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...... ... .  . .  .  .
By Ming-Wood Liu

Yogaacaara Buddhism was first introduced into China in the early sixth century through the effort of the so-called Ti-lun masters(a) and She-lun masters(b), who based their teachings on the Da ‘sabhuumikasuutra-‘saastra (Ti-lun) and Mahaayaanasa.mgraha ‘saastra (she-lun) of Vasubandhu and Asa.nga, respectively.(1) While these Ti-lun and She-lun masters shared the general Yogaacaara concern for the problem of the mind, their understanding of the mind's nature, functions, and role in the process of enlightenment differed markedly from the original Indian model. In this article we shall attempt to outline some of the main features of the early Chinese Yogaacaara teaching of the mind based on the works of Hui-yuan of the Ching-ying Temple(c),(2) who had the distinction of being the only Ti-lun master who had left behind a wide assortment of writings,(3) which at present constitute the single most important source for the study of the early interpretation of Yogaacaara thought in China.(4)



Among the many ways of classifying Buddhist texts current in his time,(5) Hui-yuan favors the twofold division into "the canon of the ‘Sraavakas" (sheng-wen tsang(d)) and "the canon of the bodhisattvas" (p'u-sa tsang(e)), which corresponds to the traditional division of Buddhism into the two branches of the Hiinayaana and the Mahaayaana. Of the many ideas peculiar to the Mahaayaana group of scriptures, Hui-yuan mentions in particular the tenet of mind only:

In the teaching of the Mahaayaana, it is maintained that all dharmas are merely beings of the mind, just as appearances in dreams. When the mind arises, dharmas [also] arise; and when the mind is annihilated, dharmas are [also] annihilated. Since [the activities of] the false mind will cease with the attainment of nirvaa.na, all dharmas, being appearances of the mind, will [also] come to an end.(6)

Contrasting the Hiinayaana with the Mahaayaana conceptions of the false consciousness, Hui-yuan points out that while the Hiinayaanists realize the mistake of attributing self-nature to dharmas, they cannot comprehend that all dharmas are founded on the mind:

As depicted in Hiinayaana [texts], the grasping and the deluded mind erroneously regards dharmas outside the mind as possessing self-nature, and does not perceive that [all] nameable functions are without [self-] essence. As depicted in the teaching of the Mahaayaana, the false consciousness deceives and hides the true essence, and wrongly considers dharmas arising from itself as real.(7)

His conception of Mahaayaana Buddhism being such, it is not surprising that Hui-yuan, a self-avowed Mahaayaanist like most Chinese Buddhists, would come to adopt the thesis of mind-only as the core of his ontology. Thus, we often find in his writings such statements as "All dharmas are produced by the one mind, just as events in dreams are created by the mind in slumber,"(8) "There exist at first false thoughts, which conceive of [the existence of] dharmas outside the mind, not realizing that dharmas owe their being to the mind,"(9) and so forth. The idea that there exist no mind-independent entities is central to Hui-yuan's world view. So he remarks, "No realm [of being] originates from itself, but is formed by the mind."(10) Again he asserts, "One perceives that the external world arises from the mind only. That there exists no realm outside the mind is known as 'the nature of no-form' (wu-hsiang hsing(f))."(11)

Quotation 6, preceding, mentions that dharmas will come to an end when the false mind ceases to exist, and quotation 7 declares that dharmas arise out of the false mind. Both citations give the impression that the mind constituting the ultimate reality in Hui-yuan's ontology is defiled in nature. However, Hui-yuan affirms very emphatically in the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun i-su(g) (Commentary on the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun(h), henceforth abbreviated to Commentary) that to talk of things proceeding from false thoughts is provisional, whereas in truth, all dharmas evolve from the true-consciousness (chen-shih(i)):

By "all dharmas", [the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun] refers to various dharmas [of the realm] of samsaara. [The term "mind" in the phrase] "are developed from the mind" refers to the true-consciousness, As false [dharmas] do not exist on their own but arise dependent on the true [-mind], it is said that [dharmas] evolve from the mind. [The term "false thoughts" in the clause] "are produced by false thoughts" refers to the seventh consciousness.(12) If we consider the immediate [condition], dharmas pertaining to the samsaaric [realm] are the products of false thoughts.(13)

In the same text, he outlines three ways of apprehending the truth of mind-only, culminating in the contemplation of the true-mind as the foundation of all beings, including the false mind:

There are three kinds of contemplation:

1. The contemplation of false appearances:

It perceives that the three realms(14) are false appearances proceeding from the mind only, just like objects produced in dreams. Equipped with the idea of nonexistence, [it comprehends that] there is ultimately no dharma outside the mind.

2. The contemplation of false thoughts:

It perceives that what the false mind constructs is without substance and comes into being dependent on the true [mind], just as waves are dependent on water....

3. The contemplation of the true [-mind]:

It perceives that all dharmas without exception originate and are formed from the true [-mind], and other than the true [-mind], there is absolutely nothing which can give rise to false thoughts. Since nothing [other than the true-mind] can give rise to false thoughts, even the false mind [to which common sense attributes the production of false thoughts] is in truth nonexistent.(15)

In one place, he speaks of the Tathaagatagarbha, the other name for the true mind, as the basis of our everyday world of name and form.(16) In another instance, he refers to the Tathaagatagarbha as the "substance, " with the realms of sa.msaara and nirvaa.na as its "functions."(17) All in all, "mind-only" in Hui-yuan's system of thought denotes in final analysis the ontological dependence of all phenomenal beings whether physical or mental on the intrinsically pure mind which every sentient being originally possesses. This thesis, in Hui-yuan's opinion, represents the most profound as well as the most truthful interpretation of the nature of reality in Buddhism.



In Hui-yuan's writings, the idea of mind-only is couched in the framework of the theory of eight consciousnesses, which testifies abundantly to the Yogaacaara as well as the Ti-lun descent of his teaching.(18) According to Hui-yuan, depending on how one approaches the matter, the mind of each sentient being can be viewed as one totality, or be analyzed into two, three, four, and up to sixty or even more aspects.(19) However, influenced by the La.nkaavataara-suutra, Hui-yuan favors the scheme of eight consciousnesses:

The idea of [the existence of] eight consciousnesses comes from the La.naavataara-suutra. Thus, in the sutra, [the Bodhisattva] Mahaamati addresses the Buddha. "World-honored one! Do you establish [the theory of] eight consciousnesses?" The Buddha says "I establish it." (T, vol. 16, p. 496a, 11.21-22) What we call "consciousness" is the other name for "mental cognition" (shen-chih(j)). Examined from [different] perspectives, the number of consciousnesses become innumerable, but we now adopt one interpretation, and discuss eight types [of consciousnesses]. What are the names of these eight? They are: (i) eye-consciousness, (ii) ear-consciousness, (iii) nose-consciousness, (iv) tongue-consciousness, (v) body-consciousness, (vi) mind-consciousness, (vii) aadaana-consciousness, and (viii) aalaya-consciousness.(20)

The nature of the eight consciousnesses can be inferred from their names:

The first six of the eight [consciousnesses] receive their names from the sense-organs [with which they are associated], whereas the last two express [different aspects of] the substance [of the mind]. The sense organs are namely eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. When we apprehend consciousness from these [six perspectives], we thereby come to have [the first] six types [of consciousness]. Since the substance [of the mind] includes [both aspects of] the true and the false, it is further divided into two.(21) When the mind functions in connection with the six organs of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind,(22) it is known as the eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness, respectively. In itself, the mind includes both aspects of the true and the false, which make up the aalaya-consciousness and the aadana-consciousness, respectively. Thus, altogether, we come to have a scheme of eight consciousnesses. In this section, we shall take up the aalaya-consciousness first.

The word "aalaya," judged from its Sanskrit root a-/li (to adhere, to cling), suggests a propensity for attachment and so denotes something which ought to be transformed by proper religious practices. Such is the conception of the aalaya found in such standard Indian Yogaacaara works as the Yogaacaaryabhuumi- ‘sastra, the Mahaayaanasa.mgraha- ‘saastra, and the Tri.m ‘sikaavij~napti-kaarikaa, in which the aalaya-consciousness is given as the subject of transmigration, the origin of the realm of samsaara, and the repository of karmic effects both pure and impure.(23) Hui-yuan, on the other hand, due to his Ti-lun upbringing, considers the "aalaya" as standing for the true aspect of the mind.(24) Speaking on the meaning of the term "aalaya," Hui-yuan writes in the Ta-ch'eng i chang(k) (Essentials of the Mahaayaana, henceforth abbreviated to Essentials):

"AAlaya", rendered literally into our language, means "never loses." That is, it never loses [its true nature] even when [transmigrating] in [the realm of] samsara.(25) This definition is followed by a long list of names considered by Hui-yuan to be equivalent to the "aalaya".

When rendered freely according to its significance, [the aalaya] is known by eight different names:

1. It is known as the tsang-shih(l) (storehouse-consciousness), for this consciousness is the tsang (embryo, garbha) of the Tathaagata....(26)

2. It is known as the sheng-shih(m) (holy-conciousness), for it is the basis of the activities of the great sages.

3. It is known as the ti-i-i shih(n) (supreme consciousness), for it is [in nature] the most excellent....

4. It is known as the ching-shih(o) (pure-consciousness), also as the wu-kou shih(p) (non-defiled consciousness), for its substance can never be soiled....

5. It is known as the chen-shih(q) (true-consciousness), for it is in essence devoid of falsehood....

6. It is known as the chen-ju shih(r) (tathataa-consciousness), as is explained in the [Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin] lun: "Since the essence of the mind cannot be destroyed, it is known as chen. Since [the mind is self-sufficient and depends on the sustenance of nothing, it is known as ju." (T, vol. 32, p. 576a, 11. 15-16)

7. It is known as the chia-shih(s) (home-consciousness), also as the chai-shih(t) (residence-consciousness), for it acts as the support of false dharmas.

8. It is known as the pen-shih(u) (root-consciousness) , for it constitutes the ground of the false mind.(27)

From the above inventory of synonyms of the aalaya,(28) it is evident that in Hui-yuan yuan's system of thought, the aalaya-consciousness denotes the Tathaagatagarbha (1), that is, the intrinsically pure consciousness (3, 4), which may be overlaid with defilements but can never be soiled in essence (5). This consciousness is eternal (6), and is the origin of both the physical and mental aspects of the phenomenal world (7, 8). As the basis of all religious activities, it makes possible the attainment of the supreme enlightenment (2). Every sentient being possesses this immaculate principle, as Hui-yuan emphasizes in the Commentary:

With respect to deeds, the common man and the sage are different, each [creating] his own causes and [reaping] his own fruits. With respect to [inner] principle, however, they are the same and [are of] one flavor. This principle does not diminish in the case of the two vehicles [the ‘Sraavakas and the Pratyeka-Buddha], nor does it augment in the cases of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.(29)

In his discussion of the true-consciousness which is the aalaya, Hui-yuan follows the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, and analyses it into the three aspects of substance (t'i(v) ) , characteristics (hsiang(w)), and function (yung(x)):(30)

Regarding the true-consciousness, it can be divided into three aspects, that is, substance, characteristics, and function. With respect to "substance," the true-consciousness is known as the tathataa, which is profound, tranquil, and equal. Being the final reality (ju-ju(y)) which is of one flavor, it remains self-same whether when hidden or when manifested, whether amidst defilements or [the state of] purity. It remains placid at all times, and falls neither under [the category of] cause nor under [the category of] effect. With respect to "characteristics, " this consciousness is the cognitive mind pertaining to [the realm of] the Tathaagatagarbha, and is constituted of Buddha-dharmas [as numerous as] the sand of the Ganges; just as the cognitive mind pertaining to [the realm of] worldly dharmas is constituted of [the features of] pain and impermanence. When this true mind is in [the state of] falsehood, its [excellent] characteristics are obscured and [so] is described as "defiled." When it is freed from the bonds of defilement, it is counted as "pure." When its pure characteristics are not yet fully [restored], it is known as the "cause." When its pure characteristics are perfected, it is known as the "effect".... As for "function, " when the true-consciousness is in a defiled state, it is allied to false thoughts and produces [the realm of] sa.msaara. When it is in a pure condition, it produces [various] deeds of virtue in response to [the vices it is trying to] eliminate. When the deeds of virtue are not yet perfected, this mind is known as the "cause" of expedient acts. When the deeds of virtue come to final completion, it is known as the "effect" of expedient acts.(31)

By the aspect "substance, " Hui-yuan means the true-consciousness as it is in itself. As such, it is the "final reality" which is "profound, tranquil, and equal." Being eternal and immutable, it is above all distinctions, and so the appellations "cause" and "effect" are not applicable to it. By the aspect "characteristics," Hui-yuan refers to the manifested features of the true-consciousness when it is in interaction with worldly dharmas. Unlike worldly dharmas which are stamped with the marks of pain and impermanence, the true-consciousness possesses all the excellent attributes of the Tathaagatagarbha. When these excellent attributes are obscured by worldly dharmas, the true-consciousness is described as "defiled" or the "cause." When all impure influences are removed, the true-consciousness is described as "pure" or the "fruit." So, it comes about that such terms as "defiled," "cause," and "effect" can be used to represent the true-consciousness in its relation with the mundane world, even when it is understood that they are not appropriate descriptions of the true-consciousness as it is in itself. By the aspect "function," Hui-yuan alludes to the true-consciousness as the ontological ground of both the realms of sa.msaara and nirvaa.na. When the true-consciousness is allied to false thoughts, it is the source of the origination of mundane existences. When considered in connection with virtuous deeds, it constitutes the "cause" as well as the "effect" of opportune religious practices.

Besides telling us what the true-consciousness or the aalaya is, Hui-yuan also informs us what the true-consciousness or the aalaya is not. Hui-yuan mentions several misconceptions of the nature and functions of the aalaya, which he classifies into two categories: those connected with the notion of "being" (yu(z)), and those connected with the notion of "nonbeing" (wu(aa)).(33) Under the first heading, he mentions the following errors:

1. There are those who, on hearing that the true-consciousness is the "self," identify it with the eternal soul or aatman taught by the non-Buddhists. To counteract this misunderstanding, Hui-yuan declares that "the Tathaagatagarbha is neither the aatman, nor sentient beings, nor [the force of] life, nor the pudgala."(34)

2. There are those who, on hearing that both the realms of sa.msaara.a and nirvaa.na originate from the true-consciousness, think that the true-consciousness is composed of defiled as well as non-defiled elements. Quoting the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, Hui-yuan stresses that "the tathaatagarbha is intrinsically pure. It contains from the beginning only pure Buddha-dharmas [as numerous as] the sand of the Ganges, and is never soiled."(35)

3. There are those, who, on hearing that the true-consciousness is resplendent in excellent qualities, imagines that it is composite in nature. Again citing the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, Hui-yuan reminds us that the tathataa which is the true mind transcends all differences, even including the difference of transcendence and non-transcendence. We described the true-consciousness as endowed with myriads of merits in order to contrast it with the everyday world of defilements, whereas in truth, all excellent qualities give up their individuality to constitute one nature in the pure mind, so much so that no distinction can be made of them any longer.(36)

4. There are those who, on hearing that the Tathaagatagarha is the ground of sa.msaara, thinks that there is a particular point in time at which the pure-consciousness begins to give rise to the sa.msaaric realm. Furthermore, they reason that this tendency of the pure-consciousness to give rise to the realm of sa.msaara does not cease with the attainment of nirvaa.na, and when it is again in operation, the nirvaa.na once reached will come to an end. Once more drawing upon the Ta-ch'eng ch'i hsin lun, Hui-yuan underlines that the Tathaagatagarbha "has neither a beginning nor an end, " and explains: Since the Tathaagatagarbha has no beginning and is the ground of sa.msaara, sa.msaara [also] has no beginning....Since the Tathaagatagarbha has no end and is the ground of nirvaa.na, nirvaa.na [also] has no end.(37)

By the misconception connected with the notion of "nonbeing," Hui-yuan refers to the thesis that the concept "Tathaagatagarbha" denotes nothing more than the truth of the empty nature of all beings:

There are people who declare that the truth of the empty [nature] of dharmas is the true-consciousness. To correct this error, we assert that the Tathaagatagarbha is truly nonempty. As the [true] consciousness embodies Buddha-dharmas [as numerous as] the sand of the Ganges, how can it be taken as [totally] empty? ....When the La.nkaavataara-suutra applies [the concept of] no-self to the Tathaagatagarbha (T, vol. 16, p. 489b) . It alludes to the fact that the Tathaagatagarbha is called empty because it is without false discriminations, [without implying that] there exist no true dharmas. So the Vij~naptimaatrasiddhi maintains that in order to put an end to the non-Buddhists' attachment to [the idea of] the self and things pertaining to the self, it is taught that matter and all kinds of dharmas are empty, but this does not mean that the "realm of reality" (ju-shih ching (ab) ) which transcends common speech is empty as well.(38) The "realm of reality" is the sphere of the Buddhas and Tathaagatas, in which no consciousness other than the storehouse-consciousness (the aalaya) exists.(39)

Unlike the Maadhyamikas who are skeptical of metaphysical speculation and do not acknowledge any entity as ontologically primary, the Yogaacaarins propound a philosophy of ideation-only, in which all phenomenal beings are regarded as projections of the original mind. While Hui-yuan departs from orthodox Indian Yogaacaarism in his understanding of the moral species and functions of this original mind, the Yogaacaara descent of his teaching comes out conspicuously in the above criticism of the interpretation of the concept of "true-consciousness" as the truth of emptiness, an interpretation with a distinct Maadhyamika undertone. In opposition to this non-Yogaacaara understanding of the teaching of mind-only, Hui-yuan upholds that "emptiness" when connoting "nonexistence" is appropriate only in reference to beings of the realm of sa.msaara. When applied to the true-consciousness or the Tathaagatagarbha, "emptiness" merely alludes to the freedom from all false discriminations of the true mind, and does not carry any sense of denial of its existence:

Some people expound that the true-consciousness does not denote [an actual] consciousness but only [stands] for the principle of emptiness. [Since emptiness] is the essence of consciousness, we call it by the name "consciousness" by way of inference. Such a view is the extreme of absurdity, and should not be accepted. It is the real, cognitive mind which is called the [true]-consciousness. How can it be said that [the mind] is totally empty?(40) That the tenet of the "true-consciousness" is not merely a soteriological device or a more picturesque way of expressing a general truth, but actually stipulates the existence of a veritable entity, is a point which Hui-yuan returns to again and again in his writings. When discussing the question of "extinction" and "non-extinction" of the true-mind, Hui-yuan observes:

When false [dharmas] are completely annihilated, the [activities of the] true [mind] also come to an end, and will never arise again. So it is said that the [true-mind] is extinct. [However], since the substance of the true [mind] will abide forever, we [also] say that the true [mind] is not extinct.(41)

Commenting on the remark of the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun that "When we speak of cessation [of the mind, we refer to] the cessation of its marks (hsiang(w)), not the cessation of its substance (t'i(v)),"(42) Hui-yuan writes in the Commentary:

By "When we speak of cessation of the mind, we refer to the cessation of its marks," [the ‘saastra] alludes to [the cessation of] the false consciousnesses. By "not to the cessation of its substance, " [the Saastra] alludes to [the non-cessation of] the true-consciousness. The fact that the false consciousnesses can be completely destroyed does not prevent the [true]-consciousness from existing [eternally], Since the true-consciousness exists eternally, sentient beings are not annihilated [with the extinction of the false consciousnesses]. Since the false consciousnesses will eventually be extirpated, sentient beings [will sooner or later] fulfill the true [end of Buddhahood].(43)



Besides the aalaya or the eighth consciousness, Hui-yuan also mentions the aadaana-consciousness as a distinctive element in the picture of reality of Mahaayaana Buddhism. Hui-yuan defines the term "aadaana" as follows:

"AAdaana," rendered literally into our language, means "not [yet] emancipated" (wu-chieh(ac)). That is, it is essentially an ignorant and deluded mind.(44)

This definition concurs with the meaning of the Sanskrit root of aadaana: a-/daa (to take, to seize, to draw near to oneself), and is similar to the explanations given of the term in the Sa.mdhinirmocan-suutra, the Mahaayaanasa.mgraha- ‘saastra, and the Ch'eng wei-shih lun(ad).(45) However, in the aforementioned works, the aadaana is considered as the other name for the aalaya, denoting primarily the latter's roles as the support of the material organs and the repository of karmic effects.(46) Since in Hui-yuan's ontological scheme, the aalaya has been transformed into a pure consciousness, the term aadaana, with its derogatory sense of "to hold" and "to grasp," is clearly no longer appropriate as its designation. Thus, following the precedence of Paramaartha (499-569), the founder of the She-lun School,(47) Hui-yuan uses the term "aadaana" to refer to the seventh consciousness. As with the aalaya, Hui-yuan's conception of the aadaana or the seventh consciousness can be discerned from his exposition of its synonyms:

When rendered freely according to its significance, [the aadaana] is known by eight different names:

1. It is known as the ignorant consciousness (wu-ming shih(ae)), for it is in essence the ground of the original ignorance.(48)

2. It is known as the activity-consciousness (yeh-shih(af)), for owing to [the functioning of] the ignorant mind, false thoughts [pertaining to the realm of] non-enlightenment are suddenly set in motion.

3. It is known as the evolving-consciousness (chuan-shih(ag)), for owing to [the functioning of] the aforementioned activity-consciousness, it gradually assumes gross characteristics, giving rise to external phenomena which it [in turn] discriminates and lays hold of.

4. It is known as the reproducing-consciousness (hsien-shih(ah)), for the false objects [the evolving-consciousness] give rise to reproducing [the defiled state of] the mind itself, just as a bright mirror reproduces the appearances of object [placed in front of it]

5. It is known as the cognitive-consciousness(chih-shih(ai)), for it distinguishes between the defiled and the non-defiled, the disagreeable and the agreeable [and so forth] among objects reproduced by the above-mentioned "reproducing-consciousness." "Cognition" here denotes [a kind of] dull, false discernment, not wisdom [which is conducive to] understanding and deliverance.

6. It is known as the continuous-consciousness (hsiang-hsu shih(aj), for enchained by false appearances, it complies with the world of objects and grasps at it incessantly. Furthermore, it can retain karmic effects good or evil.

7. It is known as the false-consciousness (wang-shih(ak) ) , for the six forms [of consciousness](l-6) mentioned above are all [in nature] untrue.

8. It is known as the clinging-consciousness (chih-shih(al)), for it clings to [the idea of] the self, and also clings to all false appearances.(49)

According to the account just given, the aadaana-consciousness, being "the ground of the original ignorance" (1) and the cause of the production of "false thoughts" and "false objects" (2, 3, & 4), is the source of defilements and non-enlightenment(7). Its function is to discriminate (5), and it clings to the idea of the self and false appearances (6 & 8) . As the repository of karmic effects good or evil (6), it ensures the never failing operation of the law of retribution and is the subject of transmigration.(50)

Of the many analyses Hui-yuan makes of the aadaana or the seventh consciousness, the division into the four characteristics of "function," "self," "ignorance," and "principle" is among the most illuminating. By the characteristic "function, " Hui-yuan has in mind the aadaana as the direct cause of the arising of the first six consciousnesses (eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness) and their corresponding sense-organs (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind) and sense-objects (color, sound, smell, taste, touch, and ideas):

Regarding the four [characteristics] of the "false-[consciousness] (the aadaana), the first is the characteristic "function," which is [connected with] the [first] six consciousnesses. The false mind generates the [six] sense-organs, [six] sense-objects, and [six] consciousnesses, just like the appearances created in dreams. In this respect, the false-[consciousness] gives rise to the [first] six consciousnesses, which, with the six sense-organs arising from the same mind [as support], apprehend the six sense-objects [likewise] arising from this same mind, and so is described as "function."(51)

The characteristic "self" indicates the aadaana's erroneous tendencies to regard objects originating from its own activities as possessing independent essences and to draw a fast line between itself and other sentient beings.(52) "Ignorance" intimates in general the deluded essence of the aadaana:

The third is the characteristic "ignorance," which refers to [the false-consciousness as] the ground of ignorance. As the non-enlightened mind, it fails to realize the tathataa and also can not comprehend that [all] productions of the false mind are illusory and nonexistent.(53)

The characteristic "principle" represents the aadaana-consciousness as it actually is: "neither being nor nonbeing":

As for the fourth characteristic, "principle," it refers to [the fact that the false-consciousness, which is endowed with] the aforementioned three characteristics, is [in essence] "neither being nor nonbeing." [The false-consciousness] is said to be "neither being," for [all] false forms are without substance. It is said to be "nor nonbeing," for it generates all sorts of false affections. Again, it is called "neither being, " for the [six] sense-organs, [six] sense-objects and [six] consciousnesses originating from this [false] mind [are ephemeral and] do not exist apart from the mind. It is called "nor non-being," for this false mind has [the six sense-organs, six sense-objects, and six-consciousnesses] as its illusory manifestations.(54) The aadaana or false-consciousness can be denoted as "nor nonbeing," for it is the origin of "false affections" and the cause of the appearance of the six sense-organs, six sense-objects, and the six consciousnesses. Yet, it can also be designated as "neither being," for like all "false forms," it relies entirely on the true-consciousness or the aalaya for its existence, and the sense-organs, sense-objects, and consciousnesses which it gives rise to also enjoy no independent being outside the true mind. Lest anyone on reading such passages as quotations 49 and 51 preceding would misunderstand that the aadaana-consciousness is the first reality and can generate the entire phenomenal world on its own, Hui-yuan is especially careful to remind us of this "neither being" aspect of the aadaana. So he declares that "the false self (aadaana) arises dependent on the true self (aalaya),"(55) and that the false-consciousness is ultimately speaking as much a phenomenal entity as the objects it helps to create, being itself "a transient dharma" dependent on the true-consciousness for its being.(56)

Again, as in the case of the aalaya, as much can be learned of the aadaana-consciousness from what Hui-yuan says it is not, as from what he says it is. Hui-yuan enumerates six principal misconceptions regarding the aadaana-consciousness:(57)

1. There are those who, on hearing that there are only the six sense-organs eye, ear, nose, and so forth, conclude thereby that there can only be six consciousnesses, and that there can exist no other consciousness to which no sense-organ corresponds. Against this view, Hui-yuan argues that there ought to be a seventh consciousness besides the first six consciousnesses, for if it were not so, the ‘sraavakas and Pratyeka-Buddha would achieve full Buddhahood when they enter the "nirvaa.na without residue," for or at the time they reach this state, their six consciousnesses would be completely annihilated, and there would remain no impure element to bind them to the domain of samsaara. As no Mahaayaanists would ever grant the fulfillment of the supreme enlightenment to these Hiinayaana saints, so it should be admitted that other than the six consciousnesses, there subsists a further impure consciousness, that is, the aadaana, which explains why the ‘sraavakas and Pratyeka-Buddha remain rooted in the course of mundane existence, even while they have already put an end to the defilement-generating activities of the first six consciousnesses.

2. There are those who, on hearing that there is a seventh consciousness, conclude thereby that it is a self-sufficient entity. Against this view, Hui-yuan argues that this false-consciousness represents merely the non-enlightened and discriminating aspect of the mind, and possesses no substance of its own. To illustrate the case, Hui-yuan resorts to the much cited metaphor of the rope mistaken as a snake. Just as the snake so envisaged is constructed from the rope and is illusory, the same is true of the aadaana, which is constructed from the true mind and is ephemeral like dreams.

3. There are those, who, on hearing that the seventh consciousness is also known as the manas (mind), identify it with the manas-indriya (mind sense-organ),(58) which, together with the first six consciousnesses, are known as the "seven mental realms" in Hiinayaana Buddhism. Hui-yuan rejects this view for the same reason he gives in (1): that is, if what is maintained is true, the ‘Sraavakas and Pratyeka-Buddha would be able to reach the supreme enlightenment, for it is commonly agreed that the manas-indriya is destroyed along with the six consciousnesses when the "nirvana without residue" is attained.

4. There are those who think that the term "seventh consciousness" represents only the failure of the first six consciousnesses to perceive that all phenomena are without self-nature, and nothing more. Against this view, Hui-yuan argues that the failure to comprehend the absence of self-nature of phenomena is the more apparent sort of ignorance allied to the first six consciousnesses, whereas there is a more fundamental and subtle kind of ignorance connected with the attachment to the idea of the self and the non-apprehension of the truth of mind-only, which the "seventh consciousness" stands for.

5. There are those who maintain that the seventh consciousness is transient and subjected to changes only when the final truth is not yet comprehended; but it will be transformed into an eternal and immutable entity once enlightenment is attained. Against this view, Hui-yuan argues that "the seventh consciousness is a false mind. It is characterized by nothing but delusions, and consists of nothing but discriminations."(60)

Since all delusions would vanish and all discriminations would be forsaken on the fulfillment of the supreme enlightenment, how can there remain a seventh consciousness devoid of all its essential properties? Thus, Hui-yuan concludes that "When people say that the essence of wisdom is immutable, what they refer to by the immutable essence is the true mind, not the seventh consciousness."(61)

6. There are those who, on hearing that the seventh consciousness will eventually be destroyed, judge that it is a total non-entity with no specific function. Against this view, Hui-yuan insists that it is solely due to the permeation of the aadaana that the aalaya or the eighth consciousness gives rise to the phenomenal world.



If the aalaya-consciousness and the aadaana-consciousness are concepts peculiar to Yogaacaara Buddhism, and Hui-yuan's incorporation of them into his ontological scheme is a clear indication of the Yogaacaara background of his thought, the first six consciousnesses, that is, eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness, on the other hand already appeared frequently in the early Nikaayas as six of the eighteen dhaatus, and as such they are concepts common to all Buddhist schools, Hiinayaana and Mahaayaana alike. The following is Hui-yuan's explanation of how the first six consciousnesses get their respective names:

With respect to the first six [of the eight consciousnesses], the [sense-organ] corresponding with "color" is known as the "eye," and so forth, [the sense-organ] corresponding with "dharma" is known as the "mind." Since the mind which arises with these [sense-organs] as the basis are capable of discernment, it is called the eye-consciousness, and so forth, down to the mind-consciousness.(62)

Hui-yuan often calls the first six consciousnesses as a group the "phenomenal consciousnesses" (shih-shih(am)), in the same way as he often designates the aadaana "the false-consciousness'' and the aalaya "the true-consciousness"; and has the following to say about them in the Essentials:

What is called "phenomenal consciousnesses" [here] are known as the "evolving consciousnesses" (chuan-shih) in the La.nkaavataara-suutra (T, vol. 16, p. 463b, 1.1.), and the "manas [dependent] consciousnesses" (i-shih(an)), the "discriminating manas [-dependent] consciousnesses" (fen-pieh i-shih(ao)), the "differentiated consciousnesses" (li-shih(ap)), or the "phenomena-discriminating consciousnesses" (fen-peih-shih-shih(aq)), in the [Ta-ch'eng] ch'i-hsin lun. (T, vol. 32, p. 577b, 11.24-27)

They are called the "evolving consciousnesses" because they evolve together with the six sense-objects; unlike the false-consciousness (aadaana), which is called "evolving consciousness" because it produced the external world. They are called the "manas" [-dependent] consciousnesses," because in the [Ta-ch'eng] ch'i-hsin lun, the eighth true-consciousness is given the name citta, and the seventh [false-consciousness] is given the name manas. Since [the first six phenomenal consciousnesses] arise with the manas [as their immediate cause], they are [thereby] referred to as the "manas [dependent] consciousnesses." Since the [manas] dependent consciousnesses discriminate the [external] world of six sense-objects, they are also known as the "discriminating manas [dependent] consciousnesses." Since they are differentiated into six, corresponding to the [six] sense-organs and [six] sense-objects, they are known as the "differentiated consciousnesses." Since they discriminate the phenomenal world of six sense-objects, they are also known as the "phenomena-discriminating consciousnesses."(63)

This list of synonyms of the term "phenomenal consciousnesses" shows the following facts of the first six consciousnesses:

1. The name "manas-dependent consciousnesses" suggests that the first six consciousnesses are dependent on the seventh consciousness (and so ultimately on the eighth consciousness) for their being. So Hui-yuan remarks a little later in the Essentials:

The false self (seventh consciousness) arises dependent on the true self (eighth consciousness), for attachment to the self comes into being when the true [mind] is permeated by false [thoughts].(64) The phenomenal self (first six consciousnesses) [in turn] arises dependent on the false self (seventh consciousness), resulting in a further deepening of fatuous discrimination. It is so because the phenomenal self regards sense-organs and sense-objects as things with determinate nature. It is so also because the phenomenal self wrongly attributes [the ideas of] "self" and "properties pertaining to the self" to skandhas originating from the false mind (seventh consciousness).(65)

2. The name "evolving-consciousnesses" suggests that the first six consciousnesses "evolve" only in the presence of the six sense-objects color, sound, smell, and so forth. From this fact, we can further infer that the first six consciousnesses, unlike the seventh and eight consciousnesses, are not always in operation, for experience shows that the six sense-objects are seldom available all at once. The Essentials specifies in detail the various conditions that have to be satisfied before the first six consciousnesses will function:

The first six phenomenal consciousnesses are called "distinct" (pieh(ar)), while the seventh and eighth [consciousnesses] are called "common" (t'ung(as)). The first six [consciousnesses] are known as "distinct," for each has its specific object, and arises one after the other. The seventh and eighth consciousnesses are known as "common," for they exist always.

It is asked, "Why do the first six [consciousnesses] arise one after the other [and do not come into being together]? " [It is replied, ] "In the case of the first six [consciousnesses], the mind and its object are [conceived of as] distinct entities. Being difficult to apprehend, we know their presence only by the thoughts they give rise to. Since the thoughts they give rise to are diverse, [we conclude thereby that] the [first] six [consciousnesses] arise separately and not all at once.

Furthermore, the first six consciousnesses are produced on the satisfaction of four conditions, that is, causal condition (hetu-pratyaya), consequent condition (samanantara-pratyaya), cooperating condition (aalambana-pratyaya), and efficient condition (adhipati-pratyaya) , [With respect to the first six consciousnesses,] the six sense-organs are the efficient condition, the six sense-objects are the cooperating condition, the preceding moments of thought which [by ceasing] facilitate the emergence of the subsequent [moments of thought] are the consequent condition, and the homogeneous [cause] (sabhaagahetu), associated [cause] (samprayukta-hetu), and simultaneous [cause] (sahabhuu-hetu), and so forth are the causal condition.(66) Since it is impossible that [all the conditions for the production of the] six types [of consciousness] are present at one time, [we know thereby that the first six consciousnesses] are the consequent conditions [of each other] and cannot arise simultaneously."(67)

The first six consciousnesses are mental functions which come into play only on the realization of four conditions, that is, causal condition, consequent condition, cooperating condition, and efficient condition. For example, the eye-consciousness only comes into being when there exists the sense-organ "eye" as its inner support (efficient condition) and the sense object "color" as its outer support (cooperating condition). Furthermore, there must also be the presence of light to illuminate the color sense-object (causal condition), as well as the non-presence of the other five consciousnesses which would obstruct its operation (consequent condition). Since these conditions are not always fulfilled, the eye-consciousness, unlike the seventh and eighth consciousnesses, does not abide permanently, but comes and goes as circumstances change. And the same is true of the ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, and so forth.

3. The names "discriminating manas-dependent consciousnesses", "differentiated consciousnesses," and "phenomena-discriminating consciousnesses" suggest that the first six consciousnesses are concerned with the discernment of sense-objects and the attribution of definite nature to them despite their mind-dependent character. This tendency of the first six consciousnesses to ascribe determinate being to phenomena is dwelt on repeatedly in the Essentials. Thus, in explaining why the first six consciousnesses and the seventh consciousness are likewise depicted as "false," Hui-yuan writes:

With respect to the false [aspect of the mind], the first six [consciousnesses] are deceived by conditioned and illusory dharmas, and wrongly consider them [as entities] with determinate nature. So they are described as "false." The seventh false-consciousness wrongly considers [dharmas] as possessing definite characteristics, even though there [actually] exists no dharma outside the mind. So it is [also described as] false.(68)

The seventh consciousness is described as "false," for it stands for the general failure of sentient beings to realize the truth of mind-only, which leads to the false belief in the reality of the phenomenal. The first six consciousnesses are also described as "false," for under the influence of the false belief former by the seventh consciousness, they seize on objects appearing in their particular fields of perception as entities possessing independent being, and attribute names and get attached to them. The result naturally is the production of defiled karma and bondage to the realm of samsaara. So, quoting the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, Hui-yuan imputes the four features of "speculating on names," "attachment," "producing karma," and "suffering owing to bondage to karma" to the first six consciousnesses:

As for the four aspects of the phenomenal consciousnesses, they are as mentioned in the [Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin] (T, vol. 33, p. 577a):

(1) The feature of attachment: This feature is also called "the taint which is related to attachment" in the [Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin] lun.(69) It refers to that basic ignorance which holds on to [ever changing phenomena as objects with] determinate nature.

(2) The feature of speculating on names: [This feature is connected with] the so called ten fundamental defilements.(70) Following the suggestion of names, [the ideas of] the self, sentient beings, and so forth, and give rise to various bonds. So they are said to have the feature of speculating on names.

( 3) The feature of producing karma: Owing to its defiled [activities], [the phenomenal consciousnesses] produced all sorts of [evil] karma.

(4) The feature of suffering owing to bondage to karma: [The phenomenal consciousnesses] receive the fruit [of suffering] according to the karma [they create].(71)

Again, as in the case of the aalaya and aadana, Hui-yuan tries to define his conception of the first six consciousnesses by referring to the misconceptions of them. Altogether, Hui-yuan lists eight erroneous views regarding the first six consciousnesses, which he classifies into four pairs of thesis and antithesis.(72) We shall outline the first three pairs which are of immediate relevance to our present purpose:

1. There is the opinion that the first six consciousnesses are of one essence, and there is also the opinion that the first six consciousnesses are of different essence. Against the former view, Hui-yuan argues that the first six consciousnesses can not be absolutely one, for the sense-organs and sense-objects they are dependent on are diverse. Against the latter view, Hui-yuan argues that the first six consciousnesses are not absolutely different, for if they were so, they would not hinder the working of each other and would coexist at all time, which is obviously not the case in actual life.

2. There is the opinion that since the notion of an enduring mind is necessary to the concepts of transmigration and retribution, the first six consciousnesses should be considered as permanent. There is also the opinion that since the Buddha has taught that all mental functions are transitory, the first six consciousnesses should be considered as impermanent. Against the former view, Hui-yuan argues that the first six consciousnesses can not be definitely permanent, for the six consciousnesses of gods, men, animals, hungry ghosts, and beings in hell are heterogeneous, so that a sentient moving from one of these forms of rebirth to another could not have their first six consciousnesses remain unchanged. Agains the latter view, Hui-yuan argues that the first six consciousnesses can not be definitely impermanent, for if the mind were annihilated from moment to moment, who is to reap the fruit of past deeds after all?(73)

3. There is the opinion that the first six consciousnesses are definitely existent, and there is also the opinion that the first six consciousnesses are absolutely empty. Against the former view, Hui-yuan argues that the first six consciousnesses can not be definitely existent, for it is taught in the holy texts that consciousnesses are subject to the four signs of birth, subsistence, decay, and destruction. Against the latter view, Hui-yuan argues that the first six consciousnesses can not be absolutely empty, for if there were not the first six consciousnesses, how come there to be the awareness and cognition of external objects? How come there to be the production of good and evil karma, and the experience of pleasure and pain thereof?



In the preceding discussion, we have several times indicated that it is Hui-yuan's belief that the first seven consciousnesses and their objects, that is, the entire defiled phenomenal world, owe their being to the eighth consciousness, that is, the intrinsically pure aalaya or the Tathaagatagarbha. That the defiled is ontologically dependent on the pure can be inferred from the general thesis of mind only as outlined in section I, and it is a truth which Hui-yuan repeatedly stresses in his writings. So, commenting on the remark of the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun that "[Non-enlightened] thoughts are not self-sufficient and do not exist apart from the original enlightenment,"(74) Hui-yuan observes in the Commentary:

That is to show that false dharmas do not exist on their own, and are formed on the support of the true [mind]. Without the true [mind], false [dharmas] will not come into being.(75) He further states in the Commentary that "the true and the false are not separate from each other":

Question: The true and the false are in nature different from each other. Why is it said that in disciplining the false [consciousnesses], the true [mind] is also permeated?

Answer: It is because the true and the false are not separate from each other. Thus, when the false [consciousnesses] are soiled, [the true mind] also becomes soiled. When the false [consciousnesses] are pure, [the true mind] also becomes pure....(76)

And this union of the true mind and false dharmas is cited by Hui-yuan as exemplifying the Buddhist ideal of non-duality:

As samsaara and nirvaa.na arise and are formed from the true mind, "functions" (yung(g) , that is, samsaara and nirvaa.na) do not exist apart from "substance" (t'i(v), that is, the true mind). This perfect harmony of "substance" and "function" is known as [the truth of] non-duality.(77) In this section, we shall try to see what arguments Hui-yuan has offered to justify his idea of the origination of the false from the true. Based on the understanding so reached, we shall further attempt to define what exactly the non-duality of the true mind and false dharmas could mean in Hui-yuan's teaching of mind-only.

Thus, it may be asked how, if the aalaya-consciousness is intrinsically pure, it could ever come about that it would give rise to the aadaana-consciousness, the first six consciousnesses, and their respective objects, which are defiled in nature. In explaining the derivation of the impure from the pure, Hui-yuan brings in the traditional Buddhist concept "ignorance." "Ignorance," in Hui-yuan's own words, "is a deluded and benighted [state of] mind. Since it is devoid of (wu(at) the light (ming(au)) of wisdom, it is known as ignorance (wu-ming(av) ) ."(78) This ignorance permeates the pure mind, and brings about the formation of defiled phenomena. So it is said:

[When the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun writes that] "It is solely due to false thoughts that differentiations come about" (T, vol. 32, p. 576a, 11.9-10), what [the term] "false thoughts" refers to is "ignorance." Due to the deluding influence of ignorance on the tathataa (the pure mind in itself), there comes to be [the origination of the realm of] sa.msaara. It is just as flowers in the sky appear to those who have ailments in the eyes, and disappear when the ailments are cured. The same is true of sentient beings who, due to the veil of ignorance, falsely grasp at illusory [appearances of the realm of] sa.msaara as actual existences, and [as a result,] create all sorts of [evil] karmas and experience all kinds of sufferings.(79) Following closely the terminology and pattern of exposition of the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, Hui-yuan calls the pure mind contaminated by ignorance "the mind's phenomenal aspect" (hsin sheng-mieh men(aw)) and the pure mind in itself "the mind's noumenal aspect" (hsin cheng-ju men(ax)).

Next, we can divide the mind in two with respect to its "substance" (t'i(v) ) and "characteristic" (hsiang(w)). So it is stated in the [Ta-ch'eng] ch'i-hsin lun [that the mind consists of two aspects:] first, the noumenal aspect, which is the essential nature of the mind, and secondly, the phenomenal aspect, which is the characteristic of the mind. Speaking of the true mind as it is in itself, its real substance remains eternally tranquil, equal, and self-same, and this is known as the mind's noumenal aspect.... Speaking of the true mind when it is governed by the false, it unites with the false and serves as the condition for the production and annihilation [of the false phenomena]; and this is known as the mind's phenomenal aspect.(80)

While Hui-yuan, faithful to the Ti-lun tradition with which he is closely affiliated, often uses the term "aalaya" to designate the true mind in general, he sometimes reserves it specifically for the true mind's phenomenal aspect, and postulates the name "amala" to designate the true mind's noumenal aspect:

The true [mind] can be subdivided into two [consciousnesses]:

1. the amala-consciousness, which is called the "non-defiled [consciousness], " also the "intrinsically pure [consciousness]" in our (Chinese) language.(81) Since [the amala] refers to the true [mind] as it is in itself, which is the true substance which is eternally pure, we describe it as "nondefiled." It is none other than the noumenal aspect of the mind [discussed] above.

2. the aalaya-consciousness, which is called the "imperishable consciousness" (wu-mo shih(ay)) in our (Chinese) language. Since the aforementioned true mind does not lose its [real] substance even while transmigrating in [the realm of] falsehood, it is described as "imperishable." So it is said in the [Ta-ch'eng] ch'i-hsin lun: "When [the true mind], which is not subject to birth and death, unites with [falsehood], which is subject to birth and death, we have what is known as the aalaya-consciousness. (T, vol. 32, p. 576b, 11.8-9)(82)

If we add the amala and the aalaya to the aadaana and the first six consciousnesses, we would come to have a system of nine consciousnesses, as Hui-yuan enumerates in the Essentials:

First, by analyzing [the mind] into [the two aspects of] the true and the false, it is said that there are nine consciousnesses. [Thus,] the false [aspect] can be divided into seven [consciousnesses], that is, the [first] six phenomenal consciousnesses and the false consciousness (the aadaana). The true [aspect] can be divided into two [consciousnesses], that is, the amala and the aalaya as shown above. If we add these [two consciousnesses] to the aforementioned [seven], there are altogether nine [consciousnesses].(83)

This system of nine consciousnesses, that is, amala-consciousness, aalaya-consciousness, aadaana-consciousness, and the first six consciousnesses, was actually taught by the She-lun masters of Hui-yuan's time. While Hui-yuan as a Ti-lun master generally prefers to consider the scheme of eight consciousnesses as orthodox,(84) he also sees nothing seriously amiss with the idea of the nine consciousnesses of the She-lun School.(85) In fact, this system of nine consciousnesses is adopted sometimes implicitly and sometimes explicitly by Hui-yuan in his exposition of the nature of the mind in the Essentials, in which cases, the name "root consciousness" (pen-shih(u)) often replaces the "aalaya" as the appellation of the phenomenal aspect of the true mind. To cite one clear instance: ...the true mind (ninth consciousness), which is the nature of the Buddha, unites with ignorance to form the root-consciousness, [also] known as the aalaya (eighth consciousness) . Based on the root [-consciousness], there evolves the aadaana (seventh consciousness), the self-grasping mind. [Also] based on the root [-consciousness], there evolve the six [phenomenal] consciousnesses such as the eye [-consciousness], as well as the six sense-organs and [six] sense-objects.(86)

In the Commentary, the system of nine consciousnesses even takes over the central stage, and is used instead of the scheme of eight consciousnesses as the basic framework around which Hui-yuan constructs his theory of Reality.(87) From the above account, it becomes adamantly clear that the question of how the impure can be derived from the pure is answered by Hui-yuan by introducing a new factor into his ontology, that is, ignorance. It is "ignorance" which works on the pure mind and leads to the production of impure phenomena. In order to illustrate how this happens, Hui-yuan often resorts to the simile of ocean and wind made famous by the La.nkaavataara-suutra and the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun:

It is just like ocean water which is stirred by the wind. Even though the water and the wind are inseparable, water is not by nature mobile. If the wind stops, the movement [of the water] will cease; and yet the wet nature [of the water] will remain undestroyed.(88)

Explaining the above passage of the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun in the Commentary, Hui-yuan writes:

"The ocean-water" [in the passage] stands for the eighth consciousness, "the wind" stands for ignorance, and "the waves" stand for the [first] seven consciousnesses. [Just as] "the water and the wind are inseparable", the true-consciousnesses and ignorance [likewise] combine with the coming together of relevant conditions. [Just as] "water is not by nature mobile," the true [consciousnesses likewise] does not have the nature of falsehood, and produces [the impure first seven consciousnesses only] as a response to [the action of] the false (ignorance). [Just as] "If the wind stops, the movement of the ocean water will cease," [likewise] when ignorance ceases, the [first] seven consciousnesses will come to an end. [Just as] "the wet nature of the water will remain undestroyed," the essential nature of the true-consciousness is [likewise] eternal.(89)

Hui-yuan continues to cite the simile as it first appears in the La.nkaavaataara-suutra, (90) and concludes with the following remarks:

This [simile] shows that even though the ocean is driven by wind, its water-nature remains unchanged. Since its water [-nature] never changes, it is described as "eternal." [On the other hand,] despite its eternal nature, it assumes the appearance of waves when driven by wind. [This simile] illustrates [the fact] that even though the true-consciousness [which is the ocean] is disturbed by the wind which is the false thoughts, its true nature never alters.

[On the other hand, l despite its immutable essence, the true aspect of the mind generates illusory phenomena when permeated by false thoughts [created] from the beginningless past, giving rise to the [first] seven consciousnesses, in the same way as ocean gives rise to waves [when driven by wind].(91)

In the simile, the true-mind is likened to ocean water, and its purity to the ocean water's wet nature. Ignorance, like wind, blows on the water and stirs up waves, that is, impure phenomena comprising the first seven consciousnesses and their objects. But just as motion is not an essential property of ocean water, impure phenomena are also not an essential feature of the true-mind. Moreover, even when disturbed, the purity of the mind, like the wet nature of the ocean water, remains undestroyed; and once the wind of ignorance ceases, the waves of impure phenomena will also disappear, and the true-mind will be its own pure self once again. Thus, by making the action of "ignorance" the immediate occasion for the arising of impure phenomena, a way seems to have been found to make the pure aalaya the ontological ground of the impure sa.msaaric realm, and yet without compromising in any way its intrinsic immaculate essence.

The falling back on the concept of "ignorance" to explain the origin of defilements is quite natural within the context of Buddhism, for "ignorance" (avidyaa), as is well known, heads the list of the twelve links in the chain of dependent origination, and as such, it has always been regarded by Buddhists as the main cause of man's everlasting bondage to the cycles of birth and death. But what interests us at present is whether resorting to this concept does help Hui-yuan to solve the problem he has in hand. An initial reaction to the above account is: If the original mind of sentient beings is perfectly pure, why is it subjected to the defiling influence of "ignorance," even if the latter is bent on affecting it? Should this liability to the disturbances of ignorance not be considered a defect, so much so that a mind bearing this defect is no longer entitled to the epithet of "being perfectly pure"? Conceivably, ways can be found to bypass this dilemma. For example, it may be argued that the production of the defiled is necessary in order that the pure-mind will come to self-awareness of its non-defiled character. But so far as the writings of Hui-yuan are concerned, the possibility of the arising of such or similar doubts and so the need for explanation are never entertained, as if merely by introducing the concept "ignorance" the issue of the origination of the impure from the pure is accounted for once and forever.

Another allied question which Hui-yuan has left completely open is the origin of ignorance. Indeed, there is so little discussion of the subject in the extant writings of Hui-yuan that we have to rely largely on his random remarks and our general understanding of his metaphysical position to infer his opinion on the matter. Given the general thesis of mind-only as outlined in section I, it seems that the source of ignorance should be traced back to the pure consciousness, for we have been informed all along that all forms of existence without exception owe their being to the original mind. This idea of the true mind as the ground of ignorance is suggested by a number of observations in the Essentials and the Commentary. So, quoting the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, Hui-yuan writes in the Essentials:

As there is at first the tathataa (the pure mind), there arises subsequently ignorance, the cause of defilements. As there is ignorance, the cause of defilements, which permeates the tathataa (the pure mind), there arises the false mind (the first seven consciousnesses).(92)

A little later, talking of the permeation of the tathataa (the true mind), Hui-yuan declares:

Two things result from the permeation of the tathataa: first, the arising of ignorance, and second, the arising of the false mind. Since the tathataa transcends [all] distinctions, it can give rise to ignorance. Since the tathataa's enlightened nature is covered by delusions, it produces the false mind.(93)

However, if this idea of the true mind as the source of ignorance is adopted as representing the Hui-yuan position, the problem we have considered in the preceding paragraph, that is, the problem of the origination of the impure from the pure, will emerge once again, and in an even more acute form. For if we are previously told to believe that a perfectly pure mind may become the support of impure dharmas on being affected by an alien factor "ignorance," we are now further invited to view this alien factor, which is the immediate occasion of the formation of all impurities, as among the creations of the perfectly pure mind itself. Again, we do not dispute that arguments may actually be produced to make sense of this apparently improbable situation But the fact remains that no such argument appears in any of Hui-yuan's extant writings, as if there exists no room for misgivings at all.

Is it possible that despite the scattered statements quoted above, Hui-yuan in fact means to locate the origin of ignorance elsewhere? A likely candidate in this respect is the aadaana, that is, the seventh consciousness. We have seen in the discussion of the aadaana in section III that Hui-yuan is most keen on stressing the non-enlightened essence of the aadaana-consciousness. Thus, he gives "ignorance" as one of the four characteristics of the aadaana,(94) and cites the term "ignorant consciousness" as one of the aadaana's synonyms.(95) Furthermore, the aadaana is several times referred to by Hui-yuan as "the ground of the original ignorance, "(96) "the source of falsehoods,"(97) and so forth. In the following paragraph, the aadaana is pictured as the immediate factor leading to the arising of the first six consciousnesses, a role which in the Hui-yuan system of thought is usually reserved for "ignorance":

Due to the permeation of the root-consciousness (the aalaya) by the aadaana, the self-grasping mind, [sentient beings] do not see [the nature of] dharmas as they really are, and cannot attain nirvaa.na. [As a consequence, ] there arise the first six consciousnesses and [their corresponding] six sense-organs and [six] sense-objects, which [however] will cease to exist when the aadaana is abandoned.(98) But to delegate the role of "ignorance" to the aadaana-consciousness does not really help Hui-yuan to solve the problem he is facing, for in Hui-yuan's mind-only teaching, the seventh consciousness is included among the creations of the intrinsically pure aalaya. So the query why a perfectly pure aalaya would give rise to the origin of impurities (not being the aadaana) still applies. In addition, this way of tackling the problem suffers from the disadvantage of being circular, for is the aadaana-consciousness not being made out all along as the outcome of the permeation of the pure mind by ignorance? How can it also claim to be the cause of ignorance?

Perhaps, the easiest way out of the already discussed difficulty is to consider "ignorance" as a force existing alongside and ontologically independent of the pure consciousness. Indeed, the manner in which Hui-yuan presents the interaction of

the pure mind with ignorance often suggests such a situation:

By the union [of the true and the false, we refer to] the true-consciousness, which, on being permeated by bad habits [in existence from] the beginningless past, gives rise to the ground of ignorance. The ignorance thus formed does not exist apart from the pure mind, and together with the pure mind constitutes the basis of the soul which is called the root-consciousness, also known as the aalaya-consciousness.... This aalaya, permeated by the false belief in existence of permanent selves in operation from the beginningless past, in turn gives rise to seeds of self-attachment. Due to the power of these seeds, there arises the aadaana, the self-clinging mind.... Again, this aalaya which is the root-consciousness, permeated by the names of the six consciousnesses, sense-organs, and sense-objects in operation from the beginningless past, gives rise to their seeds. Due to the power of these seeds, there arise the [first] six evolving consciousnesses and the six sense-organs and sense-objects.(99)

In this account of the evolution of various phenomenal consciousnesses from the true mind, the scheme of nine consciousnesses is adopted. The account starts with two self-sufficient factors: the "true-consciousness" (the ninth consciousness) and "bad habits in existence from the beginningless past." The interaction of these two factors gives rise to the "root-consciousness," also known as the aalaya (the eighth consciousness), which has the true-consciousness as its noumenal aspect and "the ground of ignorance as the basis of its phenomenal aspect." The subsequent evolution of the phenomenal aspect of the root-consciousness leads to the formation of the aadaana and the first six consciousnesses with their corresponding sense-organs and sense-objects.

Now, the preceding picture of dual realities, that is, the true-consciousness and "bad habits," has the virtue of being straightforward. Besides, it successfully evades the demand for an explanation of the origin of ignorance, for if we accept the above conceptual framework, then "bad habits," like the true-consciousness, has been at work from eternity, and it owes its existence to nothing other than itself. Nevertheless, this solution is not without its concomitant shortcomings:

1. It entails a significant departure from the concept of mind-only, for it admits the existence of a metaphysical principle independent of the pure mind.

2. It lends credence to the popular criticism that the mind-only teaching of the early Chinese Yogaacaarins involves differentiations between the defiled and nondefiled, the phenomenal and noumenal, and so forth, and so is seriously compromising the central Buddhist ideal of "non-duality" (puerh(az) ) or the "round" (yuan-jing(ba)) as embodied in such celebrated Mahaayaana sayings as "Sa.msaara is nirvaa.na," "Form is emptiness, and emptiness is form," and so forth.(100) This criticism is especially pertinent when "ignorance" is considered as existing apart from the Tathaagatagarbha, for if defiled phenomena arise only when the pure mind is permeated by an external factor "ignorance," they would be accidental to the pure mind, and can be removed in theory without affecting the Tathaagatagarba's inner identity. The formation of impure dharmas would only be an essential feature of the pure mind if "ignorance," the necessary condition for the arising of defilements, is intrinsic to the Tathaagatagarbha. But then, ignorance would no longer be independent of the pure mind, and the objection how a perfectly pure mind can have "ignorance" as part of its nature would be relevant again.



Commentary To-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun i-su(g) (Commentary on the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun).

Essentials Ta-ch'eng i'chang(k) (Essentials of the Mahaayaana). T Taisho Shinshuu daizokyo(bb). Edited by Takakusu Junjiro(bc) and Watanabe Kaikyoku(bd). Tokyo, 1924-1932. Z ( ) Zoku zokyo(be). Hong Kong, 1967.



1. For more information on these early Chinese Yogaacaara schools, see D. S. Ruegg, La Theorie du Tathaagatagarbha et du Gotra (Paris: Ecole Francaise d' Extreme-Orient, 1969) , pp. 439-442; Alfonso Verdu, Dialectical Aspects in Buddhist Thought (Kansas: Centre for East Asian Studies, University of Kansas, 1974), pp. 29-39; Paul Magnin, La Vie et l'Oeuvre de Huisi (Paris: Ecole Francaise d' Extreme-Orient, 1979), n.s., 101 and 102, pp. 96-97; and Ming-Wood Liu, "The P'an-chiao System of the Hua-yen School in Chinese Buddhism," T'oung Pao, n.s., 67, nos. 1-2 (1981): 10-11. Some of the main theses of these schools will be mentioned as we go along with our discussion.

2. Posterity usually refers to Hui-yuan as Ching-ying Hui-yuan in order to avoid confusion with the famous Hui-yuan (344-416) of Lu-shan(bf) (Biography of Hui-yuan n Tao-hsuan(bg), Hsu kao-sneg-chuan(bh), T, vol. 50, pp. 489c-492b). For recent studies on the life and writings of Hui-yuan, refer to Kamata Shigeo(bi), Chuugoku Bukkyo shiso-shi kenkyuu(bj) (Tokyo, 1968), pp. 298-308; Lan Chi-fu(bk), Sui-tai Fo-chiao-shi shu-lun(bl) (Taipei, 1974) pp. 199-203; and Ocho Enichi(bm), Chugoku Bukkyo no kenkyuu(bn), vol. 3 (Kyoto, 1979), pp. 146-150.

3. Hui-yuan was the pupil of Fa-shang(bo) (495-580), one of the leading Ti-lun masters of that time. He also came under the influence of the She-lun school in the later years of his life through T'an-ch'ien(bp) (542-607). For more information, see Katsumata Shunkyo(bq), Bukkyo ni okeru shinshiki-setsu no kenkyuu(br) (Tokyo, 1961), pp. 667-668.

4. Of the fifteen works of Hui-yuan whose titles are known to us, ten still exist today either in whole or in part. (Refer to the table of Hui-yuan's writings in Ocho Enichi, Chuugoku Bukkyo (cited in note 2 preceding), pp. 153-154.) Of these ten, the most famous, and by far the most important for our present purpose, is the Essentials, an encyclopedia of Buddhism compiled from the Mahaayaana standpoint. Written in the final years of Hui-yuan's life, it contains the Master's mature opinions on a wide variety of topics of common concern to all Buddhists. The work originally comprises five divisions and 249 items, but only four divisions and 222 items have been passed down to us, including a long section entitled "Exposition of the Eight Consciousnesses in Ten Parts" (item 24), which forms the principal source of reference for our present study. The rest of Hui-yuan's extant writings are mostly exegeses of various suutras and ‘sastras, such as the Mahaaparinirvaa.na-suutra, ‘Srimaalaa-suutra Da ‘sabhuumik asuutra- ‘saastra, and Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, mostly composed in a rather pedantic style. Among them, his commentary on the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun is philosophically the most interesting, and will be cited time and again in this study.

5. The classification of Buddhist texts into different categories, known as p'an-chiao(bs), is a distinctive feature of Chinese Buddhism. It came into vogue in the country in the fifth and sixth centuries. See Leon Hurvitz, Chih-i (Bruxelles: L'Institut Belge des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1962), pp. 214-217, and Ming-Wood Liu, "The Pan-chiao System" (cited in note 1 preceding), pp. 13-14.

6. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 505c, 11.12-14.

7. Ibid., p. 532c, 11.4-7.

8. Ibid., p. 529c, 11.24-25.

9. Shih-ti ching-lun i-chi(bt), Z, vol. 71, p. 188b, 1.3.

10. Commentary, T, vol. 44, p. 191c, 1.16.

11. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 529b, 11.27-28.

12. The seventh consciousness is considered by Hui-yuan as an important source of defilements. See secs. III and V in this article.

13. T, vol. 44, p. 187a, 11.25-28. This passage is Hui-yuan's exegesis of the clause "Since all dharmas are developed from the mind and are produced by false thoughts," in the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun (T, vol. 32, p. 577b, 1.18). Elsewhere in the Commentary, Hui-yuan also remarks, "The immediate ground [of the realm of a.msaara] is the false consciousness. As for the remote cause, there is also the true-consciousness" (T, vol. 44, p. 108b, 1.21).

14. The three realms are the realm of desire, the realm of form, and the formless realm, which together constitute the totality of sa.msaaric existence.

15. T, vol. 44, p. 183c, 11.23-29.

16. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 523b, 11.3-5.

17. Ibid., p. 486b, 11.19-20.

18. For details on the various systems of consciousnesses taught by the early Chinese Yogaacaarins, see Katsumata Shunkyo, Bukkyo (cited in note 3 preceding), pp. 678-681. Ti-lun masters in general favor the system of eight consciousnesses.

19. See Essentials, T, vol. 44, pp. 525a-531b.

20. Ibid., p. 524b, 1.26-c, 1.2.

21. Ibid., p. 524c, 11.2-5.

22. In Buddhism, a distinction is drawn between the "mind" and the "mind sense-organ."

23. For information on the traditional Indian Yogaacaara understanding of the aalaya, see A.K. Chatterjee, The Yogaacaara Idealism (Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University, 1962), pp. 115-120.

24. According to the Fa-hua hsuan-i(bu) of Chih-i(bv) (538-597), the Ti-lun School (Southern Branch) maintains that the aalaya is eternal and pure, while the She-lun School considers it as defiled and postulates the existence of a ninth consciousness or amala-consciousness which is perfectly immaculate and immutable (T, vol. 33, p. 744b).

25. T, vol. 44, p. 524c, 11.1 8-19. A similar definition of the aalaya is found in the Commentary,T, vol. 44, p. 182c, 11.7-9.

26. In orthodox Yogaacaara teaching, the aalaya is called "tsang" because it is the "tsang" (receptum) of karmic effects, not because it is the "tsang" (garbha, embryo) of the Tathaagata. Since in Chinese translations the same character "tsang" is used to render "receptum" and embryo," Hui-yuan is here playing on the ambiguity of the term to prove his point that the aalaya is equivalent to the Tathaagatagarbha and is a perfectly pure consciousness.

27. T, vol. 44, p. 524c, 1.19-p. 525a, 1.1.

28. Hui-yuan derives most of these synonyms of the "aalaya" from the La.nkaavataara-suutra, the ‘Srimaalaa-suutra, and the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun. For a detailed list of the original sources of these terms, refer to Sakamoto Yukio(bw), Kegon kyogaku no kenkyuu(bx) (Kyoto, 1956), pp. 395-396.

29. T, vol. 44, p. 194a, 11.13-15.

30. See T, vol. 32, p. 575c, 11.25-28.

31. Shih-ti ching-lun i-chi, Z, vol. 71, p. 154c, 11.1-10. A Similar passage can be found in the Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 652a, 11. 1-10. Also see ibid., p. 530a, 1.18-b,1.6.

32. How this happens will be discussed in sec. V of this article.

33. See Commentary, T, vol. 44, p. 198a-c, and Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 539c-p.540b.

34. Ibid., p. 539c, 11.25-26.

35. Ibid., p. 539c, 11.28-29. Refer to Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, T, vol. 32, p. 580a, 11.17-26.

36. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 540a, 11.2-9. Refer to Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, T, vol. 32, p. 580a, 11.13-17. The fact that all excellences exist in the Tathaagatagarbha as one interconnected reality is much emphasized by Hui-yuan, who takes it as one of the two meanings of "emptiness" in connection with the Tathaagatagarbha. See Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 511b, 1.25-c, 1.4, p. 546c, 11.24-27, and p. 815a, 11.1-13; and Commentary, T, vol. 44, p.181b-p.182b.

37. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 540a, 11.12-16. Refer to Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, T, vol. 32, p. 580a, 1.26-b,1.4.

38. See T, vol. 31, p. 75b-c.

39. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 540a, 11.16-27.

40. Commentary, T, vol. 44, p. 194b, 11. 14-17. See also Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 816b, 11.16-22.

41. Ibid., p. 652b, 11.15-16.

42. T, vol. 32, p. 578a, 1.7.

43. T, vol. 44, p. 191c, 11.26-29.

44. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 524c, 11.7-8.

45. The Sa.mdhinirmocana-suutra writes, This consciousness (aalaya) is also known as the aadaana-consciousness. Why? Because this consciousness seizes on and maintains the [material] body [which is transitory]. (T, vol. 16, p. 692b, 11.15-16. Etienne Lamotte, trans. (Louvain: Universite de Louvain, 1935 p. 184)

Very similar are the definitions of the term "aadaana" in the Mahaayaanasa.mgraha- ‘saastra and the Ch'eng wei-shih lun:

Why is this [aalaya] consciousness also known as the aadaana-consciousness? Because it seizes on and maintains all material sense-organs and is the support of all [forms of] living begins. (T. vol. 31, p. 114a, 11.13-14. Etiene Lamottee, trans., La Somme du Grand Vehicule d'Asa.nga (Louvain-La-Neuve: Institut Orientaliste de l'Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1973),p. 14) [The eighth consciousness] is also called the aadaana, for it seizes on and maintains the seeds (i.e., karmic effects) and various material sense-organs, and prevents them from perishing. (T, vol. 31, p. 139, 11.9-10. Wei Tat, trans. (Hong Kong, 1973), p. 185)

46. See note 45 preceding.

47. For information on the influence of the She-lun School on Hui-yuan's concept of the seventh consciousness or the aadaana, see Katsumata Shunkyo, Bukkyo, pp. 669-670.

48. The idea of the seventh consciousness as the "ground of original ignorance" will be discussed in detail in sec. V of this article.

49. Essentials, T., vol. 44, p. 524c, 11.8-18. Names 2-5 are adopted from the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, where they are used as the alternative names of the manas (T, vol. 32, p. 577b, 11.6-15). For more comments by Hui-yuan on the first six of these eight synonyms of the aadaana, read Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 530c, 1.26-p. 531b, 1.3, and Ta-pan nieh-p'an ching i-chi(by), T, vol. 37, p. 864b, 1.28-c,

50. In later parts of the Essentials, the retaining of karmic effects is given as the function of the root-consciousness, which is the eighth in the scheme of nine consciousnesses and represents the phenomenal aspect of the pure mind. See T, vol. 44, p. 535a, 11.15-17 and p. 536a, 11.16-20. The ideas of nine consciousnesses and the two aspects of the pure mind will be discussed in sec. V of this article.

51. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 526c, 11.8-10.

52. Ibid., p. 526c, 11.10-14.

53. Ibid., p. 526c, 11.14-15.

54. Ibid., p. 526c, 11.15-18.

55. Ibid., p. 527a, 11.24-25. See note 65 following.

56. Ibid., p. 532a, 11.7-8. Also refer to the second and fifth false views regarding the aadaana outlined in what follows. Further explanation of the relation between the aalaya and the aadaana will be given in sec. V.

57. See Commentary, T, vol. 44, pp. 198c-199c and Essentials, T, vol. 44, pp. 538c-539c.

58. The mind sense-organ, as we have several times mentioned, is one of the six sense-organs.

59. See the explanation of why the aadaana and the first six consciousnesses are likewise described as "false" on pp. 19-20.

60. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 539b, 11.9-10.

61. Ibid., p. 539c, 11.1-2.

62. Ibid., p. 524c, 11.5-7.

63. Ibid., p. 526b, 11.1-9.

64. The text reads "When the true permeates the false," which does not make sense.

65. T, vol. 44, p. 527a, 11.24-28.

66. The "homogeneous cause," "associated cause," and "simultaneous cause" are three of the "six causes." which, together with the "four conditions" just mentioned, represent the most commonly accepted analysis of the causal relation among Buddhists. For more information on the six causes and four conditions, see Edward Conze, Buddhist Thought in India (Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1962), pp. 153-156, and David J. Kalupahana, Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (Honolulu, Hawaii: The University Press of Hawaii, 1975), pp. 164-167.

67. T, vol. 44, p. 525a, 11.12-21.

68. Ibid., p. 525b, 11.26-28.

69. This is the first of the six mental taints. Refer to T, vol. 33, p. 5779, 11.7-8.

70. The ten fundamental defilements include "desire," "hatred," "stupidity," "pride," "doubt," and the five false views, namely, belief in the existence of a permanent self, in the efficacy of rigorous ascetic practices, and so forth.

71. T, vol. 44, p. 531b, 11. 10-15.

72. Ibid., p. 538a-c.

73. Hui-yuan is confusing his readers by bringing in the idea of transmigration to explain that the first six consciousnesses are neither definitely permanent nor impermanent. As we have seen in the preceding section, in Hui-yuan's picture of reality, it is the seventh consciousness which undertakes the role of the subject of rebirth. Indeed, this argument as it stands applies more to the seventh consciousness than to the first six consciousnesses.

74. T, vol. 32, p. 577a, 1.2.

75. T, vol. 44, p. 185c, 11.20-22.

76. Ibid., p. 1979, 11.25-27.

77. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 482a, 11.22-23.

78. Ibid., p. 547a, 11.11-12. Also see Ibid., p. 829a, 11. 10-11.

79. Commentary, T, vol. 44, p. 180b, 11.8-12.

80. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 525c, 11.3-8.

81. Note that these terms are given as the synonyms of the aalaya in note 27 preceding.

82. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 530b, 11.7-11.

83. Ibid., p. 530c, 11.10-13.

84. See note 18 preceding.

85. We know that Hui-yuan was influenced by the teaching of the She-lun School in the final years of his life. See note 3 preceding.

86. T, vol. 44, p. 5349, 11.14-16.

87. For example, see T, vol. 44, p. 176a, 11.9-11, p. 179a, 11.20-24, and p. 179c, 11.14-16.

88. T, vol. 32, p. 5769, 11. 11-13.

89. T, vol. 44, p. 185a, 11.7-11. Hui-yuan follows closely the interpretation of the simile of the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun. After giving us the simile as cited in quotation 113, the author of the Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun goes on to explain its purport: Likewise, the intrisically pure mind of sentient beings is disturbed by the wind of ignorance. Even though the mind and ignorance, both having no specific form, are inseparable, the mind is not by nature turbulent. If ignorance is annihilated, the continuous [activities] of the mind will stop, and yet its nature of wisdom will remain intact. (T, vol. 32, p. 576c, 11.13-16)

90. Refer to T, vol. 16, p. 484b, 11.9-12.

91. T, vol. 44, p. 1852, 11.20-24. Also see Essentials, T, vol. 44, pp. 532c-533a.

92. T, vol. 44, p. 533c, 11.10-11. Refer to Ta-ch'eng ch'i-hsin lun, T, vol. 32, p. 578a, 11.22-23.

93. Essentials, T, vol. 44, p. 5339, 11.26-28.

94. See note 53 preceding.

95. See note 49 preceding.

96. For example, see ibid.

97. For example, see Essentials, T, vol. 44,p, 533a, 1.22.

98. Ibid., p. 533b, 11. 15-17.

99. Ibid., p. 529c, 11.12-21.

100. For discussion on these ideals, see Ming-Wood Liu, "The Pan-chiao System," pp. 40-44. This criticism is most clearly expressed in the writings of the T'ien-t'ai masters. Consult Ando Toshio(bz) , Tendai shogu shiso ron(ca) (Kyoto, 1973), pp. 93-104, 136-145, and 215-248.



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