- The Global Community and
- The Need for Universal
His Holiness the Fourteenth
- © Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai
The global community
The twentieth century draws to a close, we find that the world has
grown smaller and the world's people have become almost one community. Political and
military alliances have created large multinational groups, industry and international
trade have produced a global economy, and worldwide communications are eliminating ancient
barriers of distance, language and race. We are also being drawn together by the grave
problems we face: overpopulation, dwindling natural resources, and an environmental crisis
that threatens our air, water, and trees, along with the vast number of beautiful life
forms that are the very foundation of existence on this small planet we share.
I believe that to meet the challenge of our times, human beings will
have to develop a greater sense of universal responsibility. Each of us must learn to work
not just for his or her own self, family or nation, but for the benefit of all mankind.
Universal responsibility is the real key to human survival. It is the best foundation for
world peace, the equitable use of natural resources, and through concern for future
generations, the proper care of the environment.
For some time, I have been thinking about how to increase our sense of
mutual responsibility and the altruistic motive from which it derives. Briefly, I would
like to offer my thoughts.
One human family
Whether we like it or not, we have all been born on this earth as part
of one great human family. Rich or poor, educated or uneducated, belonging to one nation
or another, to one religion or another, adhering to this ideology or that, ultimately each
of us is just a human being like everyone else: we all desire happiness and do not want
suffering. Furthermore, each of us has an equal right to pursue these goals. Today's world
requires that we accept the oneness of humanity. In the past, isolated communities could
afford to think of one another as fundamentally separate and even existed in total
isolation. Nowadays, however, events in one part of the world eventually affect the entire
planet. Therefore we have to treat each major local problem as a global concern from the
moment it begins. We can no longer invoke the national, racial or ideological barriers
that separate us without destructive repercussions. In the context of our new
interdependence, considering the interests of others is clearly the best form of
I view this fact as a source of hope The necessity for cooperation can
only strengthen mankind, because it helps us recognize that the most secure foundation for
the new world order is not simply broader political and economic alliances, but rather
each individual's genuine practice of love and compassion. For a better, happier, more
stable and civilized future, each of us must develop a sincere, warm-hearted feeling of
brother- and sisterhood.
The medicine of altruism
In Tibet we say that many illnesses can be cured by the one medicine of
love and compassion. These qualities are the ultimate source of human happiness, and our
need for them lies at the very core of our being. Unfortunately, love and compassion have
been omitted from too many spheres of social interaction for too long. Usually confined to
family and home, their practice in public life is considered impractical, even naive. This
is tragic. In my view, the practice of compassion is not just a symptom of unrealistic
idealism but the most effective way to pursue the best interests of others as well our
own. The more we -- as a nation, a group or as individuals -- depend upon others, the more
it is in our own best interests to ensure their well-being.
Practicing altruism is the real source of compromise and cooperation;
merely recognizing our need for harmony is not enough. A mind committed to compassion is
like an overflowing reservoir -- a constant source of energy, determination and kindness.
This mind is like a seed; when cultivated, it gives rise to many other good qualities,
such as forgiveness, tolerance, inner strength and the confidence to overcome fear and
insecurity. The compassionate mind is like an elixir; it is capable of transforming bad
situations into beneficial ones. Therefore we should not limit our expressions of love and
compassion to our family and friends. Nor is compassion only the responsibility of clergy,
health care and social workers. It is the necessary business of every part of the human
Whether a conflict lies in the field of politics, business or religion,
an altruistic approach is frequently the sole means of resolving it. Sometimes the very
concepts we use to mediate a dispute are themselves the cause of the problem. At such
times, when a resolution seems impossible, both sides should recall the basic human nature
that unites them. This will help break the impasse and, in the long run, make it easier
for everyone to attain their goal. Although neither side may be fully satisfied, if both
make concessions, at the very least, the danger of further conflict will be averted. We
all know that this form of compromise is the most effective way of solving problems --
why, then, do we not use it more often?
When I consider the lack of cooperation in human society, I can only
conclude that it stems from ignorance of our interdependent nature. I am often moved by
the example of small insects, such as bees. The laws of nature dictate that bees work
together in order to survive. As a result, they possess an instinctive sense of social
responsibility. They have no constitution, laws, police, religion or moral training, but
because of their nature they labor faithfully together. Occasionally they may fight, but
in general the whole colony survives on the basis of cooperation. Human beings, on the
other hand, have constitutions, vast legal systems and police forces; we have religion,
remarkable intelligence and a heart with a great capacity to love. But despite our many
extraordinary qualities, in actual practice we lag behind those small insects; in some
ways, I feel we are poorer than the bees.
For instance, millions of people live together in large cities all over
the world, but despite this proximity, many are lonely. Some do not have even one human
being with whom to share their deepest feelings, and live in a state of perpetual
agitation. This is very sad. We are not solitary animals that associate only in order to
mate. If we were, why would we build large cities and towns? But even though we are social
animals compelled to live together, unfortunately, we lack a sense of responsibility
towards our fellow humans. Does the fault lie in our social architecture - the basic
structures of family and community that support our society? Is it in our external
facilities -- our machines, science and technology? I do not think so.
I believe that despite the rapid advances made by civilization in this
century, the most immediate cause of our present dilemma is our undue emphasis on material
development alone. We have become so engrossed in its pursuit that, without even knowing
it, we have neglected to foster the most basic human needs of love, kindness, cooperation
and caring. If we do not know someone or find another reason for not feeling connected
with a particular individual or group, we simply ignore them. But the development of human
society is based entirely on people helping each other. Once we have lost the essential
humanity that is our foundation, what is the point of pursuing only material improvement?
To me, it is clear: a genuine sense of responsibility can result only
if we develop compassion. Only a spontaneous feeling of empathy for others can really
motivate us to act on their behalf. I have explained how to cultivate compassion
elsewhere. For the remainder of this short piece, I would like to discuss how our present
global situation can be improved by greater reliance on universal responsibility.
First, I should mention that I do not believe in creating movements or
espousing ideologies. Nor do I like the practice of establishing an organization to
promote a particular idea, which implies that one group of people alone is responsible for
the attainment of that goal, while everybody else is exempt. In our present circumstances,
none of us can afford to assume that somebody else will solve our problems; each of us
must take his or her own share of universal responsibility. In this way, as the number of
concerned, responsible individuals grows, tens, hundreds, thousands or even hundreds of
thousands of such people will greatly improve the general atmosphere. Positive change does
not come quickly and demands ongoing effort. If we become discouraged we may not attain
even the simplest goals. With constant, determined application, we can accomplish even the
most difficult objectives.
Adopting an attitude of universal responsibility is essentially a
personal matter. The real test of compassion is not what we say in abstract discussions
but how we conduct ourselves in daily life. Still, certain fundamental views are basic to
the practice of altruism.
Though no system of government is perfect, democracy is that which is
closest to humanity's essential nature. Hence those of us who enjoy it must continue to
fight for all people's right to do so. Furthermore, democracy is the only stable
foundation upon which a global political structure can be built. To work as one, we must
respect the right of all peoples and nations to maintain their own distinctive character
In particular, a tremendous effort will be required to bring compassion
into the realm of international business. Economic inequality, especially that between
developed and developing nations, remains the greatest source of suffering on this planet.
Even though they will lose money in the short term, large multinational corporations must
curtail their exploitation of poor nations. Tapping the few precious resources such
countries possess simply to fuel consumerism in the developed world is disastrous; if it
continues unchecked, eventually we shall all suffer. Strengthening weak, undiversified
economies is a far wiser policy for promoting both political and economic stability. As
idealistic as it may sound, altruism, not just competition and the desire for wealth,
should be a driving force in business.
We also need to renew our commitment to human values in the field of
modern science. Though the main purpose of science is to learn more about reality, another
of its goals is to improve the quality of life. Without altruistic motivation, scientists
cannot distinguish between beneficial technologies and the merely expedient. The
environmental damage surrounding us is the most obvious example of the result of this
confusion, but proper motivation may be even more relevant in governing how we handle the
extraordinary new array of biological techniques with which we can now manipulate the
subtle structures of life itself. If we do not base our every action on an ethical
foundation, we run the risk of inflicting terrible harm on the delicate matrix of life.
Nor are the religions of the world exempt from this responsibility The
purpose of religion is not to build beautiful churches or temples, but to cultivate
positive human qualities such as tolerance generosity and love. Every world religion, no
matter what its philosophical view, is founded first and foremost on the precept that we
must reduce our selfishness and serve others. Unfortunately, sometimes religion itself
causes more quarrels than it solves. Practitioners of different faiths should realize that
each religious tradition has immense intrinsic value and the means for providing mental
and spiritual health. One religion, like a single type of food, cannot satisfy everybody.
According to their varying mental dispositions, some people benefit from one kind of
teaching, others from another. Each faith has the ability to produce fine, warmhearted
people and despite their espousal of often contradictory philosophies, all religions have
succeeded in doing so. Thus there is no reason to engage in divisive religious bigotry and
intolerance, and every reason to cherish and respect all forms of spiritual practice.
Certainly, the most important field in which to sow the seeds of
greater altruism is international relations. In the past few years the world has changed
dramatically. I think we would all agree that the end of the Cold War and the collapse of
communism in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have ushered in a new historical
era. As we move through the 1990s it would seem that human experience in the twentieth
century has come full circle.
This has been the most painful period in human history, a time when,
because of the vast increase in the destructive power of weapons, more people have
suffered from and died by violence than ever before. Furthermore, we have also witnessed
an almost terminal competition between the fundamental ideologies that have always torn
the human community: force and raw power on the one hand, and freedom, pluralism,
individual rights and democracy on the other. I believe that the results of this great
competition are now clear. Though the good human spirit of peace, freedom and democracy
still faces many forms of tyranny and evil, it is nevertheless an unmistakable fact that
the vast majority of people everywhere want it to triumph. Thus the tragedies of our time
have not been entirely without benefit, and have in many cases been the very means by
which the human mind has been opened. The collapse of communism demonstrates this.
Although communism espoused many noble ideals, including altruism, the
attempt by its governing elites to dictate their views has proved disastrous. These
governments went to tremendous lengths to control the entire flow of information through
their societies and to structure their education systems so that their citizens would work
for the common good. Although rigid organization may have been necessary in the beginning
to destroy previously oppressive regimes, once that goal was fulfilled, the organization
had very little to contribute towards building a useful human community. Communism failed
utterly because it relied on force to promote its beliefs. Ultimately, human nature was
unable to sustain the suffering it produced.
Brute force, no matter how strongly applied, can never subdue the basic
human desire for freedom. The hundreds of thousands of people who marched in the cities of
Eastern Europe proved this. They simply expressed the human need for freedom and
democracy. It was very moving. Their demands had nothing whatsoever to do with some new
ideology; these people simply spoke from their hearts, sharing their desire for freedom,
demonstrating that it stems from the core of human nature. Freedom, in fact, is the very
source of creativity for both individuals and society. It is not enough, as communist
systems have assumed, merely to provide people with food, shelter and clothing. If we have
all these things but lack the precious air of liberty to sustain our deeper nature, we are
only half human; we are like animals who are content just to satisfy their physical needs.
I feel that the peaceful revolutions in the former Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe have taught us many great lessons. One is the value of truth. People do not
like to be bullied, cheated or lied to by either an individual or a system. Such acts are
contrary to the essential human spirit. Therefore, even though those who practice
deception and use force may achieve considerable short-term success, eventually they will
On the other hand, everyone appreciates truth, and respect for it is
really in our blood. Truth is the best guarantor and the real foundation of freedom and
democracy. It does not matter whether you are weak or strong or whether your cause has
many or few adherents, truth will still prevail. The fact that the successful freedom
movements of 1989 and after have been based on the true expression of people's most basic
feelings is a valuable reminder that truth itself is still seriously lacking in much of
our political life. Especially in the conduct of international relations we pay very
little respect to truth. Inevitably, weaker nations are manipulated and oppressed by
stronger ones, just as the weaker sections of most societies suffer at the hands of the
more affluent and powerful. Though in the past, the simple expression of truth has usually
been dismissed as unrealistic, these last few years have proved that it is an immense
force in the human mind and, as a result, in the shaping of history.
A second great lesson from Eastern Europe has been that of peaceful
change. In the past, enslaved peoples often resorted to violence in their struggle to be
free. Now, following in the footsteps of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., these
peaceful revolutions offer future generations a wonderful example of successful,
nonviolent change. When in the future major changes in society again become necessary, our
descendants will be able to look back on the present time as a paradigm of peaceful
struggle, a real success story of unprecedented scale, involving more than a dozen nations
and hundreds of millions of people. Moreover, recent events have shown that the desire for
both peace and freedom lies at the most fundamental level of human nature and that
violence is its complete antithesis.
Before considering what kind of global order would serve us best in the
post-Cold War period, I think it is vital to address the question of violence, whose
elimination at every level is the necessary foundation for world peace and the ultimate
goal of any international order.
Nonviolence and international order
Every day the media reports incidents of terrorism, crime and
aggression. I have never been to a country where tragic stories of death and bloodshed did
not fill the newspapers and airwaves. Such reporting has become almost an addiction for
journalists and their audiences alike. But the overwhelming majority of the human race
does not behave destructively; very few of the five billion people on this planet actually
commit acts of violence. Most of us prefer to be as peaceful as possible.
Basically, we all cherish tranquillity, even those of us given to
violence. For instance, when spring comes, the days grow longer, there is more sunshine,
the grass and trees come alive and everything is very fresh. People feel happy. In autumn,
one leaf falls, then another, then all the beautiful flowers die until we are surrounded
by bare, naked plants. We do not feel so joyful. Why is this? Because deep down, we desire
constructive, fruitful growth and dislike things collapsing, dying or being destroyed.
Every destructive action goes against our basic nature; building, being constructive is
the human way.
I am sure everybody agrees that we need to overcome violence, but if we
are to eliminate it completely, we should first analyze whether or not it has any value.
If we address this question from a strictly practical perspective, we
find that on certain occasions violence indeed appears useful. One can solve a problem
quickly with force. At the same time, however, such success is often at the expense of the
rights and welfare of others. As a result, even though one problem has been solved, the
seed of another has been planted.
On the other hand, if one's cause is supported by sound reasoning,
there is no point in using violence. It is those who have no motive other than selfish
desire and who cannot achieve their goal through logical reasoning who rely on force. Even
when family and friends disagree, those with valid reasons can cite them one after the
other and argue their case point by point, whereas those with little rational support soon
fall prey to anger: Thus anger is not a sign of strength but one of weakness.
Ultimately, it is important to examine one's own motivation and that of
one's opponent. There are many kinds of violence and nonviolence, but one cannot
distinguish them from external factors alone. If one's motivation is negative, the action
it produces is, in the deepest sense, violent, even though it may appear to be smooth and
gentle. Conversely, if one's motivation is sincere and positive but the circumstances
require harsh behavior, essentially one is practicing nonviolence. No matter what the case
may be, I feel that a compassionate concern for the benefit of others -- not simply for
oneself -- is the sole justification for the use of force.
The genuine practice of nonviolence is still somewhat experimental on
our planet, but its pursuit, based on love and understanding, is sacred. If this
experiment succeeds, it can open the way to a far more peaceful world in the next century.
I have heard the occasional Westerner maintain that long-term Gandhian
struggles employing nonviolent passive resistance do not suit everybody and that such
courses of action are more natural in the East. Because Westerners are active, they tend
to seek immediate results in all situations, even at the cost of their lives. This
approach, I believe, is not always beneficial. But surely the practice of nonviolence
suits us all. It simply calls for determination. Even though the freedom movements of
Eastern Europe reached their goals quickly, nonviolent protest by its very nature usually
In this regard, I pray that despite the brutality of their suppression
and the difficulty of the struggle they face, those involved in China's democracy movement
will always remain peaceful. I am confident they will. Although the majority of the young
Chinese students involved were born and raised under an especially harsh form of
communism, during the spring of 1989 they spontaneously practiced Mahatma Gandhi's
strategy of passive resistance. This is remarkable and clearly shows that ultimately all
human beings want to pursue the path of peace, no matter how much they have been
The reality of war
Of course, war and the large military establishments are the greatest
sources of violence in the world. Whether their purpose is defensive or offensive, these
vast powerful organizations exist solely to kill human beings. We should think carefully
about the reality of war. Most of us have been conditioned to regard military combat as
exciting and glamorous -- an opportunity for men to prove their competence and courage.
Since armies are legal, we feel that war is acceptable; in general, nobody feels that war
is criminal or that accepting it is a criminal attitude. In fact, we have been
brainwashed. War is neither glamorous nor attractive. It is monstrous. Its very nature is
one of tragedy and suffering.
War is like a fire in the human community, one whose fuel is living
beings. I find this analogy especially appropriate and useful. Modem warfare is waged
primarily with different forms of fire, but we are so conditioned to see it as thrilling
that we talk about this or that marvelous weapon as a remarkable piece of technology
without remembering that, if it is actually used, it will burn living people. War also
strongly resembles a fire in the way it spreads. If one area gets weak, the commanding
officer sends in reinforcements. This is like throwing live people onto a fire. But
because we have been brainwashed to think this way, we do not consider the suffering of
individual soldiers. No soldier wants to be wounded or die; none of his loved ones wants
any harm to come to him. If one soldier is killed, or maimed for life, at least another
five or ten people -- his relatives and friends suffer as well. We should all be horrified
by the extent of this tragedy, but we are too confused.
Frankly, as a child, I too was attracted to the military. Their
uniforms looked so smart and beautiful. But that is exactly how the seduction begins.
Children start playing games that will one day lead them into trouble. There are plenty of
exciting games to play and costumes to wear other than those based on the killing of human
beings. Again, if we as adults were not so fascinated by war, we would clearly see that to
allow our children to become habituated to war games is extremely unfortunate. Some former
soldiers have told me that when they shot their first person they felt uncomfortable but
as they continued to kill it began to feel quite normal. In time, we can get used to
It is not only during times of war that military establishments are
destructive By their very design, they are the single greatest violators of human rights,
and it is the soldiers themselves who suffer most consistently from their abuse. After the
officers in charge have given beautiful explanations about the importance of the army, its
discipline and the need to conquer the enemy, the rights of the great mass of soldiers are
almost entirely taken away. They are then compelled to forfeit their individual will, and,
in the end, to sacrifice their lives. Moreover, once an army has become a powerful force,
there is every risk that it will destroy the happiness of its own country.
There are people with destructive intentions in every society, and the
temptation to gain command over an organization capable of fulfilling their desires can
become overwhelming. But no matter how malevolent or evil are the many murderous dictators
who currently oppress their nations and cause international problems, it is obvious that
they cannot harm others or destroy countless human lives if they don't have a military
organization accepted and condoned by society. As long as there are powerful armies there
will always be the danger of dictatorship. If we really believe dictatorship to be a
despicable and destructive form of government, then we must recognize that the existence
of a powerful military establishment is one of its main causes.
Militarism is also very expensive. Pursuing peace through military
strength places a tremendously wasteful burden on society. Governments spend vast sums on
increasingly intricate weapons when, in fact, nobody really wants to use them. Not only
money but also valuable energy and human intelligence are squandered, while all that
increases is fear.
I want to make it clear, however, that although I am deeply opposed to
war, I am not advocating appeasement. It is often necessary to take a strong stand to
counter unjust aggression. For instance, it is plain to all of us that the Second World
War was entirely justified. It "saved civilization" from the tyranny of Nazi
Germany, as Winston Churchill so aptly put it. In my view, the Korean War was also just,
since it gave South Korea the chance of gradually developing a democracy. But we can only
judge whether or not a conflict was vindicated on moral grounds with hindsight. For
example, we can now see that during the Cold War, the principle of nuclear deterrence had
a certain value. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to assess all such matters with any
degree of accuracy. War is violence and violence is unpredictable. Therefore, it is far
better to avoid it if possible, and never to presume that we know beforehand whether the
outcome of a particular war will be beneficial or not.
For instance, in the case of the Cold War, though deterrence may have
helped promote stability, it did not create genuine peace. The last forty years in Europe
have seen merely the absence of war, which has not been real peace but a facsimile founded
on fear. At best, building arms to maintain peace serves only as a temporary measure. As
long as adversaries do not trust each other, any number of factors can upset the balance
of power. Lasting peace can be secured only on the basis of genuine trust.
Disarmament for world peace
Throughout history, mankind has pursued peace one way or another. Is it
too optimistic to imagine that world peace may finally be within our grasp? I do not
believe that there has been an increase in the amount of people's hatred, only in their
ability to manifest it in vastly destructive weapons. On the other hand, bearing witness
to the tragic evidence of the mass slaughter caused by such weapons in our century has
given us the opportunity to control war. To do so, it is clear we must disarm.
Disarmament can occur only within the context of new political and
economic relationships. Before we consider this issue in detail, it is worth imagining the
kind of peace process from which we would benefit most. This is fairly self-evident. First
we should work on eliminating nuclear weapons, next, biological and chemical ones, then
offensive arms, and, finally, defensive ones. At the same time, to safeguard the peace, we
should start developing in one or more global regions an international police force made
up of an equal number of members from each nation under a collective command. Eventually
this force would cover the whole world.
Because the dual process of disarmament and development of a joint
force would be both multilateral and democratic, the right of the majority to criticize or
even intervene in the event of one nation violating the basic rules would be ensured.
Moreover, with all large armies eliminated and all conflicts such as border disputes
subject to the control of the joint international force, large and small nations would be
truly equal. Such reforms would result in a stable international environment.
Of course, the immense financial dividend reaped from the cessation of
arms production would also provide a fantastic windfall for global development. Today the
nations of the world spend trillions of dollars annually on upkeep of the military. Can
you imagine how many hospital beds, schools and homes this money could fund? In addition,
as I mentioned above, the awesome proportion of scarce resources squandered on military
development not only prevents the elimination of poverty, illiteracy and disease, but also
requires the sacrifice of precious human intelligence. Our scientists are extremely
bright. Why should their brilliance be wasted on such dreadful endeavors when it could be
used for positive global development?
The great deserts of the world such as the Sahara and the Gobi could be
cultivated to increase food production and ease overcrowding. Many countries now face
years of severe drought. New, less expensive methods of desalinization could be developed
to render sea water suitable for human consumption and other uses. There are many pressing
issues in the fields of energy and health to which our scientists could more usefully
address themselves. Since the world economy would grow more rapidly as a result of their
efforts, they could even be paid more! Our planet is blessed with vast natural treasures.
If we use them properly, beginning with the elimination of militarism and war, truly every
human being will be able to live a wealthy well-cared for life.
Naturally global peace cannot occur all at once. Since conditions
around the world are so varied, its spread will have to be incremental. But there is no
reason why it cannot begin in one region and then spread gradually from one continent to
I would like to propose that regional communities like the European
Community be established as an integral part of the more peaceful world we are trying to
create. Looking at the post-Cold War environment objectively, such communities are plainly
the most natural and desirable components of a new world order. As we can see, the almost
gravitational pull of our growing interdependence necessitates new, more cooperative
structures. The European Community is pioneering the way in this endeavor, negotiating the
delicate balance between economic, military and political collectivity on the one hand and
the sovereign rights of member states on the other. I am greatly inspired by this work. I
also believe that the new Commonwealth of Independent States is grappling with similar
issues and that the seeds of such a community are already present in the minds of many of
its constituent republics. In this context, I would briefly like to talk about the future
of both my own country, Tibet, and China.
Like the former Soviet Union, Communist China is a multinational state,
artificially constructed under the impetus of an expansionist ideology and up to now
administered by force in colonial fashion. A peaceful, prosperous and above all
politically stable future for China lies in its successfully fulfilling not only its own
people's wishes for a more open, democratic system, but also those of its eighty million
so-called "national minorities" who want to regain their freedom. For real
happiness to return to the heart of Asia -- home to one-fifth of the human race -- a
pluralistic, democratic, mutually cooperative community of sovereign states must replace
what is currently called the People's Republic of China. Of course, such a community need
not be limited to those presently under Chinese Communist domination, such as Tibetans,
Mongols and Urghurs. The people of Hong Kong, those seeking an independent Taiwan, and
even those suffering under other communist governments in North Korea, Vietnam, Laos and
Cambodia might also be interested in building an Asian Community. However, it is
especially urgent that those ruled by the Chinese Communists consider doing so. Properly
pursued, it could help save China from violent dissolution, regionalism and a return to
the chaotic turmoil that has so afflicted this great nation throughout the twentieth
century. Currently China's political life is so polarized that there is every reason to
fear an early recurrence of bloodshed and tragedy. Each of us -- every member of the world
community -- has a moral responsibility to help avert the immense suffering that civil
strife would bring to China's vast population.
I believe that the very process of dialogue, moderation and compromise
involved in building a community of Asian states would itself give real hope of peaceful
evolution to a new order in China. From the very start, the member states of such a
community might agree to decide its defense and international relations policies together.
There would be many opportunities for cooperation. The critical point is that we find a
peaceful, nonviolent way for the forces of freedom, democracy and moderation to emerge
successfully from the current atmosphere of unjust repression.
Zones of peace
I see Tibet's role in such an Asian Community as what I have previously
called a "Zone of Peace": a neutral, demilitarized sanctuary where weapons are
forbidden and the people live in harmony with nature. This is not merely a dream -- it is
precisely the way Tibetans tried to live for over a thousand years before our country was
invaded. As everybody knows, in Tibet all forms of wildlife were strictly protected in
accordance with Buddhist principles. Also, for at least the last three hundred years, we
had no proper army. Tibet gave up the waging of war as an instrument of national policy in
the sixth and seventh centuries, after the reign of our three great religious kings.
Returning to the relationship between developing regional communities
and the task of disarmament, I would like to suggest that the "heart" of each
community could be one or more nations that have decided to become zones of peace, areas
from which military forces are prohibited. This, again, is not just a dream. Four decades
ago, in December 1948, Costa Rica disbanded its army. Recently, 37 percent of the Swiss
population voted to disband their military. The new government of Czechoslovakia has
decided to stop the manufacture and export of all weapons. If its people so choose, a
nation can take radical steps to change its very nature.
Zones of peace within regional communities would serve as oases of
stability. While paying their fair share of the costs of any collective force created by
the community as a whole, these zones of peace would be the forerunners and beacons of an
entirely peaceful world and would be exempt from engaging in any conflict. If regional
communities do develop in Asia, South America and Africa and disarmament progresses so
that an international force from all regions is created, these zones of peace will be able
to expand, spreading tranquillity as they grow.
We do not need to think that we are planning for the far distant future
when we consider this or any other proposal for a new, more politically, economically and
militarily cooperative world. For instance, the newly invigorated forty-eight member
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe has already laid the foundation for an
alliance between not only the nations of Eastern and Western Europe but also between the
nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the United States. These remarkable
events have virtually eliminated the danger of a major war between these two superpowers.
I have not included the United Nations in this discussion of the
present era because both its critical role in helping create a better world and its great
potential for doing so are so well known. By definition, the United Nations must be in the
very middle of whatever major changes occur. However, it may need to amend its structure
for the future. I have always had the greatest hopes for the United Nations, and with no
criticism intended, I would like simply to point out that the post-World War II climate
under which its charter was conceived has changed. With that change has come the
opportunity to further democratize the UN, especially the somewhat exclusive Security
Council with its five permanent members, which should be made more representative.
I would like to conclude by stating that, in general, I feel optimistic
about the future. Some recent trends portend our great potential for a better world. As
late as the fifties and sixties, people believed that war was an inevitable condition of
mankind. The Cold War, in particular, reinforced the notion that opposing political
systems could only clash, not compete or even collaborate. Few now hold this view. Today,
people all over the planet are genuinely concerned about world peace. They are far less
interested in propounding ideology and far more committed to coexistence. These are very
Also, for thousands of years people believed that only an authoritarian
organization employing rigid disciplinary methods could govern human society. However,
people have an innate desire for freedom and democracy, and these two forces have been in
conflict. Today, it is clear which has won. The emergence of non violent "people's
power" movements have shown indisputably that the human race can neither tolerate nor
function properly under the rule of tyranny. This recognition represents remarkable
Another hopeful development is the growing compatibility between
science and religion. Throughout the nineteenth century and for much of our own, people
have been profoundly confused by the conflict between these apparently contradictory world
views. Today, physics, biology and psychology have reached such sophisticated levels that
many researchers are starting to ask the most profound questions about the ultimate nature
of the universe and life, the same questions that are of prime interest to religions. Thus
there is real potential for a more unified view. In particular, it seems that a new
concept of mind and matter is emerging. The East has been more concerned with
understanding the mind, the West with understanding matter. Now that the two have met,
these spiritual and material views of life may become more harmonized.
The rapid changes in our attitude towards the earth are also a source
of hope. As recently as ten or fifteen years ago, we thoughtlessly consumed its resources,
as if there was no end to them. Now, not only individuals but governments as well are
seeking a new ecological order. I often joke that the moon and stars look beautiful, but
if any of us tried to live on them, we would be miserable. This blue planet of ours is the
most delightful habitat we know. Its life is our life; its future, our future. And though
I do not believe that the Earth itself is a sentient being, it does indeed act as our
mother, and, like children, we are dependent upon her. Now mother nature is telling us to
cooperate. In the face of such global problems as the greenhouse effect and the
deterioration of the ozone layer, individual organizations and single nations are
helpless. Unless we all work together, no solution will be found. Our mother is teaching
us a lesson in universal responsibility.
I think we can say that, because of the lessons we have begun to learn,
the next century will be friendlier, more harmonious, and less harmful. Compassion, the
seed of peace, will be able to flourish. I am very hopeful. At the same time, I believe
that every individual has a responsibility to help guide our global family in the right
direction. Good wishes alone are not enough; we have to assume responsibility. Large human
movements spring from individual human initiatives. If you feel that you cannot have much
of an effect, the next person may also become discouraged and a great opportunity will
have been lost. On the other hand, each of us can inspire others simply by working to
develop our own altruistic motivation.
I am sure that many honest, sincere people all over the world already
hold the views that I have mentioned here. Unfortunately, nobody listens to them. Although
my voice may go unheeded as well, I thought that I should try to speak on their behalf. Of
course, some people may feel that it is very presumptuous for the Dalai Lama to write in
this way. But, since I received the Nobel Peace Prize, I feel I have a responsibility to
do so. If I just took the Nobel money and spent it however I liked, it would look as if
the only reason I had spoken all those nice words in the past was to get this prize!
However, now that I have received it, I must repay the honor by continuing to advocate the
views that I have always expressed.
I, for one, truly believe that individuals can make a difference in
society. Since periods of great change such as the present one come so rarely in human
history, it is up to each of us to make the best use of our time to help create a happier