàyàna canon: (1) khế kinh sùtra; (2) ứng tụng geya; (3) phúng tụng gàtha; (4) nhân duyên nidàna; (5) bản sự itivrttaka; (6) bản sinh jàtaka; (7) vị tằng hữu adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the abhidharma; (8) thí dụ avadàna; (9) luận nghị upadesa; (10) tự thuyết udàna; (11) phương quảng vaipulya; (12) thụ kí vyàkarana.

Thập nhị chân như. The twelve aspects of the bhùtatathatà or the ultimate, which is also styled thập nhị vô vi "inactive", or nirvàna-like; and the thập nhị không "void" or immaterial: (1) chân như itself; (2) pháp giới as the medium of all things; (3) pháp tính as the nature of all things; (4) bất hư vọng thuyết its reality contra the unreality of phenomena; (5) bất biến dị tính its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation; (6) bình đẳng tính as universal or undifferentiated; (7) ly sinh tính as immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruction; (8) pháp định as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) pháp trụ as the abode of all things; (10) thật tế as the bounds of all reality; (11) hư không giới as the realm of space, the void or immateriality; (12) bất tư nghì giới as the realm beyond thought or expression.

Thập nhị du kinh. Dvàdasaviharana-sùtra (S). The life of Sàkyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by Kàlodaka AD 392.

Thập nhị đại thừa kinh. Xem thập nhị bộ kinh. Thập nhị địa. To the thập địa add đẳng giác and diệu giác.

Thập nhị môn luận. Dvàda-sanikàya-sàstra (S). One of the Tam luận composed by Nàgarjuna, translated by Kumàrajiva AD 408.

Thập nhị môn luận. Dvàdasadvara-sàstra (S). Treatise on the twelve gates.

Thập nhị nguyện vương. The twelve vows of the Master of Healing Dược Sư.

Thập nhị nhân duyên. Dvàdasànga-pratiyasamùtpàda (S). The twelve nidànas. They are the twelve links in the chain of existence: (1) vô minh avidyà, ignorance; (2) hành samskàra, karma formation; (3) thức vijnàna, consciousness; (4) danh sắc nàmarùpa, name and form; (5) lục nhập sadàyatana, the six sense organs; (6) xúc sparsa, contact, touch; (7) thụ vedàna, sensation, feeling; (8) ái trsnà, thirst, desire, craving; (9) thủ upàdàna, laying hold of, grasping; (10) hữu bhava, being, existing; (11) sinh jàti, birth; (12) lão tử jaràmarana, old age death.

Thập nhị pháp nhân. Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1) live in a hermitage; (2) always beg for food; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a day; (5) reduce amount of food; (6) do not take a drink made of fruit or honey after midday; (7) wear dust-heap garments; (8) wear only the three clerical garments; (9) dwell among graves; (10) stay under a tree; (11) on the dewy ground (12) sit and never lie.

Thập nhị thần (Minh vương). The twelve spirits connected with the cult of Dược Sư the Master of Healing. Also thập nhị thần tướng. They are: Cung tì la Kumbhira; Phạt chiết la Vajra; Mê si la Mihira; An để la Andira; At nễ la Anila; San để la Sandila; Nhân đạt la Indra; Ba gi la Pajra; Ma hổ la Mahoraga; Chân đạt la Kinnara; Chiêu đỗ la Catura; Tì yết la Vikarala. Also Mười hai Đại tướng Dược xoa.

Thập nhị thiên. The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon sect Chân ngôn tông): Brahmà; the deva of earth; of the moon; ofthe sun; Indra; of fire; Yama; of the raksa(or demons); of water; of wind; Vaisramana (wealth); and Mahesrava (Siva). Thập nhị xứ.

Thập nhị quang Phật. Amitàbha's twelve tittle of light.

Thập nhất thiết xứ. Ten universals, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects, i.e from the viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space or mind

Thập như thị. The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of a thing, according to the phẩm phương tiện of the Lotus sùtra: như thị tướng, form; như thị tính, nature; như thị thể, corpus or embodiment; như thị lực, powers; như thị tác function; như thị nhân, primary cause; như thị duyên, environmental cause; như thị quả, effect; như thị báo, karmaic reward; như thị bản mạt cứu kính, the inseparability, or inevitability of them all.

Thập niệm. The ten repetitions of an invocation, e.g. Namo Amitàbha.

Thập niệm vãng sinh. These ten invocations will carry a dying man with an evil karma into the Pure-land.

Thập niệm xứ. A bodhisattva's ten objects of thought or meditation, i.e. body, the senses, mind, things, environment, monastery, city, good name, Buddha-learning, riddance of all passion and delusion.

Thập pháp. The ten thành tựu perfect or perfecting Mahàyàna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the sravaka and pratyekabuddha order.

Thập pháp giới. The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. địa ngục the hells; ngạ quỉ, pretas; súc sinh,animals; a tu la, asuras; người, men; trời, devas; thanh văn, sravakas; duyên giác, pratyekabuddhas; bồ tát,bodhisattvas; Phật, Buddhas.

Thập pháp hạnh. Ten ways of devotion to the Buddhist sùtras: to copy them; serve the places where they are kept, as if serving the Buddha's shrine; preach or give them to others; listen attentively to their exposition; read; maintain; discourse on them to others; intone them; ponder over them; observe their lessons.

Thập phát thú tâm. The ten directional decisions: (1) Xả tâm, renouncement of the world; (2) giới tâm, observance of the commandments; (3) nhẫn tâm, patience or endurance; (4) tiến tâm, zealous progress; (5) định tâm, meditation; (6) tuệ tâm, wisdom or understanding; (7) nguyện tâm, the will for good for oneself and others; (8) hộ tâm. protection (of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha); (9) hỉ tâm, joy; (10) đỉnh tâm, highest wisdom.

Thập phổ môn. The ten universals of a bodhisattva: từ bi phổ môn, universal pity; hoằng triết pm, vow of universal salvation; tu hành pm, accordant action; li hoặc pm, universal cutting off delusions; nhập pháp môn pm, freedom of entry into all forms of truth; thần thông pm, universal superhuman powers; phương tiện pm, universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others; thuyết pháp pm, powers of universal explication of the truth; cúng dường chư Phật pm, power of universal service of all Buddhas; thành tựu chúng sinh pm, the perfecting of all beings universally. Thập phương. The ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass tám phương của địa bàn and the nadir hạ phương the, zenith thượng phương. There is a Buddha for each direction.

Thập phương Phật độ. A Buddha-realm. Also đại thiên thế giới.

Thập phương thế giới. The worlds in all directions.

Thập phương thường trụ tăng vật, hiện tiền tăng vật. Xem tứ chủng tăng vật.

Thập quân. The ten armies of Màra, which the Buddha attacks and destroys; the armies are desire, anxiety, hunger and thirst, longing, torpidity, fear, doubt, poison, gain, haughtiness (i.e. disdaining monks)

Thập sử. Dasa-samyojana (S). Ten fetters, deluders, fundamental passions. They are divided in five sharp lợi sử and five dull độn sử. The five dull ones are: tham desire, sân hate, si stupidity, mạn pride, nghi doubt; the five sharp ones are: thân kiến personality belief, biên kiến taking side views, tà kiến wrong views, kiến thủ kiến to hold heterodox doctrines and be obsessed with the sense of the self, giới cấm thủ kiến clinging to mere rules and rituals. Also thập đại hoặc, thập căn bản phiền não.

Thập sự công đức. The bodhisattva merit resulting from the attainment of ten groups of excellences in the southern version of the Nirvàna sùtra nam bản Niết bàn kinh. Thập tam lực.

Thập tâm. The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. I-Thuận lưu thập tâm, the ten minds remaining in the flow of reincarnation: (1) vô minh hôn ám, minds ignorant and dark; (2) ngoại gia ác hữu, affected by evil companions; (3) thiện bất tùy tùng, not following the good; (4) tam nghiệp tạo ác tâm, doing evil in thought, word, deed; (5) ác tâm biến bố, spreading evil abroad; (6) ác tâm tương tục, unceasingly wicked; (7) phú quí quá thất tâm, secret sin; (8) bất úy ác đạo, open crime; (9) vô tàm vô quí, utterly shameless; (10) xả vô nhân quả, defying cause and effect (retribution). II-Nghịch lưu thập tâm, the ten minds striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation: (1) thâm tín nhân quả, it shows itself in devout faith; (2) sinh trọng tàm quí, shame for sin; (3) sinh đại bố úy, fear of wrong doing; (4) phát lộ sám hối, repentance and confession; (5) đoạn tương tục tâm, reform; (6) phát bồ đề tâm, bodhi i.e. the bodhisattva mind; (7) đoán thiện ác tu, doing good; (8) thủ hộ chính pháp, maintaining the right law; (9) niệm thập phương Phật, thinking on all the Buddha; (10) quán tội tính không, meditating on the void (or the unreality of sin) III-The third is the Chân Ngôn group: the "seed" heart (i.e. the original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgement (or resolve). III-Thập tâm của Bồ tát, the ten minds of a Bodhisattva: (1) tín tâm trụ (2) niệm tâm trụ; (3) tinh tiến tâm; (4) tuệ tâm trụ; (5) định tâm trụ (6) bất thoái tâm, no retrogression; (7) hộ pháp tâm (8) hồi hướng tâm (9) giới tâm trụ (10) nguyện tâm.

Thập tín. The ten grades of bodhisattva faith: (1) tín tâm faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) niệm tâm remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) tinh tiến tâm zealous progress; (4) tuệ tâm wisdom; (5) định tâm settled firmness in concentration; (6) bất thoái tâm non-retrogression; (7) hộ pháp tâm protection of the Truth; (8) hồi hướng tâm reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) giới tâm the nirvàna mind in effortlessness; (10) nguyện tâm action at will in anything and everywhere.

Thập tông. The ten shools of Chinese Buddhism: (1) Luật tông, vinaya-discipline or Nam sơn tông; (2) Câu xá tông, Kosa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvàstivàdin) hữu tông; (3) Thành thật tông, satya-siddhi sect founded on this sàstra by Harivarman; (4) Tam luận tông, màdhyamika or không tông; (5) Pháp hoa tông, lotus, "law-flower" or Thiên thai tông; (6) Hoa nghiêm tông, Hua yen; (7) Pháp tướng tông, dharmalaksana; (8) Thiền tông, ch'an or zen, mind only, or intuitive; (9) Chân ngôn tông, Japanese Shingon , esoteric mật tông; (10) Liêntông, Amitabha-lotus, or Pure-Land, Japanese Jòdo, Tịnh độ.

Thập tứ. Caturdasa (S). Fourteen.

Thập tứ biến hóa. The fourteen transformations that are connected with the four dhyàna heavens.

Thập thân. Ten aspects of the Buddhakàya.

Thập thiện. The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of the ten evils. Thân tam khẩu tứ ý tam. The three commandments dealing with the body, probihiting taking of life, thief, unchastity; the four dealing with the mouth against lying, exaggeration, abuse and ambiguous talk; the three belonging to the mind, covetousness, malice and unbelief. Thập thiện giới. The ten commandments (as observed by the laity).

Thập thiện nghiệp. The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments.

Thập thừa quán. A Thiên Thai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles", or stages for the attainment of bodhi.

Thập trai nhật. The ten "fast" days of a month are 1, 8, 14, 15, 23, 24, 28, 28, and 30.

Thập trai nhật Phật. The ten Buddhas or bodhisattvas connected with these days who in turn are: Ngày 1: Định Quang Phật; 8: Dược Sư Như Lai; 14: Phổ Hiền Bồ tát; 15: A di Đà Như lai; 18: Quán Âm Bồ tát; 23: Thế Chí Bồ tát; 24: Địa Tạng Bồ tát; 28: Tì lô giá na Phật; 29: Dược Vương Bồ tát; 30: Thích Ca Như lai.

Thập trí. The ten forms of understandings: I-Tiểu thừa, Hìnayàna: (1) thế tục trí, common understanding; (2) pháp trí, enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) loại trí, ditto, applied to the two upper realms; (4) khổ trí; (5) tập trí; (6) diệt trí; (7) đạo trí, understanding each of the Four Truths separately both in the upper and lower realms; (8) tha tâm trí, understanding of the minds of others; (9) (lậu) tận trí, the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self; (10) vô sinh trí, nirvàna wisdom. II-Đại thừa, Mahàyàna. A Tathagata's ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) tam thế trí, perfect understanding of past, present and future; (2) Phật pháp trí, ditto of Buddha-Law; (3) pháp giới vô ngại trí, unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) pháp giới vô biên trí, unlimited or infinite ditto; (5) sung mãn nhất thiết thế gian trí, of ubiquity; (6) phổ chiếu nhất thiết thế gian trí, of universal enlightenment; (7) trụ trì nhất thiết thế gian trí, of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) tri nhất thiết chúng sinh trí, of omniscience re all living beins; (9) tri nhất thiết pháp trí, of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) tri vô biên chư Phật trí. of omniscience re all Buddha wsdom.

Thập triền. The ten bounds that bind men to mortality: (1) Vô tàm, to be shameless; (2) Vô quí, unblushing; (3) Tật, envious; (4) San, mean; (5) Sân, regretful; (6) Thụy miên, torpid; (7) Trạo cử, busy; (8) Hôn trầm, absorbed; (9) Sân nhuế, anger; (10) Phúc (tráo trở), secretive (of sin).

Thập trụ. The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva wisdom: (1) phát tâm trụ the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) trì địa trụ clear understanding and mental control; (3) tu hành trụ unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) sinh quí trụ acquiring the Tathàgata nature or seed; (5) phương tiện cụ túc trụ perfect adaptability and resemblance in self development and development of others; (6)chính tâm trụ the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) bất thoái trụ no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) đồng chân trụ as a Buddha-son now complete; (9) pháp vương tử trụ as prince of the law; (10) quán đỉnh trụ baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of king.

Thập trụ tâm. Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the Chân ngôn tông, beginning with the human animal and ending with perfect enlightenment.

Thập trưởng dưỡng tâm. The ten kinds of well-nourished heart, essential to entry into the cult of higher patience and endurance: (1) Từ tâm, a heart of kindness; (2) Bi tâm, of pity; (3) Hỉ tâm, of joy (in progress toward salvation of others); (4) Xả tâm, renunciation; (5) Thí tâm, almsgiving; (6) Hảo ngữ tâm, delight in telling the doctrine; (7) Ích tâm, benefiting or aiding others to salvation; (8) Đồng tâm, unity, or amity; (9) Định tâm, concentration in meditation; (10) Tuệ tâm, wisdom.

Thập vô nhị. Ten powers only possessed by Buddhas: (1) prediction; (2) knowing and fulfilling the desires of the living; (3)-(10) are various forms of omniscience, i.e. (3) of all Buddha-realms and their inhabitants; (4) their natures; (5) good roots; (6) laws; (7) wisdom; (8) every moment; (9) evolving domains, or conditions; (10) language, words, and discussions.

Thập vương. The ten kings presiding over the ten departments of purgatory.

Thất. Sapta (S). Seven.

Thất bảo. Sapta ratna (S). The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are various descriptions, e.g. kim suvarna, gold; ngân rùpya, silver; lưu li vaidùrya, lapis lazuli; pha lê sphatika, crystal; xa cừ musàragalva, agate, mother pearl; xích châu rohita mukta, rubies or red pearls; mã não asmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal treasures: the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl; able minister of the treasury; jewels of women; and loyal generals.

Thất bảo thụ lâm. The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things - a part of the Pure Land.

Thất bất khả tị. The seven unavoidables: (1) Sinh chẳng tránh được, rebirth;(2) Già chẳng tránh được, old age; (3) Bệnh chẳng tránh được, sickness; (4) Chết chẳng tránh được, death; (5) Tội chẳng tránh được, punishment (for sin); (6) Phúc chẳng tránh được, happiness (for goodness); (7) Nhân duyên chẳng tránh được,consequences (cause and effect).

Thất bồ đề phần. Saptabodhyanga (S). Seven characteristics of bodhi. It represents seven grades in bodhi: (1) Trạch pháp, dharma-pravicaya-sambhodyanga, discrimination of the true and false; (2) Tinh tiến, vìrya-sam., zeal or undeflected progress; (3) Hỉ, prìti-s., joy, delight; (4) Khinh an, prasrabidhi-s., riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free and at ease; (5) Niệm, smrti-s., power of remembering the various stages passed through in contemplation; (6) Định, samàdhi-s., power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) Hành xả, upeksà-s., complete abandonment, or indifference to all disturbances of the subconscious or ecstatic mind.

Thất cấu. The seven defilements: dục desire, kiến false views, nghi doubt, mạn pride, kiêu arrogance, hôn trầm torpor, and san stinginess.

Thất chân như. The seven aspects of the bhùtatathatà: (1) Lưu chuyển chân như; (2) Thật tướng chân như; (3) Duy thức chân như; (4) An lập chân như; (5) Tà hạnh chân như; (6) Thanh tịnh chân như; (7) Chính hạnh chân như.

Thất chúng. The seven classes of disciples: (1) Tỉ khưu, bhiksu, monk; (2) Tỉ khưu ni, bhiksuni, nun; (3) Thức xoa ma na, siksamàna, a novice-nun; (4) Sa di, sràmanera, novice-monk; (5) Sa di ni, sràmanerika, novice-nun; (6) Ưu bà tắc, upàsaka, lay-man; (7) Ưu bà di, upàsikà, lay-woman.

Thất chủng bất tịnh. The seven kinds of uncleaness: (1) Hột giống chẳng sạch derived from the parental seed; (2) Thụ sinh chẳng sạch, parental intercourse; (3) Nơi đậu chẳng sạch, the womb; (4) Ăn uống chẳng sạch, the pre-natal blood of the mother; (5) Lúc mới sinh chẳng sạch, birth; (6) Tất cả thân thể chẳng sạch, one's own flesh; (7) Rốt cục chẳng sạch, one's own putrid corpse.

Thất chủng biện. The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas: (1) Tiệp tật biện, direct and unimpeded; (2) Lợi biện, acute and deep; (3) Bất tận biện, unlimited in scope: (4) Bất khả đoạn biện, irrefutable; (5) Tùy ứng biện, appropriate, or according to receptivity; (6) Nghĩa biện, purposive or objective (i.e. nirvàna); (7) Nhất thiết thế gian tối thượng biện, proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahàyàna.

Thất chủng bố thí. The seven kinds of almsgiving: (1) Bố thí cho người khách, to callers; (2) Bố thí cho người đi đường, to travellers; (3) Bố thí cho người bệnh the sick; (4) Bố thí cho người hầu bệnh, their nurse; (5) Bố thí vườn tược cho chùa, monasteries; (6) Bố thí thức ăn hàng ngày, regular food (to mnks); (7) Tùy lúc bố thí, general alms.

Thất chủng lễ Phật. Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha ranging from the merely external to the highest grade.

Thất chủng ngư Buddha's seven modes of discourse: (1) Nhân ngữ, from presentcause to future effect; (2) Quả ngữ, from present sffect to past cause; (3) Nhân quả ngữ, inherent cause and effect; (4) Dụ ngữ, illustrative or figurative; (5) Bất ứng thuyết ngữ, spontaneous or parabolic; (6) Thế lưu bố ngữ, ordinary or popular; (7) Như ý ngữ, unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. sa when he said that all things have the Buddha-nature.

Thất chủng sám hối tâm. The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship: shame, at not being free from mortality; fear, of the pains of hell,etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin nature.

Thất chủng vô thượng. The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha: thân, his body with its thirty two signs and eighty four marks; đạo, his way of universal mercy; kiến, his perfect insight or doctrine; trí, his wisdom; thần lực, his supernatural power; li chướng, his ability to overcome hindrances, e.g. illusion, karma, suffering; trụ, and his abiding place i.e. nirvàna.

Thất chủng xả. Seven abandonments or riddances: cherishing none and nothing; no relation with others; riddance of love and hate; of anxiety about the salvation of others; of form; giving to others (e.g. supererogation); benefiting others without hope of return.

Thất chủng y. The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk.

Thất diệt tránh pháp. Saptàdhikarana-samatha (S). Seven rules given in the Vinaya for setting disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from four causes: from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgement and punishment; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance.

Thất dụ. The seven parables of the Lotus sùtra.

Thất đại. The seven elements: earth địa, water thủy, fira hỏa, wind phong, space không, sight kiến, perception thức.

Thất điều y. The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces.

Thất giác chi. Xem thất bồ đề phần.

Thất giác ý. Xem thất bồ đề phần.

Thất giác phần. Xem thất bồ đề phần.

Thất hiền vị. Xem thất phương tiện vị.

Thất hữu. The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any dục giới desire world: (1) Địa ngục hữu, in the hells; (2) Súc sinh hữu, as animals; (3) Ngạ quỉ hữu, hungry ghosts; (4) Thiên hữu, gods; (5) Nhân hữu, men; (6) Nghiệp hữu, karma; and (7) Trung hữu, the intermediate stage.

Thất không. The seven unrealities, or illusions. There are two lists: (1) Tướng không, Tính tự tính không, Hành không, Vô hành không, Nhất thiết pháp li ngôn thuyết không, Đệ nhất nghĩa thánh trí đại không, Bỉ bỉ không; (2) Cái không của tính, Cái không của tướng mình, Cái không của các pháp, Chẳng thể được là không, Không có pháp là không, Cái có pháp là không, Có pháp không pháp là không.

Thất mạn. The seven pretensions or arrogances.

Thất nghịch tội. The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins: (1) Làm thân Phật ra máu, shedding a Buddha's blood; (2) Giết cha, killing father; (3) Giết mẹ, mother ; (4) Giết Hòa thượng, monk; (5) Giết A xà lê, teacher; (6) Phá Tăng, subverting or disrupting the moks; (7) Giết bậc Thánh, killing an Arhat.

Thất pháp tài. The seven riches, or seven ways to become rich in the Law: tín, faith; tiến, zeal; giới, moral restraint; tàm quí, shame; văn, obedient hearing (of the law); abnegation; and định tuệ, wisdom arising from meditation.

Thất Phật. Sapta Buddha (S). The seven ancient Buddhas: Tì bà thi, Vipasyin; Thi khí, Sikhin; Tì xá phù, Visvabhù; Câu lưu tôn, Krakucchanda; Câu na hàm mâu ni, Kanakamuni; Ca diếp, Kasyapa; Thích ca mâu ni, Sàkyamuni.

Thất Phật Dược sư. The seven Healing Buddhas.

Thất phương tiện vị. (1) The seven "expedient" or temporary attainments or positions of Hìnayàna, supersided in Mahàyàna by the thất hiền vị or thất gia hạnh vị all preparatory to the thất thánh vị. (2) The seven vehicles i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of sravakas, of pratyeka-buddhas, and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings tạng, thông and biệt.

Thất sử. The seven messengers, agents, or klesas: dục ái, desire; sân nhuế, anger or hate; hữu ái, attachment; mạn, pride, or arrogance; vô minh, ignorance, or unenlightenment; kiến, false views; nghi, doubt.

Thất sự tùy thân. The seven appartenances of a monk: the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or dry brush), stool (nisidana), paper, and material for washing,

Thất tai nạn. The seven calamities in the Nhân Vương Kinh Thụ trì phẩm, during which that sùtra should be recited: (1) Mặt trời mặt trăng lỗi độ, sun and moon losing their order; (2) Các vì sao lỗi độ, constellations irregular; (3) Lửa, fire; (4) Nước, water; (5) Gió dữ, wind storms; (6) Khí dương quá thịnh, drought; (7) Giặc dữ, brigands. Another set is: pestilence, invasion, rebellion, unlucky stars, eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. 

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Vào mạng: 17-10-2001

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