- Dhamma as Categories in the Dhammapada
- Bhikkhu Thich Nhat-Tu
No other term in traditional Indian thought is more important, more complex in the
variety of its technical usage from system to system and therefore more difficult to
translate simply Dhamma or dharma. In Vedic literature, the word dhamma
signifies an agent i.e. supporter or sustainer. It is also linked to three other key terms
rta (cosmic order), satya (truth) and vrata (vow). More frequently,
its seems to mean religious prescription or ritual and the like [Grim (1981): 218-9]. In
the Brhadaaranyaka Upani.sad [I. 4. 11], the word dharma is identical
with aatman or Brahman as the reality or source of the universe.
In Buddhism, the definition of dhamma are quite different from the above.
According to Kalupahana, the dearest definition of dhamma claimed to have been
discovered by the Buddha is identical with two things: "(a) dependent arising (pa.ticca
samuppaada) and (b) freedom (nibbaana). All other uses of the term dhamma can
be subsumed under one on the other of these two meanings." [EB. IV. 441].
In the Pali texts, the word dhamma is defined as thing absent of a being or a
soul [Als. 48]. In other words, dhamma or dhammas are things, which
are unreal because they are dependent by nature. Another definition of dhamma also
found in Theravaada texts is that, "dhammas are those that bear their own
nature" (attano lakkhanam dhaarentiiti dhammaa or sabhaavadharanato dhammaa) [Vism.
481; VbhA. 45]. In the Dhammapada, the word dhamma as
multi-significant term can be rendered philosophically as "categories." By
categories here are meant things and phenomena, mental or physical, material or
non-material, sensible or insensible and conditioned or unconditioned. In other words,
whatever is name-able or unnameable, thinkable or unthinkable and real or unreal is dhamma
[Dhp. 109, 353, 273, 279].
In particular contexts of the Dhammapada, the word dhamma is to signify
actions, mental, bodily and verbal [Dhp. 1-2] or the truth [Dhp. 70, 176,
205] or the Buddhas teachings in general [Dhp. 20, 44-5, 79, 164] or moral
principle [Dhp. 266, 257] or natural principle [Dhp. 24, 46] or the
righteousness [Dhp. 84, 87, 167] and Nibbaana [Dhp. 115, 217, 393].
The main purpose of this chapter is to study dhamma as such categories. There
are mainly two kinds of category, viz, conditioned an unconditioned. Conditioned
categories are ruupa (category of matter), citta (category of mind), caitta
or catasika (category of mental concomitants), and viprayakta (category of
forces which are neither material nor mental. Unconditioned category is known as asamskrta
(category of Nibbaana). Impermanence and non-substance (anicca and anatta)
are two striking characteristics of all conditioned categories while the characteristics,
unoriginated (agaata, abhuuta, akaata), permanent (nicca, dhuva),
non-deteriorating and non-secessionist (accuta, anirodha, amata) are nature of the
unconditioned category (asankhatadhaatu) that is Nibbaana.
1. Dhamma as Non-Substantiality
According to Aristotle, there are ten categories, namely, substance,
quantity, quality, relation, place, time, position, possession, action and passion.
According to Kanaada (c.150-50 B.C) the founder of the Vai'se.sika school of Indian
philosophy there are six categories (which he calls padaarthas) namely substance (dravya),
quality (guna), action (karman), universal (saamaanya), particularity
(visesa) and inherence (samavaaya). These two systems of categories are
mainly different on the basic of the emphasis, less or more in detail, but they are
similar in the sense that both consider being or existence as substance which is real.
The concept of dhamma as conditioned categories in Buddhism generally and in the
Dhammapada particularly is momentary. "They are neither permanent, nor
substantial nor entitative. They are components, the components are real." [EB. IV.
460]. One must consider that this distinction between the Buddhist teachings of categories
and those of both Aristotle and Kanaada actually reflects the difference between the
Buddhist and both of traditional Indian and Greek ways of thinking.
The Dhammapada verses 277, 279 speak of the non-substantiality of all
conditioned categories as necessary principle an attribute of all dhammaa. The
verses are as follows:
When one perceive through wisdom that all conditioned categories are non-substantial,
then one is turned away from suffering, and this is the path to purity" (v. 279).
When one perceive through wisdom that all conditioned categories are transient, then
one is turned away from suffering, and this is the path to purity" (v. 271).
The main idea of the Buddhist analysis of all conditioned categories as non-substantial
is to reject the view of the existence of a permanent entity, which in the other systems
of Indian thought was called the soul (aatman) or in the Aristotelian system the
permanent substance which was held to underline the whole of existence including man.
The term dhamma in the Pali texts is to refer to things, which arises and
vanishes, dependently on cases. They are sometimes called Sa"nkhaara and
sometimes Sa"nkhata, which consist of both physical and conditioned phenomena.
The common features to these all conditioned phenomena are impermanent and
non-substantial. No school of Buddhism admitted the conditional categories to be things in
themselves as substance or even as qualities cohering in a substance [EB. IV. 454].
In other words, all the conditioned categories are characterized as impermanent, a source
of suffering and unsubstantial. Impermanent refer to causal origination of all conditioned
categories suffering to the unrestful and conflicting and unsatisfactory nature of the
same conditioned things in their defiled state to be found in ordinary person as opposed
to their purified state to be found in the Arahats. [EB. IV. 457].
Thus, according to Buddhism, all conditioned categories are universally and uniformly
dependent arising (pa.ticca samuppaada = anatta). This uniformity and universality
is objectively attributable nature of all conditioned categories, therefore, "Whether
the Tathaagatas were to arise in this world or not, this statue of all categories, this
relatedness of all categories has indeed remained." [M. I. 190].
2. Dhamma as Category of Action
In addition to the classification of categories into conditioned and
unconditioned, the totality of all dhammas as actions can be classified from the
point of view of ethics into three categories as kusala-dhamma (those that are
wholesome), akusala-dhamma (those that are unwholesome), and avyaakata-dhamma
(those that neither wholesome nor unwholesome or neutral.
By kusala-dhamma is meant those instances of consciousness, those body and those
mental concomitants which are ethically wholesome both for oneself and others, present and
future. Likewise, all instances of consciousness, those body and those mental
concomitants, which are ethically unwholesome both for oneself and others, present and
future, are called akusala-dhamma. The category called avyaakata has four
subdivisions, namely, the resultant consciousness (vipaaka-citta), the functional
consciousness (kriyaa-citta), the elements of matter (ruupa) and the
unconditioned element (nibbaana).
Wholesome and unwholesome categories mainly cover ten actions included in three organs
producing karma. viz, body, speech and mind. Bodily actions consist of either taking life,
stealing and not-adultery. Verbal actions are of lying, slander, harsh words and gossip or
to abstain from lying, from slander, from harsh words and from gossip. Mental actions are
of craving, hatred and ignorance or to abstain from craving, from hatred and from wrong
views. It should be noticed here that of these three organs producing actions, mind (citta)
or volition (cetanaa) is considered as the guiding force of all actions, wholesome
or unwholesome. The Dhammapada says that:
Mind is the fore-runner of all actions, wholesome or unwholesome, mental, physical or
verbal. Mind is chief. They are mind-made. If one speaks or acts with an evil mind,
suffering follows him as the wheel follows the hoof-print of the ox that draws the cart.
Likewise, if one speaks or acts with a pure mind, happiness follows him like a shadow that
never leaves him" [Dhp. 1-2].
That is to say whatever is morally unwholesome or belongs to unwholesome is necessarily
directed by mind. Mind first arises, then follow physical, verbal or mental actions, and
vice versa. It is obviously that mind or consciousness always servers as the leading force
of all human actions. It is powerful action whereas physical and verbal actions are
actions productive. As a leading force or fore runner, if mind is pure then productive
actions must be wholesome; if mind as forerunner, is impure then productive actions must
According the Dhammapada verses quoted, human actions are directed by human mind,
therefore, man himself is the maker of his own destiny. He has none to blame for his lot.
He is the maker of it and he is heir to his kamma. He can not escape from the results of
Neither in the sky, nor in mid-ocean, nor in entering a mountain cave, is found that
place on earth where abiding one may escape from the consequences of an evil deed [Dhp.
All this implies that human happiness or suffering, liberation or bondage is due to his
own deeds wholesome or unwholesome in the world, during his life, without any least
reference to God:
By oneself alone is evil done, by oneself is oneself is one defiled. By oneself does
oneself avoid evil, alone is one purified. Purity and impurity depend on oneself. No one
can purify another [Dhp. 165].
3. Dhamma as Buddhavacana
By Buddhavacana is meant all the teachings of the Buddha namely
Tipi.taka (Suttapi.taka, Vinayapi.taka and Abhidhammapi.taka). According to
another division, Buddhavacana can be reduced into Dhamma and Vinaya.
In a shortest form, Buddhavacana can be reduced into Dhamma, meaning the
teachings of the Buddha. "It is a dhamma said to be well-proclaimed (svaakkhaato),
empirical (sanditthiko), not confined to any particular time (alaaliko),
verifiable (ehipassiko), practical (opanayiko) and to be experienced by the
wise (paccattam veditabbo vinnuuhi) [D. II. 93, 217, 222, 228; D. III.
5, 102, 227; M. I. 37, 141-2, 320; M. II. 120ff].
Generally, the category dhamma in the Dhammapada is one of the
Triple-gem, viz the Buddha, the Dhamma ad his Sangha [Dhp. 296-8]. This Dhamma
is presented in terms of popular Buddhist doctrines such as the four Noble truth (Ariyasaccaani),
the eightfold path (being the last Noble truth namely, the path to Nibbaana negatively
absent of craving, hatred and ignorance), the law of dependent origination (prat§ tya-samutp~
da), the law of kamma and three characteristics of all conditioned phenomena
(impermanence, suffering and non-substantiality).
The four Noble truths are dukkha or suffering, the cause of this suffering, Nibbaana
as the unconditioned happiness, absent of all sufferings and their causes and the path
leading to Nibbaana, i.e. the middle path or the eightfold path. Suffering are of
birth, decay, old age, death, not seeing the beloved, sight of the unbeloved, cherished
desires being unsatisfied. The cause of this suffering is attachment (ta"nhaa)
as the Dhammapada, verse 216 states thus "From craving springs grief, from
craving springs fear" [Dhp. 210]. The Dhammapada also considers all
moral fetters or defilement such as craving, hatred, ignorance, envy, pride, wrong view
etc. are causes leading to suffering [Dhp. 212-5]. Nibbaana, the complete
cessation of suffering is achieved by the total eradication of all forms of ta"nhaa
and moral defilement [Dhp. 221-2, 226, 236, 244-7, 327, 385, 391, 423]. The path to
Nibbaana is called the middle path, which avoids the extreme of self-indulgence
that weakens ones intellect, and extreme of self-indulgence that retards ones
moral progress. It is as follows right views, right thought, right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. This eightfold
path can be reduced to morality (siila), concentration (samaadhi) and wisdom
(pa~n~naa). This is emphatically stated as: "The best of truths are the four
Noble truths. The best of paths is the eightfold path
This is the only path. There
is none other for the purity of vision. Entering upon that path you will make an end of
Regarding the moral value of the Buddhas teachings the Dhammapada says that,
"Who practices according to dhamma, eradicating passion, ill will and
ignorance, cleanly comprehending the dhamma, his mind freed from moral defilement
and no longer longing to this world or to the next" [Dhp. 273-5].
The Dhammapada also informs us that the practitioner of such a dhamma definitely
leading a happily life and will reach Nibbaana. The descriptions are as follows,
"He who drinks in the dhamma lives happily with a serene mind" [Dhp.
20] and " Those who practice according the well-expounded dhamma will reach
the other shore (Nibbaana), having passed the realm of samsaara" [Dhp.
79]. Therefore such a sublime dhamma should be followed and practice by everyone
who wants to live peacefully and mindfully.
Anyone, who abides in the dhamma, who delights in the dhamma, who meditates on the
dhamma and is ever mindful of the dhamma, does not full away from the dhamma of the
virtuous, the dhamma sublime [Dhp. 86].
4. Dhamma as Principles
By the principles are meant the universal truths, which are inherent in
anything. In Buddhist epistemology, principles are the essence of being and the ground of
all valid knowledge. Two main kinds of principles are fundamentally discussed in the
Dhammapada, namely, moral principles and natural principles.
The moral principles are also called moral causation, which is a dialectic causation of
good and bad deeds leading happiness and unhappiness. Good deeds (dhamma) and bad
deeds (adhamma) are definitely not of equal fruition. Bad deeds lead to dukkha
while good deeds to sukha. But "this should be construed as an absolute and
invariable law, permanent and eternal, as it is in the absolutistic systems, nor as a
divinely ordained principle as in theistic systems, nor even as a transcendent and
ineffable truth as in existentialist origination (pa.ticca samuppaada) and is
strongly backed by the experience of moral situations, both on the part of ordinary human
beings on occasions and on the part of "Enlightened Ones" (Buddha) always [Dhp.
The following are some examples of moral principle depicted in the Dhammapada:
Not at any time are enmities appeased here through enmity, but they are appeased
through non-enmity. This is an ancient law" "Those of them realize it have their
quarrels calmed thereby. [EB. IV. 446]
An evil deed is better left undone. A misdeed hereafter torments one. A good deed is
better done, which, having done, one does not later repent [Dhp. 5-6]
Watchful of speech, well restrained in mind let him do not unskillful through body. Let
him purify these three ways of action and win the path realized by the enlightened" [Dhp.
Here he grieves, hereafter he grieves, in both worlds the evildoer grieves. He grieves
and perishes, seeing his own impure deed," Likewise, "Here he rejoices,
hereafter he rejoices, in both worlds the good-doer rejoices. He rejoices, exceedingly
rejoices, seeing his own pure deeds" [Dhp. 281].
So far as the natural principles are concerned, the Dhammapada introduces to us the
principle of cause and effect found in the world of conditioned things and phenomena, the
principle of dependent origination and three inherent characteristics of all phenomena,
viz, impermanence, suffering and non-substantiality.
The formula of dependent origination is as follows:
Because of ignorance, mental formation
Because of mental formation, consciousness
Because of consciousness, psycho-physical existence
Because of psycho-physical existence, the six organs of sense (eye, ear, nose, tongue,
body (the sense of touch) and mind).
Because of the six organs of sense, contact
Because of contact, sensation of feeling.
Because of sensation, craving.
Because of craving, attachment or grasping.
Because of attachment, becoming or worldly existence
Because of becoming, birth
Because of birth, decay, death, grief, suffering.
This chain of causation beginning with ignorance and resulting suffering is mainly
concerned with human being. The fundamental theory applied to all conditioned things and
phenomena and all sentient beings is that "When this exist that exists. When this
appear, that appear. When this does not exist, that does not exist", when this
disappears, that disappears" [Dhp. 15-6]. This general formula explains the
world of phenomena, physical or psychical, material or mental is conditioned,
inter-related existed or mutual disappeared.
The following three characteristics known as inherent nature of all phenomena are
impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha) and non-substantiality (anatta).
The Dhammapada states that only the person who realizes these three characteristics of all
phenomena can turn away from suffering and lead to peaceful life [Dhp. 227-9].
Anicca in Buddhism can be understood as causal dialectics denoting the attributes of
all phenomena as psychical or physical motioning and changing. It should not be limitedly
understood as changing position in the space, but as changing momentarily, in general. Our
mind, a stream of consciousness is also a process of continuous changing. Our thinking at
this particular moment will not be the same as the thinking at another moment. All
constituents constituting human being such as physical form (pertaining to body), feeling
(pleasant, unpleasant, neutral), perception (sight etc.), dispositions (latent, formative,
phenomena) and consciousness are always in stream of universal flux. The body is not the
eternal soul for it tends towards destruction. Neither feeling nor perception nor
disposition nor consciousness, together constitute the eternal soul, for were it so,
feeling etc. would not Likewise tend towards destruction. So it must be said of all
physical forms whatever past, present, on to be, subjective, far or near, high or low;
this I am not, this is not my eternal soul [Dhp. 135, 300; S. II. 94; S. III.
It is important to remember that time is also a stream of flowing, it is, therefore,
changing and transient. At every moment, time flows and flows forever. The past is a
conventional landmark for whatever will happen. The present is a non-stopping state. That
is to say all three landmarks of time are momentarily flowing. Because of this stream of
flowing, every thing is becoming and again becoming. Thus the impermanent, changing and
motioning of time is mutually related to that of objects, things and phenomena. The
objects changing are undetectable from time motioning and vice versa. The changing objects
are changing on the axis of time. Time is a moving line to mark the landmark of that
changing. It is, therefore, to talk of the impermanent of the world is to talk of the
stream of flowing of time and objects. Consequently through this perceiving, one realizes
the formula of non-substantiality of all phenomena. In the Dhammapada, the verse
runs as follows:
One who knows that this body and all phenomena are impermanent like froth and
comprehends that they are insubstantial as a mirage, will cut the flowers of M~ ra and pass out of sight of the king of death. [Dhp.
5. Dhamma as Righteousness
According to Bhikkhuni Tin Lien [1994: 72] the word dhamma in the Dhammapada
verses 46, 84, 87, 167, 168, 169, 242 and 248 mean righteousness. Dhamma in the
sense of righteousness figures very prominently in the Buddhas explanation of social
and political philosophy, as Kalupahana rightly states that dhamma as righteousness
is "the basis of social and political philosophy of the Buddha"[EB. IV.
The Dhammapada, rejecting the traditional Brahmanical theory of the four-fold
caste system, explains the evolution of society and social institutions ,which are based
on human wholesome will and actions. According to the Buddha, "the social status of a
person is not to be determined by his birth in a particular caste having certain specific
functions or duties (svadharma) but on the basis of his actions (karma),
which are in turn evaluated on the basis of the moral principle (dhamma)" [EB.
Like the Agganna suttanta of Diigha Nikaaya (pp. 80ff), Vasala Sutta
and Vaasettha Sutta of the Suttanipaata (pp. 21ff; 115ff), the Dhammapada
morally rejects the Brahman claims to superiority on the basis of birth. The verses
run as follows:
Not by wearing platted hair, nor by lineage, nor by caste, does one become a Braahmana.
Only he who realizes the truth and the dhamma is pure; he is a Braahmana" [Dhp. 393]
I do not call him a Braahmana just because he is born from the womb of a Brahmana
mother. He is just a bhovaadii braahmin if he not free from moral defilement. Him I call a
braahmana, who is free from moral defilement and attachment" [Dhp. 396].
Caste-system, unfair, unequal and immoral is unacceptable to the Buddha. Almost
forty-one verses of Braahmana vagga of the Dhammapada are moral discourses
to promote the true value of virtue and wisdom of human being while rejecting the unjust
or unrighteous way of Brahmanical thinking.
The definition of a Braahmana given by the Buddha in the moral context, as the
fearless, the noble, the hero, the great sage, the conqueror, the desireless, the washer
of defilement [Dhp. 422] or the holy man, the Munii who has reached the ends of
births with superior wisdom [Dhp. 423] or an Arahat [Dhp. 420] or the
well-gone and the enlightened one (the Buddha) [Dhp. 419] are fundamentally based
on righteousness, morality, concentration and wisdom of a person, and never on the basis
of birth or caste. "It would be almost impossible to give any meaning other than
"righteousness" to the term dhamma in the above context" [EB. IV.
It seems that righteousness as a cause and happiness as consequence can serve as the
criteria to judge a person moral or immoral, a society good or bad. This contention is
implied in the following verse of the Dhammapada: "observe righteousness. Do
not observe unrighteousness. One who observers righteousness lives happily both in this
world and in the next" [Dhp. 169].
In addition to this, a righteousness person who will never do any evil for his own sake
or for the sake of others, nor does he wish for sons and daughters or for wealth or for a
kingdom by doing evil, nor does he wish for success by unfair means [Dhp. 84].
Another definition is given to the righteous in the Dhammapada. It describes
thus, "The righteousness is one who judges and decides anything in accordance with
the dhamma. He is also one who safeguards the dhamma" [Dhp.
257]. On the basis of righteousness, the righteous discards all evils, cuts off all
immoral fetters such as covetousness, ill will, wrong views. He will not cling to sensual
pleasures and is completely delivered of all bonds
6. Dhamma as Unconditioned Category: Nibbaana
Nibbaana as an unconditioned category is the ultimate dhamma in
the Dhammapada particularly, and in Buddhism generally. The word
"unconditioned category" is a philosophically translation from the Pali "asankhata-dhaatu"
which means the unoriginated (ajaata, abhuuta, akata) the permanent (anicca,
dhuva), non-deteriorating and non-cessationist (accuta, anirodha, amata) as its
natures opposed to anicca and anatta as nature of conditioned phenomena (sankhata).
Generally speaking, the concept of Nibbaana is well-interpreted in negative
descriptions, such as, end of greed (ragakkhaya), and of hatred (dosakkhaya)
and end of delusion (mohakkhaya). Theses negative descriptions are based on the
fact that greed, hatred and delusion are the roots of unwholesome deeds (akusala-muula)
leading to suffering state of living, therefore, Nibbaana as ultimate happiness
must be freed from those immoral roots. Some other negative expressions to denote nibbaana
are also found in the Pali texts, such as, "cessation of sa"msaara",
"freedom from dukkha," "freedom from fear", destruction of
unconditioned things. Nibbaana should not be misunderstood as "absolute
nothing" or "nihilism" or "annihilation" as Povissin (p. 150),
and Oldenberg (p. 273) or as an utopia as Gaur, wrongly explained [1989: 481].
In the Dhammapada, although Nibbaana is said to be ineffable or indescribable [Dhp.
218], and it is in fact well understood by metaphorical statements and negative
expressions. It is negatively expressed in terms of "end of dukkha" [Dhp.
376, 402], "freedom from craving and doubt" [Dhp. 411-2, 414], "end
of all existences" [Dhp. 438], "freedom from conditional things" [Dhp.
348, 283], "cessation of craving and moral defilement" [Dhp. 186-7,
284-5], "no sorrow" [Dhp. 225], "cutting of all passions" [Dhp.
225, 374, 411], and "deathlessness." [Dhp. 202, 414]. It is also
positively expressed in terms of "perfect peace" [Dhp. 414],
"crossing ocean of samsaara" [Dhp. 184, 203-4, 368, 381] and
"supreme or highest bliss or happiness" [Dhp. 368].
Nibbaana is also metaphorically expressed in terms of "a quiet place"
[Dhp. 225], "an unchangeable place" [Dhp. 323] and "untroden
country or a place one has never been before" [Dhp. 85-6, 414]. Nibbaana
is also metaphorically described as "the other shore." It should be noticed here
that" most of the references to Nibbana obviously must be understood
figuratively and seem to refer to a state of mind" [Sharma (1985): 138], which is
freed from all moral fetters and defilement as negatively mentioned above. "Moreover,
it is state of mind which can be attained here and now (verses 89, 412, 423). The state of
mind associated with nirvaa.na is characterized by stability, tranquillity and
depth (verses 81-82, 91, 95 etc.).
According to the Dhammapada, Nibbaana can be attained by practicing
morality, concentration and wisdom as well as the Dhamma of the Buddha. Here we
quote such references as follows:
He who is established in mindfulness, through cultivation of tranquillity and insight
development practice, experiences the supreme happiness. (verse 27)
A Bhikkhu who takes delight in mindfulness is indeed very close to Nibbana (verse 32).
One who devotes himself to solitude, detachment will realize Nibbana (verse 75).
Those with mind well-developed in the seven factors of enlightenment and who had rid
themselves of all craving rejoice in their abandonment of attachment
Nibbana in the word (verse 89).
If you can keep yourself calm and quite, like a broken going which is no longer
resonant, you are sure to realize Nibbana (verse 134).
One who takes refuges in the Buddha, the Dhamma and Sangha, sees Magga insight with
four Noble truths
leads to the cession of dukkha (verse 191).
Hunger is the greatest ailment, khandhas are the greatest ill. The wise knowing them as
they really are realize Nibbana (verse 203).
One who lives exercising loving-kindness and is devoted to the teaching of the Buddha,
will realizes Nibbana (verse 368).
He who has concentration as well as wisdom is, indeed, close to Nibbana (verse 372).
Every time to clearly comprehends the arising and the perishing of the khandhas
that is the way to Nibbana (verse 374), and
One who frequently feels joy and is devoted to the teaching of the Buddha will realize
To conclude, Nibbaana, as unconditioned category in the Dhammapada
although being Trans-description as its nature, can be metaphorically expressed in terms
of "place" and "the other shore" and described negatively as freedom
from all moral defilement. The indescribability or Trans-description of Nibbana
does not amount to unknowability or annihilation of all activities. Because on the one
side it is the destruction of the three fires of lust, hatred and ignorance and on the
other side, it is the perfection of all-human morality and wisdom. It is attainable by
self-effort here and now.
Als. = Dhammasangani A.t.thakathaa (Atthasaalinii) PTS. 1897
Dhp. = Dhammapada, PTS edition.
EB. = Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, I-V, ed. G. P. Malalasekera.
M. = Majjhimanikaaya, I-IV, ed. V. Trenckner, R. Chalmers, Mrs.
Rhys Davids. (London: PTS, 1888-1902)
MA. = Majjhimanikaaya A.t.thakathaa
VbhA. = Vibhanga Atthakathaa (Sammohavinodanii), ed. A.P. Buddhadatta, PTS. 1923.
Vism. = Visuddhimagga, ed. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, PTS. 1975.
Gaur, V.P. (1989). "Maxism and Buddhism; A Study of Their Utopian
Principles" in N.H. Satani and H.S. Prasad (eds.) Amalaa Praj~na, Sspects of
Buddhist Studies. Delhi: Srii Sattguru Publication.
Grim, Keith (ed.) (1989). The Perennial Dictionary of World Religions. New York:
Kalupahana, D.J, "Dhamma (I)" in Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Vol. IV.
Karunaratne, Upali "Dhamma (II)" in Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Vol. 4.
Oldenberg, H. (1992). Buddha, His Life, His Doctrine, His Order. Delhi.
Poussin, L. de la Valleue. (1982). The Way to Nirvaa.na. Delhi:
Sri Satguru Publications, 1st ed. 1917.
Sharma, A. (1985). Spokes of the Wheel. Delhi: BBP.
Tin, Daw Mya. (tr.) (1990). The Dhammpada: Verses and Stories. Sarnath: Central
Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1st Ed. 1985.
Tin-Lien, Bhikkhuni (1994). "The Concept of Dhamma in the Dhammapada," M.Phil
Dissertation, Department of Buddhist Studies, Delhi University.
Sincere thanks to Bhikkhuni Tuong Lien for
retyping this article.