Tipitaka ╗ Sutta
Pitaka ╗ Context of the Anguttara Nikaya
- The "Further-factored" Discourses
The Anguttara Nikaya, the fourth division of the Sutta Pitaka,
consists of suttas arranged in eleven sections (nipatas) according to numerical
content. For example, the first nipata -- the "Book of the Ones" --
contains suttas concerning a single topic; the second nipata -- the "Book of
the Twos" -- contains suttas concerning pairs of things (e.g., a sutta about
tranquillity and insight; another about the two people one can never adequately repay
(one's parents); another about two kinds of happiness; etc.); the third nipata
contains suttas concerning three things (e.g., a sutta on the three kinds of praiseworthy
acts; another about three kinds of offense), and so on.
At first this may seem to be a rather pedantic and fussy classification scheme, but in
fact it often proves quite useful. For example, if you dimly recall having once heard
someone say something about the five subjects worthy of daily
contemplation, and you'd like to track down the original passage in the Canon, you
might begin your search in the "Book of the Fives" in the Anguttara. (The Index by Number can be helpful, too, in tracking down
passages from the Anguttara Nikaya.)
Selected suttas from the Anguttara Nikaya
Note: Unless otherwise indicated, these suttas were translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu. An anthology of Thanissaro Bhikkhu's sutta translations is also
available in Microsoft Word 6 (Macintosh/Windows) format.
I. Book of the Ones
II. Book of the Twos
III. Book of the Threes
IV. Book of the Fours
V. Book of the Fives
VI. Book of the Sixes
VII. Book of the Sevens
VIII. Book of the Eights
IX. Book of the Nines
X. Book of the Tens
XI. Book of the Elevens
I - Book of the Ones [top]
II - Book of the Twos [top]
III - Book of the Threes [top]
- Lakkhana Sutta (AN III.2) -- Characterized (by Action).
How to recognize a wise person and a fool.
- Rathakara (Pacetana) Sutta (AN III.15) -- The
Chariot Maker. The Buddha recalls a previous lifetime during which he was a
chariot-maker "skilled in dealing with the crookedness of wood." Now, as the
Buddha, he is skilled in dealing with the crookedness of thought, word, and deed.
- Gilana Sutta (AN III.22) -- Sick People. The
Buddha compares Dhamma teaching to medical treatment.
- Hatthaka Sutta (AN III.35) -- To Hatthaka (on
Sleeping Well in the Cold Forest). Is a comfortable home the best guarantee for a good
- Sukhamala Sutta (AN III.39) -- Refinement. The
Buddha describes the insights that led him as a young man to go forth, and how those
insights apply to the conduct of our own lives.
- Adhipateyya Sutta (AN III.40) -- Governing
Principles. The Buddha describes three governing principles that keep one's Dhamma
practice on-track. Beware: there's no place to hide from your unskillful actions!
- Dvejana Sutta (AN III.51) -- Two People (1).
Dvejana Sutta (AN III.52) -- Two People (2). The
Buddha offers advice to two aging brahmins who are facing the end of life.
- Vaccha Sutta (AN III.58) -- To Vaccha (on
Generosity). Every act of generosity is meritorious, but some are more so than others.
- Tittha Sutta (AN III.61) -- Sectarians. The
Buddha explains how three common views about pain and pleasure can, if followed to their
logical conclusion, lead to a life of inaction. He then shows how pain and pleasure
actually do come about and how they can be transcended.
- Kalama Sutta (AN III.65) -- To the Kalamas [two translations: Thanissaro Bhikkhu, tr. | Soma Thera, tr.].
The Buddha explains to a group of skeptics the proper criteria for accepting a spiritual
- Salha Sutta (AN III.66) -- To Salha [Đanamoli
Thera, tr.]. Ven. Nandaka, an arahant, engages the layman Salha in a dialogue that begins
with elementary principles and leads all the way up to a discussion of the nature of
- Muluposatha Sutta (AN III.70) -- The Roots of the
Uposatha. The Buddha describes to Visakha, the laywoman, right and wrong ways of
observing the Uposatha days. Those who observe the
Uposatha correctly are destined to reap heavenly rewards.
- Channa Sutta (AN III.72) -- To Channa the Wanderer.
Ven. Ananda instructs Channa on how to abandon the mental defilements of passion,
aversion, and delusion.
- Ajivaka Sutta (AN III.73) -- To the Fatalists'
Student. Ven. Ananda gives a skillful answer to the questions, "Whose teaching is
right? Whose practice is right?"
- Sakka Sutta (AN III.74) -- To the Sakyan.
Mahanama the Sakyan asks the Buddha, "Which comes first: concentration or
wdisom?" Ven. Ananda answers on behalf of the Buddha, who is recovering from an
- Sikkha Sutta (AN III.90) -- Trainings (1).
Sikkha Sutta (AN III.91) -- Trainings (2). The
Buddha summarizes the three aspects of Dhamma practice that are to be developed.
- Accayika Sutta (AN III.93) -- Urgent. Just as a
farmer can't predict when the fruit will ripen, so we can't predict when Awakening will
arise. So just keep your practice strong; the rest will take care of itself.
- Lonaphala Sutta (AN III.101) -- The Salt Crystal.
Using several memorable similes, the Buddha explains why the consequences of unskillful
deeds may appear to be severe for one person and mild for another. Moral: strengthen your
- Pansadhovaka Sutta (AN III.102) -- The Dirt-washer.
Nimitta Sutta (AN III.103) -- Themes. In these
two suttas the Buddha calls on us to train the mind with skill, purifying it as a
goldsmith purifies gold ore.
- Kuta Sutta (AN III.110) -- The Peak of the Roof.
When the mind is protected, all one's actions -- and their results -- are protected as
well. When it's not, they get soggy & rot.
- Moneyya Sutta (AN III.123) -- Sagacity. The
Buddha describes the three forms of wisdom: bodily, verbal, and mental. (This is one of
the suttas selected by King Asoka (r. 270-232 BC) to be studied and reflected upon
frequently by all Buddhists, whether ordained or not.)
- Gotamaka-cetiya Sutta (AN III.126) -- At Gotamaka
Shrine. What more do you want from the Buddha's teachings?
- Katuviya Sutta (AN III.129) -- Putrid. The
Buddha chastises a heedless monk: "Monk, monk, don't let yourself putrefy! On one who
lets himself putrefy & stink with the stench of carrion, there's no way that flies
won't swarm & attack!"
- Lekha Sutta (AN III.133) -- Inscriptions. How
tightly do you hold on to anger? Do you let it get carved deeply into your psyche, like an
inscription in solid rock?
- Dhamma-niyama Sutta (AN III.137) -- The
Orderliness of the Dhamma. The Buddha explains that, whether or not there is a Buddha
in the world, the three characteristics of existence -- impermanence, stress, and not-self
-- always remain.
IV - Book of the Fours [top]
- Anubuddha Sutta (AN IV.1) -- Understanding. Why do
we continue to wander aimlessly in samsara? It's because we haven't yet realized four
noble qualities of the heart.
- Anusota Sutta (AN IV.5) -- With the Flow. A
reminder that the popular advice to "just go with the flow" finds no support in
the Buddha's teachings.
- Yoga Sutta (AN IV.10) -- Yokes. In many
discourses, the Buddha speaks of "the unexcelled rest from the yoke." In this
discourse he describes what yokes he is referring to, and how that rest comes about. [TB]
- Agati Sutta (AN IV.19) -- Off Course. The Buddha
explains the difference between staying "on course" and straying "off
course" in one's Dhamma practice.
- Ariya-vamsa Sutta (AN IV.28) -- The Discourse on the
Traditions of the Noble Ones. The Buddha describes four good qualities in a monk:
contentment with regard to robes, almsfood, and lodging, and finding pleasure in
cultivating wholesome mental states. (This is one of the suttas selected by King Asoka (r.
270-232 BC) to be studied and reflected upon frequently by all Buddhists, whether ordained
- Sangaha Sutta (AN IV.32) -- The Bonds of Fellowship.
The qualities that help hold a family -- or any community -- together.
- Aparihani Sutta (AN IV.37) -- No Falling Away.
If one is sincere in one's aspirations to realize Awakening, these four aspects of Dhamma
practice should be constantly developed.
- Samadhi Sutta (AN IV.41) -- Concentration. The
Buddha explains how concentration, when fully developed, can bring about any one of four
different desirable results.
- Pa˝ha Sutta (AN IV.42) -- Questions. Here, the
Buddha's teachings on skillfulness and speech extend to mastering the art of answering
- Rohitassa Sutta (AN IV.45) -- To Rohitassa. The
Buddha explains to a well-traveled deva that we don't have to travel to the ends of the
world to find an end to suffering. We need look no further than within this very body.
- Vipallasa Sutta (AN IV.49) -- Perversions. Four
kinds of misperceptions that keep us bound to the cycle of rebirths.
- Samjivina Sutta (AN IV.55) -- Living in Tune.
Would you like to live with your spouse in future lives, too? Here's how.
- Anana Sutta (AN IV.62) -- Debtless. The Buddha
tells the wealthy lay-follower Anathapindika about the four kinds of bliss that a
householder may enjoy. Some require wealth, but the greatest bliss is free of charge.
- Ahina Sutta (AN IV.67) -- By a Snake. How the
practice of metta (loving-kindness) can serve as a protection against harm.
- Sappurisa Sutta (AN IV.73) -- A Person of Integrity.
Are you a person of integrity? The ways in which you speak about yourself and about others
reveal much about your personal integrity.
- Acintita Sutta (AN IV.77) -- Unconjecturable.
The Buddha warns that if you spend too much time pondering these four things you will
surely drive yourself crazy.
- Vanijja Sutta (AN IV.79) -- Trade. One reason
why some people succeed and others fail in their trades.
- Tamonata Sutta (AN IV.85) -- Darkness. The
Buddha explains how a person's goodness is measured not by his or her wealth, beauty,
status, etc., but by the goodness of his or her actions.
- Samadhi Sutta (AN IV.94) -- Concentration
(Tranquillity and Insight). The Buddha explains how correct meditation practice
consists of the development of both insight (vipassana) and tranquillity (samatha).
- Chavalata Sutta (AN IV.95) -- The Firebrand.
Which is better: to practice Dhamma for one's own benefit or for another's? The answer may
- Raga-vinaya Sutta (AN IV.96) -- The Subduing of
Passion. What does it mean, exactly, to practice Dhamma for one's own -- or for
another's -- benefit?
- Valahaka Sutta (AN IV.102) -- Thunderheads.
People who only sit around reading suttas all day without actually putting the teachings
into practice are like thunderheads that are barren of rain. Go meditate!
- Kesi Sutta (AN IV.111) -- To Kesi the Horsetrainer.
The Buddha explains to Kesi, a horsetrainer, how he teaches Dhamma. Kesi is so moved by
the Buddha's explanation that he pledges to follow the Buddha for life. This brilliant
exposition warrants careful study by all teachers -- not only of Dhamma -- as it reveals
the multiple levels in which effective teaching operates: the Buddha speaks in terms that
the listener understands (horsetraining), he uses similes to great effect, and he deftly
answers the real question that lies behind the student's query ("Please, can
you train me?").
- Patoda Sutta (AN IV.113) -- The Goad-stick.
How much dukkha do you need before you're moved to practice the Dhamma in earnest? What
would it take to get you really motivated? To drive home his point, the Buddha uses
a beautiful simile of a thoroughbred horse stirred to action by its rider. Giddyap!
- Thana Sutta (AN IV.115) -- Courses of Action.
When faced with a choice, how does one decide which course of action to follow? The Buddha
here offers some helpful advice.
- Puggala Sutta (AN IV.125) -- Persons
[Đanamoli Thera, tr.]. The Buddha explains the course of rebirths that can be expected by
those who cultivate a heart of loving-kindness.
- Bhikkhuni Sutta (AN IV.159) -- The Nun. Ven.
Ananda teaches a nun that, although craving can be used to overcome craving, and conceit
to overcome conceit, the same principle does not hold for sexual intercourse.
- Yuganaddha Sutta (AN IV.170) -- In Tandem.
Ven. Ananda describes the paths to arahantship by which tranquillity and insight work
- Jambali Sutta (AN IV.178) -- The Waste-water Pool.
The Buddha uses some memorable similes to describe the overcoming of self-identification
- Yodhajiva Sutta (AN IV.181) -- The Warrior. An
accomplished meditator -- like a great warrior -- develops these four qualities.
- Suta Sutta (AN IV.183) -- On What is Heard.
Why the principle of truthfulness does not imply total frankness or openness.
- Abhaya Sutta (AN IV.184) -- Fearless. The
Buddha explains to Janussoni four ways to overcome the fear of death.
- Thana Sutta (AN IV.192) -- Traits. How can you
recognize someone as a good and wise person? The Buddha explains what qualities to look
for and how to spot them.
- Pariyesana Sutta (AN IV.252) -- Searches. What
are you searching for? Are you looking for happiness in all the wrong places, or are you
truly looking for a lasting, noble happiness?
- Kula Sutta (AN IV.255) -- On Families. How a
family loses or preserves its wealth.
V - Book of the Fives [top]
- Vitthara Sutta (AN V.2) -- (Strengths) in Detail.
A summary of the five "strengths" (bala) to be developed in Dhamma
- Hita Sutta (AN V.20) -- Benefit. How to practice
Dhamma for the benefit of both oneself and others.
- Samadhi Sutta (AN V.27) -- (Immeasurable)
Concentration. The Buddha encourages the practice of the Brahma viharas (metta,
karuna, mudita, and upekkha) as a basis for concentration practice, as it leads to five
- Samadhanga Sutta (AN V.28) -- The Factors of
Concentration. The Buddha outlines the "five-factored noble right
concentration," to explain how the progressive development of the four mundane stages
of jhana (absorption) leads to the development of the supranormal powers and Awakening.
- Siha Sutta (AN V.34) -- To General Siha (On
Generosity). General Siha, known for his generosity, asks the Buddha about the fruits
of generosity that one can experience in this life. The Buddha describes four such fruits;
a fifth fruit (a happy rebirth) Siha can only take on faith.
- Kaladana Sutta (AN V.36) -- Seasonable Gifts.
Gifts given at the proper time bear the greatest fruit. Here the Buddha describes five
such occasions. [Often chanted by monks as blessings at meals or other offerings.]
- Bhojana Sutta (AN V.37) -- A Meal. Whenever one
gives the gift of food, five wonderful things are also given, automatically, to both giver
and recipient alike. [Often chanted by monks as blessings at meals or other offerings.]
- Saddha Sutta (AN V.38) -- Conviction. The five
rewards that a layperson can expect for having conviction (faith) in the Triple Gem.
- Adiya Sutta (AN V.41) -- Benefits to be Obtained
(from Wealth). The Buddha describes for the wealthy householder Anathapindika five
skillful ways of using one's money that bring immense benefits to the giver -- benefits
that can last long after all the wealth is gone. [Often chanted by monks as blessings at
meals or other offerings.]
- Ittha Sutta (AN V.43) -- What is Welcome. The
Buddha explains to Anathapindika how true happiness can't ever be achieved by merely
wishing for it; one must instead endeavor to make merit and follow the path of practice.
- Kosala Sutta (AN V.49) -- The Kosalan. When
Queen Mallika dies, her husband, King Pasenadi, is overcome with grief. The Buddha advises
the king on how to free himself of obsessive grieving.
- Upajjhatthana Sutta (AN V.57) -- Subjects for
Contemplation. The Buddha describes the "five facts that one should reflect on
often, whether one is a woman or a man, lay or ordained."
- Yodhajiva Sutta (AN V.75) -- The Warrior (1)
Yodhajiva Sutta (AN V.76) -- The Warrior (2). Two
suttas on how a monk must steadfastly guard his celibacy in the face of all temptation, if
he is to reach the goal.
- Anagata-bhayani Suttas (AN V.77-80) -- The
Discourses on Future Dangers. The Buddha reminds the monks that the practice of Dhamma
should not be put off for a later date, for there are no guarantees that the future will
provide any opportunites for practice. (These suttas are among those selected by King
Asoka (r. 270-232 BC) to be studied and reflected upon frequently by all Buddhists,
whether ordained or not.)
- Andhakavinda Sutta (AN V.114) -- At Andhakavinda.
Five things that the Buddha exhorted his newly-ordained monks to do. Laypeople should take
- Gilana Sutta (AN V.121) -- To a Sick Man. The
Buddha reminds a sick monk that by keeping five particular themes of meditation well
established, even a sick person can realize Awakening.
- Parikuppa Sutta (AN V.129) -- In Agony. Five
grave deeds that are said to prevent one from realising any of the noble attainments in
this lifetime. Don't do these things, OK?
- Akkhama Sutta (AN V.139) -- Not Resilient. The
Buddha uses powerful imagery from the battlefield to underscore the importance of
developing mastery over the senses.
- Sotar Sutta (AN V.140) -- The Listener. Five
qualities one should develop in order to gain mastery of the senses and become a truly
- Udayi Sutta (AN V.159) -- About Udayin. The
Buddha explains to Ven. Ananda the five prerequisites for teaching Dhamma to others.
- Aghatapativinaya Sutta (AN V.161) -- Removing
Annoyance [Đanamoli Thera, tr.]. Five skillful ways of dealing with annoying people.
[For a translation by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, see The
Wings to Awakening, ž143.]
- Candala Sutta (AN V.175) -- The Outcaste. The
Buddha describes five qualities that determine the degree of one's commitment to being a
lay Buddhist follower. How do you measure up?
- Dhammassavana Sutta (AN V.202) -- Listening to the
Dhamma. The five rewards in listening to the Dhamma.
VI - Book of the Sixes [top]
VII - Book of the Sevens [top]
- Dhana Sutta (AN VII.6) -- Treasure. If one
possesses these seven treasures in the heart, one's life will not have been lived in vain.
- Ugga Sutta (AN VII.7) -- To Ugga. The Buddha
explains to Ugga that there are seven treasures in the heart that, unlike worldly
treasures, are always safe from "fire, flood, kings, thieves, or hateful heirs."
- Bhikkhu-aparihaniya Sutta (AN VII.21) -- Conditions
for No Decline Among the Monks. The seven conditions that lead to the long-term
welfare of the Sangha.
- Sa˝˝oga Sutta (AN VII.48) -- Bondage. The
Buddha explains how dwelling on one's sexual identity only leads to greater suffering.
- Dana Sutta (AN VII.49) -- Giving. The Buddha
describes some of the motivations that one might have for being generous. The karmic
fruits one reaps as a result of giving depends heavily on one's motives.
- Kimila Sutta (AN VII.56) -- To Kimila. So, you
say you want Buddhism to thrive in the West? In this sutta the Buddha explains to Ven.
Kimila what is required of those who wish to see the Dhamma last a long, long time.
- Capala Sutta (AN VII.58) -- Nodding. Do you
sometimes nod off during meditation? Here the Buddha catches Ven. Maha Moggallana nodding
off, and offers him a graduated prescription for overcoming drowsiness.
- Kodhana Sutta (AN VII.60) -- An Angry Person.
The Buddha describes seven dangers of giving in to anger. Be careful!
- Dhamma˝˝u Sutta (AN VII.64) -- One With a Sense of
the Dhamma. Do you want to be worthy of other people's respect? Here the Buddha
describes seven qualities that make up a respectable and honorable individual.
VIII - Book of the Eights [top]
- Pa˝˝a Sutta (AN VIII.2) -- Discernment. The
Buddha outlines the skills that one must develop in order for wisdom to unfold.
- Lokavipatti Sutta (AN VIII.6) -- The Failings of the
World. The Eight Worldly Conditions. The Buddha explains the difference between an
ordinary person and an Awakened one, in terms of their response to the inevitable ups and
downs of life.
- Jivaka Sutta (AN VIII.26) -- To Jivaka (On Being a
Lay Follower). The Buddha explains how a lay follower can best work for the welfare of
- Anuruddha Sutta (AN VIII.30) -- To Anuruddha.
The Buddha tells of eight good qualities in the heart that, if actively cultivated, help
lead us towards the goal.
- Abhisanda Sutta (AN VIII.39) -- Rewards. The
Buddha tells of eight rewards that can be expected from skillful conduct.
- Vipaka Sutta (AN VIII.40) -- Results. The Buddha
describes the unpleasant consequences of not sticking to the precepts.
- Uposatha Sutta (AN VIII.41) -- The Uposatha
Observance [Đanavara Thera, tr.]. The Buddha summarizes the eight Uposatha day
- Visakhuposatha Sutta (AN VIII.43) -- The Discourse
to Visakha on the Uposatha with the Eight Practices [Bhikkhu Khantipalo, tr.]. The
Buddha explains to Visakha, a devout laywoman, how the eight uposatha (observance
day) practices are to be practiced, and how splendid is the fruit of that practice. The
Buddha tells us here that even a tree -- were it conscious -- would benefit immensely from
this practice; how much more beneficial the practice is to those humans who practice it!
- Gotami Sutta (AN VIII.53) -- To Gotami. The
Buddha explains to Mahapajapati Gotami (his aunt) how to recognize the difference between
teachings that conform to the Dhamma and those that do not. These eight criteria are just
as relevant today!
- Vyagghapajja (Dighajanu) Sutta (AN VIII.54) -- Conditions of Welfare
(To Dighajanu). [Two versions: translated by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
and translated by Narada Thera] The Buddha instructs wealthy
householders how to preserve and increase their wealth and happiness, in both the mundane
and spiritual planes.
- Sankhitta Sutta (AN VIII.63) -- In Brief (Good Will,
Mindfulness, and Concentration). The Buddha describes the practices of the four
Brahma-viharas and of the four frames of reference (foundations of mindfulness) as forms
of concentration practice.
- Kusita-Arabbhavatthu Sutta (AN VIII.80) -- The
Grounds for Laziness and the Arousal of Energy. Do these excuses for putting off your
meditation sound familiar: "I'm too hungry!"; "I'm too full!";
"I'm too tired!"; "I'm too sick!" ? Here the Buddha offers sound
advice for overcoming this kind of laziness.
IX - Book of the Nines [top]
X - Book of the Tens [top]
- Sacitta Sutta (AN X.51) -- One's Own Mind. The
Buddha offers instructions on how to read your own mind.
- Girimananda Sutta (AN X.60) -- To Girimananda.
The Buddha instructs Ven. Girimananda, who is ill, on the ten themes of meditation that
can heal both mind and body.
- Kathavatthu Sutta (AN X.69) -- Topics of
Conversation. The Buddha presents ten wholesome topics of conversation as an
alternative to gossip.
- Akankha Sutta (AN X.71) -- Wishes. This
discourse lists ten reasons, of ascending worth, for perfecting the precepts and being
committed to the development of calm (samatha) and insight (vipassana). An
interesting feature of this discussion is that the Buddha does not separate insight and
jhana into separate paths of practice, and actually cites insight, together with
tranquillity, as a prerequisite for mastering the four jhanas. [TB]
- Aghata Sutta (AN X.80) -- Hatred. When hatred
arises in the mind what do you do? Here are ten reflections to consider as an antidote.
- Bahuna Sutta (AN X.81) -- To Bahuna. What is
it that an Awakened being is freed of?
- Ditthi Sutta (AN X.93) -- Views. The
householder Anathapindika instructs a group of non-Buddhist wanderers on the nature of
- Kokanuda Sutta (AN X.96) -- To Kokanuda (On
Viewpoints). Ven. Ananda explains that wisdom is not based on subscribing to this or
that point of view.
- Virecana Sutta (AN X.108) -- A Purgative.
Sometimes even the best medicines for the body fail to work. Here, the Buddha offers a
"noble purgative" for the mind that works every time.
- Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta (AN X.176) -- To Cunda
the Silversmith. The Buddha explains to Cunda that genuine self-purification comes
about not from performing sacred rites, but by cultivating skillfulness in one's thoughts,
words, and deeds.
XI - Book of the Elevens [top]
- Kimattha Sutta (AN XI.1) -- What is the Purpose?.
Why does the Buddha always implore us to cultivate sila (virtue)? Because all other
skillful mental qualities, leading right up to Awakening, depend upon it.
- Cetana Sutta (AN XI.2) -- An Act of Will. Good
qualities in the heart naturally lead to the development of other good qualities. It all
starts with sila (virtue).
- Mahanama Sutta (AN XI.12) -- To Mahanama (1).
The Buddha instructs the householder Mahanama on the importance of developing the six
recollections (recollection of the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, one's own virtues, one's own
generosity, and the devas).
- Mahanama Sutta (AN XI.13) -- To Mahanama (2).
The Buddha further instructs the householder Mahanama on the importance of developing the
six recollections, reminding him to develop these recollections in every posture, even
"while you are busy at work, while you are resting in your home crowded with
- Metta Sutta (AN XI.16) -- Good Will. The
Buddha identifies eleven benefits arising from the practice of metta (loving kindness, or