bản Internet 2001
To pass; past; gone; transgression. error.
Dausthalva (S). Surpassing evil; extremely evil.
thất Phật. The seven past Buddhas: Tỳ bà thi Vipasyin, Thi khí Sikkin,Tỳ xá
phù Visvabhù, Câu lưu tôn Krakucchanda, Câu na hàm mâu ni Kanakamuni, Ca Diếp
Kasyapa and Thích ca mâu ni Sakyamuni.
The pride which among equals regards self as superior and among superiors as equal; one of
the seven arrogances.
Fault, error, mistake.
Phala (S). Fruit; offspring; result, consequence, effect; reward, retribution; it
contrasts with nhân cause, i.e. nhân quả cause and effect.
báo, dị thục. Retribution for good or evil deeds, implying that different
conditions in this (or any) life are the variant ripenings, or fruit, of seed sown in
previous life or lives.
độ. The realm of reward, where Bodhisattvas attain the full reward of their deeds,
also called thực báo vô chướng ngại độ, one of the tứ độ of Thiên Thai.
tứ tướng. The four forms of retribution - birth, age, sickness, death.
Fruition perfect, the perfect virtue or merit of Buddha enlightenment.
pháp thân. The dharmakàya of complete enlightenment.
danh, quả hiệu. Attainment-name, or reward-name or title, i.e. of every Buddha,
indicating his enlightenment.
thức. The wisdom attained from investigating and thinking about philosophy, or
Buddha-truth, i.e, of the sùtras and abhidharma; this includes the first four under ngũ
chủng duy thức.
The stage of attainment of the goal of any disciplinary course.
The merits of nirvàna, e.g. thường eternal, lạc blissful, ngã personal (or
autonomous), tịnh pure, all transcendental.
viên hiện. In the Buddha-realm, i.e. of complete bodhi-enlightenment, all things
are perfectly manifest.
The ocean of bodhi or enlightenment.
To cut off the fruit, or results, of former karma. The arhat who has a "remnants of
karma" though he has cut off the seed of misery, has not yet cut off its fruits.
mãn. The full or complete fruition of merit; perfect reward.
biến. Phalaparinàma (S). Fruiting.
nhân. Those who have obtained the fruit, i.e. escaped the chain of transmigration,
e.g. Buddha, Pratyeka-Buddha, Arhat.
tính. Fruition of the Buddha-enlightenment, its perfection, one of the five forms of
The reward, e.g. of ineffable nirvàna, or dharmakàya.
Retribution-bond; the bitter fruit or transmigration binds the individual so that he
cannot attain release. This fruit produces tử phược or further seeds of bondage.
đoạn. Cutting off the ties of retribution, i.e. entering nirvàna, e.g. entering
The fruit of fruit, i.e. nirvàna, the fruition of bodhi.
Phật tính. The fruit of the fruit of Buddhahood, i.e. parinirvàna, one of the ngũ
thức. The Alaya-vjnàna, i.e. storehouse or source of consciousness, from which both
subject and object are derived.
In the stage when the individual receives the consequences of deeds done.
Reward, retribution or effect; especially as one of the three forms of the
The stage of attainment, or reward as contrasted with the cause-stage, i.e. the deeds.
viên. Fruit complete, i.e. perfect enlightenment, one of the eight ThiênThai
quán. Vipasyanà, vidarsanà (S). To look into, study, examine, contemplate;
contemplation, insight; a study, a Taoist monastery; to consider illusion and discern
illusion, or discern the seeming from the real; to contemplate and mentally enter into
truth. Giác is defined as awakening or awareness, quá n as examination or study.
Xem Quán thế âm.
tịnh độ. Potalaka (S). Heavenly palace of Avalokiteshvara. Also Bổ đà lạc
ca, Quang minh sơn.
tam muội. Contemplating bone samàdhi.
To be enlightened as the result of insight, or intelligent contemplation.
Bát nhã. The prajnà or wisdom of meditative enlightenment on reality.
Abhiseka (S). Anointing.
Contemplation and (accordant) action; method of contemplating .
thở. Anàprànasmrti (S), Anàpànasati (P). Mindfulness on the in-and-out
breathing. Also sổ tức quán, nhập tức xuất tức niệm.
To contemplate ultimate reality and unravel or expound it.
không. To regard all things as unreal, or as having no fundamental reality.
môn. Contemplation or meditation as one of the two methods of entry into truth, i.e.
instruction and meditation; also one of the lục diệu môn
nhân duyên. To penetrate the concept of Nidanic causation.
To look into and think over, contemplate and ponder.
pháp. Methods of contemplation, or obtaining of insight into truth.
To contemplate, or meditate upon Buddha.
tam muội. A samàdhi on the characteristic marks of a Buddha.
sát. Prvicaya (S). Investigation; meditation on and inquiry into; vibhàvana, clear
môn. Contemplation of the joys of Amitàbha's Pure Land, one of ngũ niệm môn.
trí. Pravicàyabuddhi (S). Observing-mind.
duyên duyên luận. Alambanapratyàya-dhyàna-sàstra (S).
tâm. Contemplation of the mind, mental contemplation, contemplation of all things as
thân bất tịnh. To be penetrated with the concept of the essential impurity of
túc. Vìmamsà-samàdhi (S). Concentration on investigation.
thây sình thối. Asubhà-bhàvanà (S). Meditation having as object a corpse in
decomposition. Also cửu tưởng quán.
âm Bồ tát. Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (S). Regarder of the world's sounds, or
cries, the so called Goddess of Mercy. Originally represented as a male, the images are
now generally those of a female figure. One of the triad Amitàbha, represented on his
left. Chapter 25 of the Lotus S-tra is devoted to Qu n thế âm.
âm mẫu. Tàrà (S). The sakti, or female energy of the masculine Avalokitesvara.
Contemplation and meditation, to sit in abstract trance.
Contemplating the tree (of knowledge as Sakyamuni is said to have done after his
trí. Wisdom obtained from contemplation.
The wisdom which penetrates to ultimate reality.
tại. Sovereign Regarder (not associated with sounds or cries)
niệm Phật. To contemplate the image of (Amitàbha) Buddha and repeat his name.
Bhàvanà (S). To meditate and think. Meditation, mental development.
niệm Phật. To contemplate Buddha (especially Amitàbha) in the mind and repeat his
lượng thọ kinh. Amitàyurdhyàna-sùtra (S). Sùtra of the meditation on
ngã. To penetrate the concept of unreality of self.
Prabhà (S). Light, brightness, splendour; to illuminate.
thiên. Abhàsvara (S). Light-sound heavens. The heavens of utmost light and purity.
giáng. The honoured one descends, i.e. the Buddha or bodhisattva who is worshipped,
hào. The ùrnà or curl between the Buddha's eyebrows whence streams light that
reveals all worlds.
minh. Jvàla (S). The halo.
sơn. Xem Quán âm tịnh độ.
đồng tử. Jàlìniprabhakumàra (S). Name of a Bodhisattva.
Vipula (S). Broad, wide, extensive, spacious; extended, enlarged, expanded.
bác. Wide and spacious, extensively read, very learned.
bác thân. The one whose body fills space, Vairocana.
bách luận bản. Satasàstravaipulya (S).
Broad and great.
hội. The centre where vast virtues meet, a term for Amitàbha.
trí. The vast wisdom of Buddha beyond measure.
giáo. Full or detailed teaching by the Buddha about the duties of the order, in
contrast with lược gi o general or summerized teaching; the detailed teaching resulting
from errors which had crept in among his disciples.
thiên. Virùpàksa (S). The wide-eyed deva, diversely-eyed, having deformed eyes, an
epithet of Siva, as represented with three eyes; name of one of the four Mahàràjas, he
who guards the west.
thiên. Brhatphala (S). The twelfth Brahmaloka, the third of the eight heavens of the
fourth dhyàna in the realm of form.
nghiêm thành. Vaisàli (S). Also Tì xá li, tì da li.
thiệt tướng. A broad and long tongue, one of the thirty two marks of a Buddha,
big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus sùtra.
Vipulaprajnà, vipulamati (S). Vast wisdom, an epithet of a Buddha, one able to transform
lộ. Kunda (S). Nectar jug. Also thủy bình, quân trì, tịnh bình.
A flock of sheep, herd, multitude, the flock, crowd, all.
All that exists
All classes of living beings, especially the sentient.
manh. Bahu-jana (S). All the shoots, sprouts, or immature things, i.e. all the living
as ignorant and undeveloped. A mass of people. a crowd. Also quần sinh, quần chúng.
mê. All the deluded; all delusions.
sinh. All the living, especially all living, conscious beings.
Return to, give oneself up to; commit oneself to, surrender.
To revert to type; to trace sth to its origin.
Xem qui nguyên.
chính. To return to the right path. Cải tà qui chính, to leave the wrong path for
the right one.
To turn to in reverence, put one's trust to and worship.
Namas, namah, namo (S). To devote one's life (to the Buddha, etc); to entrust one's life,
to obey Buddha's teaching. Veneration, homage.
bình đẳng chư Phật. Namah Samanta Buddhanàm (S).
nguyên. To return to one's origin, enter nirvàna, i.e. to die. Also qui hóa, qui
túc, qui bản, qui chân.
nguyên trực chỉ. Direct instruction to return to one's origin.
To turn to in expectancy or adoration, put trust in.
To turn to and enter, e.g. a religion, church, society, etc.
To become converted to Buddhism.
To turn one's heart toward.
To turn from the world (phenomena) to that of eternal reality, to devote oneself to the
spiritual rather than the material.
(Of Bonze) to die, to pass away.
To return to the fairyland.
To return to lay life.
Samvrti (S). Convention, common cosent. Also ước định, thế tục.
To turn to and rely on; to take refuge with.
Qui y Tam
Bảo. To commit oneself to the Triratna, to take refuge with the Triratna, i.e.
Buddha, Dharma, Sangha; Buddha, his Truth and his church.
To regain one's position.
The hair of the turtle.
Preta (S). A disembodied spirit, dead person, ghost; a demon, evil being, devil; spectre,
goblin, boggy; apparition. Xem Cửu quỉ
Sickness caused by demon, or ghost.
quỉ thú. The way or destiny of yaksa, ràksasas, and hungry ghosts. Quỉ đạo
also means in league with demons, or following devilish ways.
The region or realm of demon.
thần sầu. Terrible, terrific, dreadful, terrifying, awe-inspiring.
Demon views, i.e. heterodox teaching.
The iron record containing the sins of men in Yama's office in Hades.
Imps or demons who cause sickness, especially malaria in certsin regions.
The north-east corner of a house, or of a city-gate, through which the spirits can come
Hell-envoy; infernal emissary; demon.
thần sai. To be led beyond one's control.
thời. The time when the demons feed, i.e. night.
mẫu. Hàritì (S). A woman who having vowed to devour all the babies at Ràjagriha
was reborn as a ràkshasi, and gave birth to 500 chidren, one of which she was to devour
everyday. Converted by Sàkyamuni, she entered a convent. Her image is to be seen in all
nunneries. Another account is that she is the mother of 500 demons, andthat from being an
evil goddess or spirit she was converted to become a protectress of Buddhism.
thành. The demon-city, that of the Gandharvas.
Ghosts and spirits, a general term which includes the spirits of the dead, together with
the demon and the eight classes of spirits such as devas, etc. Quỉ is intp as oai
causing fear, Thần as năng potent, powerful. Devils and gods Xin quỉ thần chứng
minh, to call gods to witness; to swear by all the gods.
vương. The King of the demons.
A country, a nation; national.
A country, land, native land, abode of a race or races.
thế gian. The world of countries on which people depend for existence.
thân. The Buddha as Buddhaksetra or abode of the living; the world as the body of
Imperial preceptor, a title conferred on certain Buddhist monks.
Weight, authority, power; to balance, adjudge; bias, expediency, partial, provisional,
temporary, positional; in Buddhist scriptures, it is used like phương tiện expediency,
or temporary; itis the adversative of thực.
bi. Pity in regard to beings in time and sense, arising from the Buddhas.
thừa. The temporary, or partial schools of Mah...y...na, the th"ng and biệt,
in contrast with thật đại thừa schools which taught universal Buddhahood, e.g, Hoa
nghiêm and Thiên Thai schools.
A Buddha or bodhisattva who has assumed a temporary form in order to aid beings.
giáo. Temporary, expedient, or functional teaching, preparatory to the perfect
teaching, a distinguishing term of the Thiên Thai and Hoa Nghiêm sects, i.e. the
teachings of the three previous periods tạng, thông, biệt which were regarded as
preparatory to their own viên giáo.
Temporary, or ad hoc manifestations, similar to quyền hóa.
hóa. The power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into any kind of
lý. Partial, or incomplete truth.
môn. The sects which emphasize phương quảng, i.e. expediency, or expedients; the
phương tiện. Expedients of Buddha and bodhisattva for saving all beings.
Temporal and real; quyền referring to the conditional, functional, differential, or
temporary, thật to the fundamental, absolute, or real.
bất nhị môn. The two divisions, the provisional and the perfect are not two but
trí. Buddha-wisdom of the phenomenal, in contrast with thật trí knowledge of the
fundamental or absolute.
Adhimoksa (S). Determination; firm resolve. Also quyết tâm.